Presentation on theme: "Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the San Francisco Estuary www.sfei.org SETAC Annual Meeting November 2007 Milwaukee, Wisconsin Susan Klosterhaus,"— Presentation transcript:
Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the San Francisco Estuary SETAC Annual Meeting November 2007 Milwaukee, Wisconsin Susan Klosterhaus, Daniel Oros, John Oram, Don Yee, and Cristina Grosso San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, California. Francois Rodigari East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland, California. David Crane California Dept. of Fish and Game, Rancho Cordova, California. Richard Grace AXYS Analytical Services Ltd., Sidney, British Columbia.
Talk Outline I. Introduction to the Estuary and our dataset II. PBDEs in biota are high III. PBDEs in sediment seem low IV. Whats going on?
San Francisco Estuary Largest estuary on west coast Urban, industrial, agricultural 90% of freshwater from Delta Shallow, highly mixed Net erosional except for Lower South Bay Delta Pacific Ocean Central Valley
Regional Monitoring Program for Water Quality in the San Francisco Estuary (RMP) I. Status & Trends Monitoring ( ) -- Sediment, water (annually) -- Bivalves (every 2 years) -- Sport fish (every 3 years) -- Cormorant eggs (every 2 years) II. Pilot and Special Studies -- Provides framework for adaptive management -- e.g. emerging contaminants Collaboration: SFEI, State, Discharging Community Objective: Support management decisions
Comprehensive PBDE Dataset Br O Water, sediment, bivalves (SFEI monitoring) Sport fish (Holden et al. 2003; Greenfield et al. 2003; Brown et al. 2006; Davis et al. 2006) Harbor seals (She et al. 2002; SFEI unpublished) Bird eggs (She et al. 2004; Davis et al. 2006; Hooper, unpublished) People (She et al. 2002; Petreas et al. 2003; Fischer et al. 2006; Bradman et al. 2007) Sources Wastewater effluent (North 2004; SFEI unpublished) Loadings from the Delta and local watersheds (SFEI in prep) Atmospheric deposition (CA Air Resources Board) Accumulation Mass Budget and Modeling
Resident clam concentrations have decreased Corbicula fluminea Sacramento River (BG20) San Joaquin River (BG30)
Deployed mussel concentrations may be decreasing Mytilus californianus San Pablo Bay (BD30) Central Bay (BB71) Central Bay (BC10) Central Bay (BC61) South Bay (BA40)
Data: 2006 NOAA Mussel Watch Program Deployed mussels comparable to resident mussels in other urban estuaries Total PBDE (ng/g dry weight) Delaware Bay Tampa Bay Long Island Sound San Francisco Bay Puget Sound
Sport Fish Every 3 yrs since 1994 Popular fishing areas 7 species Organics, Hg, Se PBDEs since 2000 South Bay Oakland Inner Harbor Berkeley San Francisco Waterfront San Pablo Bay
Trends in sport fish? 2006 NA Median Range
Congener patterns in sport fish Shiner Surfperch White Croaker Striped Bass White Sturgeon Penta-BDE % of Total PBDE Other
Sport fish among the highest SF white croaker SF shiner surfperch SF striped bass SF white sturgeon San Francisco Bay Total PBDE (ng/g lipid) Japan China European Average Taiwan Europe Asia > 5000 Chesapeake Bay N. American Average Maine Others in North America Great Lakes
Cormorant eggs Wheeler Island Richmond Bridge Don Edwards NWR 3 nesting sites Biennial since 2002 Organics, Hg, Se
PBDEs (ng/g lipid) PBDEs in eggs (ng/g lipid) ,000 20,000 16,000 12,000 8,000 4,000 Don Edwards Pond (South Bay) Richmond Bridge Wheeler Island (near Delta) Cormorant concentrations may be decreasing
Congener patterns in cormorant eggs ,28/33,66,85,138 Wheeler Is. Richmond Br. D. Edwards Richmond Br. D. Edwards Richmond Br % of Total PBDE Penta- BDE
LocationSpecies ΣPBDEs (ng/g lipid) Reference San Francisco Baycormorants 4, ,000 Davis et al (SFEI) San Francisco Bayterns, clapper rail ,000 She et al. 2003; She et al Chesapeake Bayosprey (wet wt) Rattner et al Great Lakesherring gull ,000 Norstrom et al British Columbia cormorants, herons, petrelsMax 7700 Elliot et al Norwayosprey, sea eagle ,000 Herzke et al UKherons, cormorantsmax 4,000 D'Silva et al SwedenguillemotMax 2700 Sellström et al Japancormorants ,300 Watanabe et al Bird eggs among the highest
BDE 47 in Sediment ( ) Range: 0.2 – 4 ng/g Segment averages < 0.4 – 0.8 ng/g No trend over 3 years
BDE 47 within range of other locations Location BDE 47 (ng/g dry) Reference San Francisco Estuary< SFEI 2006 Monitoring Chesapeake Bay mainstem< Baker et al. unpublished Newark Bay, NJ< Wenning et al Great Lakes<2 Zhu and Hites 2005 Lake Winnipeg, Canada Law et al China (Pearl River Estuary) Mai et al China (Yangtze River Delta) Chen et al Japan<2 Choi et al 2003 Denmark< Christensen and Platz 2001 Netherlands 0.3 – 7 de Boer et al Portugal< Lacorte et al Spain Eljarrat et al Germany, Czech Republic Sawal et al. 2004
BDE 209 in Sediment (2004, 2006) Range: < 1 – 19 ng/g Segment averages 0.6 – 9 ng/g X higher than 2004
Location BDE 209 (ng/g dry) Reference San Francisco Estuary< SFEI 2006 Monitoring Chesapeake Bay, MD, VA< Baker et al. unpublished Newark Bay, NJ Wenning et al Great Lakes Zhu and Hites 2005 Lake Winnipeg, Canada Law et al China (Pearl River Estuary) Mai et al China (Yangtze River Delta)< Chen et al Japan<25 – 11,600 Choi et al 2003 Denmark< Christensen and Platz 2001 Netherlands<4 – 510 de Boer et al Portugal Lacorte et al Spain Eljarrat et al Germany, Czech Republic Sawal et al BDE 209 lower than other locations?
Suisun Bay San Pablo Bay Central Bay South Bay Lower South Bay Pattern in sediments varies spatially ,33 % of Total PBDE Baltimore Harbor* * Klosterhaus et al. 2006
Summary 1. PBDEs in biota are high, may be decreasing 2. PBDEs in sediments are comparable? 4. Watershed characteristics drive spatial variation in congener patterns 5. Effect of California flammability standard is unclear 3. BDE 209 may be increasing in sediments
Acknowledgements RMP committees, participants San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board SFEI: Jay Davis, Meg Sedlak, Ben Greenfield Data and reports available at: