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McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. CHAPTER EIGHT Organizing the Body of the Speech.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. CHAPTER EIGHT Organizing the Body of the Speech."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. CHAPTER EIGHT Organizing the Body of the Speech

2 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Chronological Order A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern.

3 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Example of Chronological Order Specific Purpose: To inform my audience how the Great Wall of China was built. Central Idea:The Great Wall of China was built in three stages. Main Points: I. Building of the Great Wall began during the Chou dynasty in the fourth century B.C. II.New sections of the Great Wall were added during the Chin, Han, and Sui dynasties from 221 B.C.-618 A.D. III. The Great Wall was completed during the Ming Dynasty of

4 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Spatial Order A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern.

5 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Example of Spatial Order Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the design of the Eiffel Tower. Central Idea:The Eiffel Tower is divided into three sections. Main Points: I. The lowest section of the tower contains the entrance, a gift shop, and a restaurant. II.The middle section of the tower consists of stairs and elevators that lead to the top. III. The top section of the tower includes an observation deck with a spectacular view of Paris.

6 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Causal Order A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship.

7 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Example of Causal Order Specific Purpose:To inform my audience about the possible causes for the collapse of Mayan civilization. Central Idea:The causes for the collapse of Mayan civilization have not been fully explained. Main Points: I.Mayan civilization flourished for over a thousand years until 900 A.D., when it mysteriously began to disintegrate. (EFFECT) II.Scholars have advanced three major explanations for the causes of this disintegration. (CAUSE)

8 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Problem-Solution Order A method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.

9 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Example of Problem-Solution Order Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that the United States should act now to solve the problem of adult illiteracy. Central Idea:Adult illiteracy is a continuing problem that can only be solved by a national commitment on the part of government and individual citizens. Main Points: I.Adult illiteracy has reached crisis proportions in the United States. II.Solving the problem will require action by government and citizens alike.

10 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Topical Order A method of speech organization in which the main points divide the the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.

11 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Example of Topical Order Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the artistic versatility of Pablo Picasso. Central Idea: Picasso was equally versatile as a painter, sculptor, and printmaker. Main Points: I. As a painter, Picasso tested the limits of abstraction. II. As a sculptor, Picasso often incorporated found objects. III. As a printmaker, Picasso gave vent to his whimsy and eroticism.

12 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Connective A word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.

13 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Types of Connectives Transition Internal preview Internal summary Signpost

14 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Transition A word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another.

15 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Examples of Transitions Now that we have explored the ancient origins of astrology, let us turn to its modern popularity. So much for the present; what about the future? We have spent a lot of time talking about the problem. Its time to discuss the solution.

16 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Internal Preview A statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next.

17 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Example of an Internal Preview In discussing how Asian Americans have been stereotyped in the mass media, well look first at the origins of the problem and second at its continuing impact today.

18 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Transition Combined with Internal Preview [Transition]: Now that we have seen how serious the problem of faulty credit reports is, lets look at some solutions. [Internal Preview]: I will focus on three-- instituting tighter government regulation of credit bureaus, holding credit bureaus financially responsible for their errors, and giving individuals easier access to their credit reports.

19 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Internal Summary A statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speakers preceding point or points.

20 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Example of an Internal Summary In short, palm reading is an ancient art. Developed in China more than five thousand years ago, it was practiced in classical Greece and Rome, flourished during the Middle Ages, survived the Industrial Revolution, and remains popular today.

21 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Internal Summary Combined with a Transition [Internal Summary]: Lets pause for a moment to recapitulate what we have found so far. First, we have seen that Americas criminal justice system does not effectively deter crime. Second, we have seen that prison programs to rehabilitate criminals have failed miserably. [Transition]: We are now ready to explore solutions to these problems.

22 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Signpost A very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas.

23 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved. Examples of Signpost The first step in producing a Broadway play is choosing the play. The second step in producing a Broadway play is selecting the cast. The third step in producing a Broadway play is conducting the rehearsals. The fourth step in producing a Broadway play is performing the play.

24 McGraw-Hill©Stephen E. Lucas 2001 All rights reserved.


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