2Causes of ImperialismEconomic Motives The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for raw materials and new markets.Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world.Balance of Power European nations were forced to acquire new colonies to achieve a balance with their neighbors and competitors.White Man's Burden The Europeans’ sense of superiority made them feel obligated to “civilize the heathen savages” they encountered.
4AFRICACompetition for colonies by European countries in Africa was intense.By the late 1800, most of Africa was ruled by European countries
5SUEZ CANAL Connects Mediterranean and Red Seas. Built by the French in Allowed ships to cut thousands of miles off the trip from Europe to India
6Britain wanted control to get to India and Australia faster. Bought up stock in the company and took over countries by the Red Sea.
7Berlin ConferenceTo prevent fighting over Africa, representatives from Europe met to lay down rules for competition.No African ruler attended.Africa was divided into colonies by European countriesOnly two countries remained independent – Ethiopia and Liberia.
8GREAT BRITAIN The largest empire the world had known: 100 times larger than Britain¼ of the world’s land and population
9Under British control from the 1700s INDIAUnder British control from the 1700sThe cornerstone of the British Empire, India provided raw materials (cotton), labor, and a market for goods to be sold.
10The Good: INDIA United India under one authority/law Made English official language for educationOutlawed suttee (widow suicide)Improved medical, build railroadTelegraph and irrigation
11INDIAThe Bad:Population increased while food production decreased, causing a decrease in the standard of living.Discrimination in their own countryIndian hand-woven cloth wasn’t as cheap as British cloth –caused unemployment (the people turned to agriculture)
12Sepoy RevoltWhy?Indian soldiers were offended by the beef/pork fat used to seal bullets (Muslims forbidden to eat pork, Hindus forbidden to eat beef)Results:Rebelled against British leadershipBritish easily defeated the Indians
13Indian NationalismBy the early 1900s, many Indians were calling for self-government.India becomes independent in 1947.
14CHINA Manchu Dynasty in control Chinese merchants produced what China needed – Chinese considered European products inferiorEuropeans allowed to trade at only one port
15OPIUM WARS Britain smuggled opium (habit-forming narcotic) into China The Chinese became addicted, needing more and more.This weakened the Chinese government, leading to the Opium Wars (China vs. Britain)
16Opium War (1839) Fought mostly at sea. Britain won and legalized opium (humiliating for Chinese)
17Treaty of Nanjing Opened many ports to Great Britain Gave lease of Hong Kong until 1997Extraterritoriality allowed the British to be subject only under British law and courtsHumiliated the Chinese
18ChinaDivided country into regions where foreigners would control the economic interest
19OPEN DOOR POLICYUnited States feared being left out and proposed a policy that would allow competition on equal terms.This policy kept China from being carved up into colonies like Africa
20BOXER REBELLIONThe Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists (nicknamed Boxers by English)Chinese who opposed westernersDestroyed railroads, burned bridges, and killed EuropeansAlthough this rebellion failed, it was a clear message that the Chinese wanted to get rid of foreigners
21JAPANCommodore Matthew Perry (U.S.) forced Japan to open ports for tradeTreaty of Kanagawa Opened Japanese ports to U.S. and gave extraterritorial rights to Americans
22Japan Westernized (Meiji Restoration) Japan became the first industrialized nation in AsiaStudied western powers and adopted only what they thought good for JapanMilitary strengthened (army based on German model, navy based on Britain model)Compulsory education implemented, wiping out illiteracyGovernment made new loansJudicial system based on the west
23Japan Became Imperialistic Lacked raw materials and foodWon trading rights in Korea from ChinaWar with Russia in 1905 over Manchuria (rich in resources)Aggression shocked west – demanded respect
24LATIN AMERICASuccess of Am. and Fr. Revolutions, the Enlightenment, and nationalism led much of Latin America to demand independenceNapoleon’s conquest of Spain led Spanish colonies to rebel:Argentina and Chile win independence under Jose San MartínVenezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador and Peru win independence under Simon Bolivar
25Brazil gains independence from Portugal - 1822 Central American countries declare independence – 18231823 President James Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine saying the U.S. would not allow the Americas to be divided into colonies
26PANAMA CANAL U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt against Colombia. Panama won – leased U.S. land for a canal.In 1914, the Panama Canal opened, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific.