Presentation on theme: "The Science Content Standards for California Public Schools Jeremy Amarant Palmdale School District in cooperation with Dr. Michael P. Klentschy Laurie."— Presentation transcript:
The Science Content Standards for California Public Schools Jeremy Amarant Palmdale School District in cooperation with Dr. Michael P. Klentschy Laurie Thompson Through grants from the NSF
Achieved Curriculum Intended Curriculum Implemented Curriculum Not Aligned
The Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve represents the content of science education and includes the essential skills and knowledge students will need to be scientifically literate citizens in the twenty-first century. By adopting these standards, the State Board of Education affirms its commitment to provide a world-class science education for all California students. These standards reflect the diligent work and commitment of the Commission for the Establishment of Academic Content and Performance Standards (Academic Standards Commission) and the commission's Science Committee to define the common academic content of science education at every grade level.
Glenn T. Seaborg, one of the great scientific minds of this time and of all times, chaired the Academic Standards Commission's Science Committee. In "A Letter to a Young Scientist," Dr. Seaborg said, "Science is an organized body of knowledge and a method of proceeding to an extension of this knowledge by hypothesis and experiment." 1 The National Science Education Standards reflects this view of science and the balance between the "body of knowledge" and the "method" of scientific inquiry. 2 The standards provide the opportunity to make substantial and significant improvements in California's education system. 1 2
The Science Content Standards serves as the basis of statewide student assessments, the science curriculum framework, and the evaluation of instructional materials. The Science Framework for California Public Schools aligns with the standards. The framework suggests ways in which to use the standards and make connections within and across grades; it also provides guidance for instructional planning. However, the standards do not prescribe the methods of instruction. Students should have the opportunity to learn science by receiving direct instruction, by reading textbooks and supplemental materials, by solving standards-based problems, and by doing laboratory investigations and experiments. The Investigation and Experimentation standards should be integral to, and directly and specifically support, the teaching of the content strands and disciplines.
Grade 5, Standard 5 1.The solar system consists of planets and other bodies that orbit the Sun in predictable paths. As a basis for understanding this concept: –1.Students know the Sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system and is composed primarily of hydrogen and helium. –2.Students know the solar system includes the planet Earth, the Moon, the Sun, eight other planets and their satellites, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets. –3.Students know the path of a planet around the Sun is due to the gravitational attraction between the Sun and the planet.
Framework 5 - 1 The Sun is about one million times the volume of Earth. Its mass can be calculated from the shapes of the planetary orbits, which result from the gravitational attraction between the Sun and its planets. The fusion of hydrogen to helium produces most of the Suns energy.
Framework 5 - 2 The solar system comprises nine planets, in the following order from the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Most of the planets have moons in orbit about them, but only Earths moon is visible to the unaided eye. Asteroids and comets are small bodies, most of which are in irregular orbits about the Sun. Many science texts and Web sites provide information and photographs of objects in the solar system that are collected from NASAs planetary, comet, and asteroid missions and from the use of Earth and space telescopes.
Framework 5 - 3 Planets move in elliptical but nearly circular orbits around the Sun just as the Moon moves in a nearly circular orbit around Earth. Each object in the solar system would move in a straight line if it were not pulled or pushed by a force. Gravity causes a pull, or attraction, between the mass (matter) of each of the planets and the mass (matter) of the Sun. This pull is what continually deflects a planets path toward the Sun and produces its orbit. Students may wonder why the pull of gravity does not cause the planets to fall into the Sun or the Moon into Earth. One explanation is that the planets and Moon are in fact falling, but they are also moving very fast to the side.
Framework 5 - 3 cont. As the Moon is pulled toward Earth, it also moves forward creating the curved path of its orbit. Thus the Moon is constantly falling, but the downward and sideways motions are exactly balanced so that the Moon never gets closer to or farther away from Earth. In the same way the planets are maintained in orbits around the Sun. Understanding that gravity exists in outer space may be made more difficult by the images of astronauts floating weightless in their capsules. When these pictures are taken, the astronauts are in orbit around Earth and are essentially free-falling (just like the Moon).
