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Introduction to Inclusive Education in Secondary Schools

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Inclusive Education in Secondary Schools"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Inclusive Education in Secondary Schools
Robert Abel, School Psychologist Marguerite Brown, Special Education Teacher Mesa Public Schools March 31, 2010

2 “Let me get this straight: I’m behind … and I’m going to catch up by going slower ?"

3 Inclusion = accommodation social equality diversification egalitarianism expectations opportunity adaptation integration access

4 Inclusion = specialization segregation separatism exemption exclusion isolation

5 Effective inclusion is not… “Dumping” students into general classrooms without supports Arbitrary reduction of special education teaching staff Diminishing the education of students without disabilities

6 Legal basis for inclusion…
Civil Rights Act Architectural Barriers Act Rehabilitation Act (Section 504) Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL ) 1988 – Civil Rights Restoration Act. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act Amendments to IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004

7 One’s definition of “disability” leads to choice of “remedy”…
Medical model - deficit based Social model - multiple root causes Disability is pathological and the problem is within the individual Variation in academic skills is expected and embraced Differential diagnosis – correctly classify and place students Emphasis on learning - collaboration with educational staff Specialized, segregated placements are the most logical solution A responsive general education system leads to higher expectations

8 Special Education is a not a Place
set of services

9 How do we engage in inclusion on a broader scale?
Shift in paradigm Ready the classes for the students Monitor and adjust individualized programs for student success

10 How can diverse learners possibly be educated effectively in one classroom?
1. Authority 2. Motivation 3. Ability

11 Collaborative partnership
A partnership between two or more people that gives structure and organization for planning, thinking, and working together to accomplish a common goal

12 Role of school principal in school-wide inclusion implementation…
Vision and agenda Structure and organization Staff training Allocation of resources Ongoing support

13 Role of special education teacher in school-wide inclusion implementation
An Expert In….. Learning Styles Behavior Modifications Learning Strategies Diagnostic/Prescriptive Teaching Accommodation/modification Home/school communication and the IEP process

14 Role of general education teacher in school-wide inclusion implementation…
An Expert In… Content Areas Scope & Sequence of Curriculum Knowledge of Curriculum Standards Management Strategies of Large Groups Academic & Social Development Pacing, delivery, inspiration and motivation Organization of massive amounts of materials


16 4 Approaches to Team Teaching*
Supportive Teaching Parallel Teaching Complementary Teaching Team Teaching * From Deer Valley School District materials

17 Supportive Teaching One teacher takes the lead instructional role
2nd teacher rotates among the students providing support to all students

18 Parallel Teaching 2 or more teachers work with different groups of students in different section of the classroom Co-teachers may rotate groups Co-teachers teach area of strength (If new to team teaching – this is the most comfortable place to start)

19 Complementary Teaching
All teachers are lead teachers, contributing to the lesson or lecture 1 teacher may paraphrase what other teacher is saying or ask clarifying or summarizing questions Each teacher focuses on his/her area of expertise 1 teacher may pre-teach a skill to a small group (As comfort levels increase, the complementary and team teaching models are more effective)

20 True Team Teaching 2 or more teachers do what one traditional teacher has always done All Plan the lesson All Teach the lesson All Assess student progress All Assume responsibility for ALL students (This is the ideal model for co-teaching)

21 For example… 1st co-teacher is… 2nd co-teacher is… Lecturing
Modeling Note taking on board Passing out papers Reviewing directions Taking roll Collecting/reviewing homework Checking understanding with whole group with subgroup(s) Concluding a lecture Asking clarifying or summarizing questions

22 Many hands make light work…
Ms. A Mr. B Ms. C Modify tests/quizzes Create alternative projects Generate curriculum modifications Communicate w/ related services Facilitate peer support & friendships Recruit and train peer tutors Train and assign IA’s Schedule/Facilitate team meetings Assign grades Create advanced organizers Develop units, projects, lessons Conduct IEP related meetings other – specify other - specify

23 The special education teacher’s role in inclusion is multifaceted….
Part-time daily scheduled Pull-out Total staff (training) Teaming/co-teaching Consultant Drop-in Problem-solving conferences

24 The Nine Grid (Problem solving conference)
Quantity Time Level of support Input Participation Output Alternative Curriculum Difficulty Alternate Goals IEP issues

25 Quantity Modify the number of items the learner is expected to learn or complete. Example: reduce the number of spelling words or vocabulary terms or math problems to the point that the learner is consistently completing 80% or more. back

26 Time Adapt the time allotted for learning, task completion, and or test-taking. Example: Individualize a timeline for completing a task. Allow learner extra time or reduce time allowed. back

27 Level of Support Increase the amount of assistance from another person. Example: assign responsible student as a “buddy learner.” Increase time with a teacher assistant. Use peer tutors or cross age tutors. Make an agreement with a parent for specific time spent on a task. back

28 Input Adapt the manner in which instruction is delivered to the learner Examples: Enlarge text. Use visual aids. Underline/highlight key terms. Use hands-on activities. Have students work in cooperative groups. Use text-on-tape. back

29 Participation Modify the extent to which the learner is actively involved in a task. Example: use the learner as a student assistant in developing materials or delivering the instruction (e.g., have the student point to locations on a map as the class answers questions). back

30 Output Modify how the student shows evidence of learning
Examples: oral responses to test items. Recognition responses rather than production responses. Alternative projects rather than written exams. back

31 Difficulty Adapt the complexity of problems, the type of problems, or tools allowed in completing problems. Examples: allow calculator for selected math problems to teach process. Simplify task directions or the tasks themselves. Change rules to accommodate learner needs. back

32 Alternate Goals Adapt the goals or outcome expectations without varying the input. Example: Expect some students to learn the states while others are learning both the states and their capitals. back

33 Alternative curriculum
Provide different instruction and materials to meet a learner’s individual needs and goals. Example: During a language test, a student learns computer skills in a computer lab. back

34 (optional slides from here on…) IEP issues:
Accommodations: Adjust evaluation criteria for assignments Adjust evaluation criteria for grades on report card Adjust quantity and/or difficulty of homework assignments Allow extra time for deadlines Allow extra credit and/or alternative projects for credit Allow re-taking of tests Use visual aids (pictures, transparencies, charts, maps) Provide frequent feedback Emphasize major points/main ideas Allow others to take notes when extensive notes are required (NCR paper). Extra set of books for home

Reading Comprehension General Education hours per week Special Education .5 hours per week Math Calculation and Math Problem Solving General Education 2.00 hours per week

36 LRE Inside Regular Class 80% or more of the day

37 Barriers, road blocks, and cow pies
Institutional inertia and language Principal support Individual teacher acceptance/resistance/sabotage issues Co-teacher compatibility issues Staffing Issues Teacher Training issues Logistical/organizational issues (e.g. transcripts) Common teacher concerns: “He might fail” “It’s not fair” “How do I?”

38 What are the indicators that an inclusion case needs “maintenance?”
Consistently failing grades in one or more classes Acting-out behavior requiring a BIP Expressed resistance/disagreement from a teacher Parent complaint

39 Inclusion Myths Inclusion (or resource or self-contained) is the best model of service delivery for all students Inclusion allows for a simple reduction in number of special education teachers Students always increase academic skills when taught in inclusion classrooms Successful inclusion takes very little time and effort from school staff

40 “In the end, we considered inclusion successful if the student no longer stood out because of his disability.” - Mrs. Hughes Teacher

41 Websources1…
…and many, many more to Google.

42 Websources2… Resources from Deer Valley District:

43 Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off your goal
- Henry Ford

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