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How to Train Employees to Be Supervisors NSAA/NASC Joint Middle Management Conference April 16-18, 2007 Presentation by Robert Black Dean, Government Audit.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Train Employees to Be Supervisors NSAA/NASC Joint Middle Management Conference April 16-18, 2007 Presentation by Robert Black Dean, Government Audit."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Train Employees to Be Supervisors NSAA/NASC Joint Middle Management Conference April 16-18, 2007 Presentation by Robert Black Dean, Government Audit Training Institute Graduate School, USDA

2 TEST Which role is the most challenging? Manager?Supervisor?Employee?

3 Questions to Consider in Training Employees to be Supervisors 1. Does every employee want to be a supervisor (want to move up)? 2. Can every employee be an effective supervisor? 3. How do you know when an employee is ready to be a supervisor? 4. Should an employee be trained first, then moved up, or moved up then trained?

4 This Discussion Will Cover: The various responsibilities of a supervisor 3 steps to developing a supervisor The adjustments required for moving from staff to a supervisory role Power, personal styles, performance Gen Xers, the New Millennials – retention and motivation

5 Definition of a Supervisor One who supervises others by assigning and monitoring tasks.

6 Think about it… Responsibility cannot be delegated.

7 Individual Exercise Write down as many duties, functions, responsibilities that you can think of that should be performed by a supervisor. –Take one minute to make a list –You may be asked to share it with the group

8 Multi-dimensional Role of a Supervisor Assign tasks Monitor work Provide OJT CoachDisciplineCounselInfluence Control quality Assess performance Ensure EEO compliance Enforce policy and rules Administer leave Communicate rules, policies, objectives Run meetings

9 Food for Thought A manager [supervisor (added)] has got to remember that he is on stage every day. His people are watching him. Everything he does, says, the way he says it, sends off clues to his employees. These clues affect performance. (Manager quoted in First Break All the Rules: What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently, Simon & Schuster, 1999)

10 Performance What are the key components of a persons performance? Performance = Ability + Support + Motivation

11 How to Approach Developing a Supervisor I. Ensure employee learns the basic technical aspects of the job II. Set expectations - plan together by writing down steps leading to a supervisory role/teach HR role III. Follow through and always model the expected behavior

12 Step I. Learning the Job Basics Assume this is an auditor position; the auditor must be able to (among other things): ResearchInterview Prepare working papers Understand auditing standards

13 Preparing Staff for a Supervisory Role There are two main roles for which staff must be trained: 1. Technical 2. Human relations

14 Segments of Development Formal training On-the-Job training Job experiences Individual development plan (IDP)

15 Technical Role of the Supervisor Define audit objectives and scope Determine methodology Develop audit guidelines Segment work into tasks Delegate and assign tasks to staff Monitor audit progress Review evidence and working papers Review report products

16 Step II. Set Expectations and Teach HR Role This step involves a combination of discussions, demonstrations, instruction, modeling Timing as to when to start and when to carry out these functions is dependent on circumstances and judgment

17 Human Relations Role of Supervisors Set expectations Provide OJT and feedback Monitor staff performance Appraise staff performance Identify developmental needs Manage conflict Discipline

18 Creating a Climate for Productivity CommunicatingMotivating Optimizing diversity

19 Required Adjustments from Staff to Supervisor In order for a staff person to become a supervisor, that person must make adjustments in 3 areas: 1. Role 2. Attitude 3. Skills

20 Examples of Adjustments – 1. ROLE Old ROLE to new: Direct control over results to indirect ctl. Work with peers to supervise former peers Follow policies to interpret policies Required adjustments: Accept less direct control Maintain role of leader Represent the organization

21 Adjustments to 2. ATTITUDES Old ATTITUDES to new Desire to/willingness to: Be well liked/praise or criticize others Avoid conflict/deal with conflict Compete with others/ develop cooperation Required adjustments: Accept new power & relationships Expect conflict Shift focus to team

22 Adjustments to 3. SKILLS Primary emphasis on technical skills to greater emphasis on human skills and broader goals: Preparing working papers to reviewing Outlining and drafting report segments to re- viewing for compliance with audit prog., policies, and standards Required adjustments: Improve skill at finding holes in evidence, support, etc. Improve skill at reviewing, communicating, and advocating reports to higher levels

23 POWER is now MINE! Power is the ability to influence the actions of others.

24 POWER! FormalLegitimateCoerciveRewardInformalExpertReferant

25 Personal Styles In order to become a supervisor, staff must: a. Recognize their own managerial and interpersonal styles, and b. Improve their effectiveness with subordinates

26 III. Followthrough & Modeling In training staff to become supervisors, you must teach and model behaviors for them; for example: –Personal styles of managing –How to conduct meetings –How to handle conflict –Focusing on performance

27 Myers Briggs Type Indicators Extravert (E) Sensing (S) Thinking (T) Judging (J) Introvert (I) iNtuiting (N) Feeling (F) Perceiving (P)

28 Think About It… Responsibility cannot be delegated. Supervisors are accountable for what others do.

29 Working with Staff Performance Challenges Performance system elements: TaskDirectionResourcesConsequencesFeedbackPerformer

30 Meetings Types of meetings: –Decision making –Problem solving –Planning –Feedback –Presentation

31 Planning a Meeting Desired outcomes - objectives Who (depends on objectives) Type: feedback, decision making, etc. LengthTimingAgendaProcess Roles (presenter, facilitator, recorder, etc.) Decision process

32 Managing Conflict Types of conflict TechnicalInterpersonal Aspects of conflict DestructiveConstructive

33 Conflict Management Styles Compete – position allows it; agreed to Avoid – unimportant issue; time not right Compromise – some leeway; resources limited Accommodate – relationships more important Collaborate – commitment to cooperation; time

34 Motivation A. Maslow (40s & 50s) B. Herzberg (50s & 60s) C. Deci (1970s) A. Hierarchy of needs – satisfy one and move up (5 needs) B. Motivators and hygiene (maintenance) factors C. Intrinsic motivation

35 Intrinsic Motivation Stems from the innate sense of accomplishment and enjoyment one gets from doing good work We do something because it is worth doing Performing the work makes us feel good about ourselves; we feel competent and in control

36 The Question is NOT how to motivate others, but… …how can leaders create conditions under which others will motivate themselves.

37 Perspectives on One Generation Motivating Another Matures Baby Boomers Gen Xers New Millennials Born before 1945 Born 1945 -1964 Born 1965 – 1979 Born 1980 +

38 New Values in the Workplace - A Retention Issue Gen Xers and New Millennials have essentially said to their managers – the Matures and especially the Boomers – We dont share your definition of success. We define success differently and will pursue other rewards for our work. Motivating the Whats In It For Me? Workforce, Cam Marston, 2005

39 How Different Are They? For them… Jay Leno has ALWAYS been host of The Tonight Show (Johnny Carson WHO?) TV without cable is inconprehensible The Cold War is just in history books Going to the moon is old science

40 Its not about the workday… …its about the end result. Younger workers look at what they accomplished, not how many hours they worked in a day Up and coming supervisors have different values/expectations; their supervisees also different

41 Conclusions The supervisory role is complex and challenging 3 steps to developing new supervisors: –train (technical & HR) –set expectations for changing role –model behavior (e.g., conflict management) Understand the new workforce in order to motivate and retain

42 Contact Information Robert Black Dean, Government Audit Training Institute and Financial Management Graduate School, USDA Phone: 202-314-3560 E-mail:

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