Problems The No Child Left Behind act holds schools accountable for all standards: English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, History-Social Science, Physical Education, Visual and Performing Arts. While English Language Arts and Mathematics are tested every year, others are tested only at certain grade levels, i.e. Science is tested at grades 5, 8, 10, or they are not tested at all.
Problems Multiple Subjects Teachers do not have a strong science background The test does not test investigation and experimentation Etcetera, etcetera, etcetera…
What can be done? We are using a system of scaffolding guided inquiry that uses a process of self contained lessons and a journaling process.
Why Science Notebooks Provides an expanded opportunity through writing to make meaning from experiences Best Record of –Lesson/Unit Implementation –Student Performance Quality of communication Conceptual and/or procedural understanding This also is English Language Arts!
Making Standards Work 1.Power Standards 2.Unwrap the Standards 3.Determine the Big Ideas 4.Write the Essential Questions 5.Decide the Learning Tasks 6.Find Connections 7.Plan an Engaging Scenario or Hook 8.Write a Scoring Guide ( Reeves, 2002)
Intended Curriculum Big Idea Lesson Content Goals and Guiding Questions Standard being addressed
GUIDING QUESTIONS 1) Using a wire, a battery and a bulb, what does it require to light the bulb? What is the role of the battery, the bulb and the wire? 1) It requires a complete loop (circuit from one end of an energy source (battery) through an energy receiver (bulb) and return to the other end of the battery to light the bulb. The wire (energy conductor) is the pathway for the energy to flow between the energy source and the energy receiver. 2)A closed circuit is a complete loop that allows electricity to flow; an open circuit does not make a complete loop and the electricity will not flow. 2) What are the differences between an open and closed circuit? LESSON CONTENT GOALS
IMPLEMENTED CURRICULUM Engaging scenario Focus Question Prediction Data Claims and Evidence Conclusion Reflection Engaging scenario Focus Question Prediction Data Claims and Evidence Conclusion Reflection
Engaging Scenario You are out on a hike and accidentally slide down the side of a small gorge. It is too steep to climb back up and the only way you might get out is to go through a cave. The good news is that it is possible to find your way out. The bad news is that you dont have a light to see as you forgot your flashlight.
Engaging Scenario You find some objects in your backpack that may help you. A small bulb Wire A battery
Focus Question Criteria Provides students a role Is a simple question directly related to the scenario that can be investigated with results that can be communicated. Cannot be answered yes or no.
Prediction Gives students a stake in the results Write a prediction describing what you think will happen Conditional statements If ………. then …….. will happen because….. or I think ……. will happen because …… 2ND NOTEBOOK ENTRY
Planning Organization is what you do before you do something. So when you do it, its not all mixed up. A.A. Milne aka Winnie the Pooh
Planning Steps Procedures –What should be changed? (independent variable) –What should be kept the same? (controlled variable) –What kind of effect will be observed/measured? (dependent variable) Materials Data Organizer
Task Diagram at least three ways to light the bulb Diagram at least three ways the bulb did not light Accurately label your diagrams.
Things to consider How are you going to organize your diagrams? (data) Data Organizer ?
Symbols to Use in Your Diagrams Light BulbWire + - Battery l
Making Meaning Conference Planned discussion that uses an organizer to make thinking visible. Discussion Points – Guiding Questions. 1.Using a wire, a battery and a bulb, what does it require to light the bulb? What is the role of the battery, the bulb, and the wire? (What were you going to observe or measure) 2.What are the differences between a closed (a circuit that lights the bulb) and an open (a circuit that does not light the bulb) circuit? What is your evidence?
Examining Your Data Look at your diagrams showing when the bulb did not light –Where did the wire touch the bulb? –Where did the bulb touch the battery?
Examining Your Data What claims can you make about the ways the bulb did not light? What was your evidence? I claim the bulb did not light because ……….
Examining Your Data These places are called critical contact points Be sure to label the critical contact points on your diagrams
Examining Your Data What claims can you make about the ways the bulb lit? What was your evidence? I claim the bulb lit because ………….
Examining Your Data Because you really need to remember how to light the bulb in order to see the way out of the dark cave …………
Pathway Through the Bulb FILAMENT GLASS BEAD SIDE TERMINAL BASE TERMINAL
Examining Your Data Add a battery and one or two wires to make a complete circuit. Use a red pencil to trace a complete circuit beginning at the negative end of the battery. Use this symbol on the traced path ->->-> to show the direction of the flow of electricity.
Closure How do the claims and evidence relate to the Big Idea? What are examples/useful applications of electricity being converted to light, sound, heat, and motion?
Prediction Revisited Examine the prediction you made at the start of the lesson. How were your predictions supported by the evidence or how would you revise/change your thinking based upon the evidence? What did you learn that was new?
Reflection Quick Write How do the claims and evidence relate to the Big Idea? What are examples/useful applications of electricity being converted to light, sound, heat and motion? How were your predictions supported by the evidence or how would you revise or change your thinking based upon the evidence? What did you learn that was new? Notebook Entry
Next Steps – New Questions Think about what we did today What new questions do you have about circuits? What else would you like to try with batteries, wires and bulbs to make a circuit?
Please remember that Palmdale School District is in year one of implementing this process and there is not sufficient data to show results… yet. I am providing the data for El Centro instead. We are also including Mathematics in this same process.
Assessment and Evaluation Stanford Achievement Test: Science Scores 1998-99 NPR Gr4Gr6 # Tested630638 Mean NPR3640 Participating4349 n=393n=358 Non-Participating2531 n=237n=280
Assessment and Evaluation Stanford Achievement Test: Science Scores 1998-99 NPR - Sorted by Years in Program YearsGr4Gr6 CUM3640 02127 n=137n=174 13232 n =150n=121 23842 n=141n=132 34750 n=111n=107 45364 n=91n=104
Assessment and Evaluation TIMSS Released Multiple Choice: Science Scores 2000-2001 Mean Raw Scores- Sorted by Years in Program YearsGr7Gr8 Gr7/8 CUM9.411.110.2 08.710.0 9.5 n=48n=107n=155 18.910.5 9.7 n =136n=103 n=239 29.010.7 9.8 n=168n=112n=280 310.411.110.7 n=125n=90n=215 411.013.312.7 n=84n=93n=177 p<.023p<.001 p<.01
Assessment and Evaluation TIMSS Released Multiple Choice: Science Scores 2000-2001 Mean Raw Scores- Sorted by Units Completed Grade 7MeanSD High (4+ units)10.335 3.998 Low (3 or less units) 8.8923.435 p<.001 Grade 8 High (4+ units)12.137 4.319 Low (3 or less units)10.5583.551 p<.001
UC Eligibility Rate for Underrepresented Students
Evidence from Imperial County, California Stanford Achievement Test: Reading Scores 1998-99 NPR – Grade 4 Sorted by Years in Program YearsLEPEO CUM = 33 02130 12239 23951 33457 44964
Evidence from Imperial County, California Stanford Achievement Test: Reading Scores 1998-99 NPR – Grade 6 Sorted by Years in Program YearsLEPEO CUM = 40 02338 12842 23446 33556 45169
Science – Literacy Connections Imperial County, CA District Writing Proficiency Grade 6 Spring 1999 Results Cumulative Pass 64% n=636 Participating Classes82% n=357 Non Participating Classes41% n=279
Science – Literacy Connections Imperial County, CA District Writing Proficiency Grade 6 Spring 1999 Cumulative Pass64% n=636 Years%Passn 023% 174 168%119 271% 132 390% 107 489%104