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Environmental Endocrine Disruption Effects Assessment In San Francisco Bay Fishes Shiner Surfperch & Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Kevin M. Kelley Environmental.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Endocrine Disruption Effects Assessment In San Francisco Bay Fishes Shiner Surfperch & Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Kevin M. Kelley Environmental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Endocrine Disruption Effects Assessment In San Francisco Bay Fishes Shiner Surfperch & Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Kevin M. Kelley Environmental Endocrinology Laboratory Inst. for Integrated Research on Materials, Environment & Society (IIRMES) Center for Education in Proteomics Analysis (CEPA) Marine Biology Program, Dept of Biological Sciences, Calif. St. Univ. Long Beach

2 ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS regulate essential physiological functions Reproduction - Growth & Repair - Metabolism Defense/Immune - Thyroid - Developmental Stress Responses - Neuroendocrine - others Homeostasis, Adaptation, Survival

3 Because endocrine systems are highly sensitive, responsive... respond to presence of environmental stressors to a degree commensurate with the need to maintain homeostasis... reflective in their response to the specific type(s) of stressor present

4 Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in marine and estuarine environments, particularly along highly populated coastal regions: SF Bay Estuary... measures of endocrine disruption are increasingly being pursued as sensitive bioindicators for water/environmental quality and specific contaminant effects

5 1- determine incidence and magnitude of endocrine disruption in wild fishes, 1- determine incidence and magnitude of endocrine disruption in wild fishes, emphasizing assessment of endocrine systems regulating stress responses, growth & repair, thyroid & reproduction 2- determine whether spatial differences can be established 2- determine whether spatial differences can be established between different SF Bay locations, with respect to endocrine disrupted condition(s) 3- determine liver contaminant concentrations in individuals, 3- determine liver contaminant concentrations in individuals, to identify correlations between specific contaminants and type(s) of endocrine disruption in fish sampled from different SF Bay locations STUDY OBJECTIVES

6 Shiner Surfperch Cymatogaster aggregata Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Leptocottus armatus

7 San Pablo Bay Berkeley Waterfront Oakland Inner Harbor Redwood City far-field reference: Tomales Bay Bodega Bay 2006 Field Sites

8 Tomales Bay Bodega Bay Far Field Sites

9 STRESS RESPONSE AXIS

10 CORTISOL CORTISOL adaptational responses Stress! BRAIN HYPOTHALAMUS CRH PITUITARY anterior posterior ACTH Interrenal tissues circulation Hypothalamo-Pituitary-InterrenalAxis (HPI Axis)

11 Redwood City Oakland Inner Harbor Berkeley Waterfront San Pablo Bay Shiner Surfperch Plasma Cortisol Concentration (ng/ml) a a b b Stress Response

12 Redwood City Oakland Inner Harbor Berkeley Waterfront San Pablo Bay Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Plasma Cortisol Concentration (ng/ml) a a b c Stress Response

13 REDUCED cortisol response BRAIN HYPOTHALAMUS CRH PITUITARY anterior posterior ACTH Interrenal tissues circulation impaired HPI Axis EDCs ? STRESSOR

14 Other wild fish species living in affected marine environments exhibit impairment of their neuroendocrine stress response system...experimental studies have shown that contaminants, such as PCBs, impair stress responses in fish...experimental studies have shown that contaminants, such as PCBs, impair stress responses in fish ( Quabius et al., 2005; Vijayan et al., 2006 )

15 THYROID ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

16 T4, T3 variety of physiological actions BRAIN HYPOTHALAMUS TRH PITUITARY anterior posterior TSH Thyroid gland circulation Hypothalamo-Pituitary-ThyroidAxis (HPT Axis)

17 Thyroid Hormones broad physiological actions broad physiological actions essential for brain/neural development essential for brain/neural development permissive to somatic growth permissive to somatic growth important regulators of metabolism important regulators of metabolism 3,5,3,5-tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) 3,5,3-triiodothyronine T4T3

18 San Pablo Bay Berkeley Waterfront Redwood City Oakland Inner Harbor Bodega Bay (11) (19) (9)(14) Plasma Thyroxine (T4) Concentration, ng/ml ShinerSurfperch Thryoxine (T4) Levels in Shiner Surfperch

19 San Pablo Bay Berkeley Waterfront Redwood City Oakland Inner Harbor Tomales Bay (8)(13)(17)(12)(5) Plasma Thyroxine (T4) Concentration, ng/ml Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Thryoxine (T4) Levels in Pacific Staghorn Sculpin

20 San Pablo Bay Berkeley Waterfront Redwood City Oakland Inner Harbor Tomales/ Bodega Bay Plasma Thyroxine (T4) Concentration, ng/ml ShinerSurfperch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Thryoxine (T4) Levels in SF Bay Fish (8)(13)(17)(12)(5) (11) (19) (9)(14)

21 Altered T4 (T3) production BRAIN HYPOTHALAMUS TRH PITUITARY anterior posterior TSH Thyroid Gland circulation impaired HPT Axis altered physiology EDCs ?

22 PBDEs and PCBs are implicated in thyroid endocrine disruption: …in mammalian studies, PBDE exposure causes reduction of thyroid hormone level and production (e.g., Skarman et al., 2005; Boas et al., 2006) …in fish, PBDE exposure causes reduction in T4, but not T3 (Tomy et al., 2004 –lake trout ; Lema et al., 2006 – fathead minnow ) …in fish, PCB exposure alters T4 and T3 levels (LeRoy et al., 2006 –Atlantic croaker )

23 Reproductive Steroids

24 Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Plasma 17 β -Estradiol Concentrations Female [winter] Female [summer] Male [winter] Female Male [immature] English Sole [Orange County] all SF Bay locations tested [n=13-29/bar] E2 (pg/ml) N.D. for Testosterone (selected samples)

25 Shiner Surfperch ? August 2006 Oakland Inner Harbor

26 Turbot WWTP-affected site Shiner Surfperch Plasma EE2 Concentration (pg/ml) 17 α -Ethinylestradiol (EE2) in Fish Plasma Pacific Staghorn Sculpin (Tomales Bay, Redwood City, Oakland Inner Harbor, Berkeley, San Pablo Bay (Loch Lohmand) N.D.N.D.

27 The Growth Endocrine Axis PITUITARY LIVER IGF-IIGFBP-3IGFBP-1 (IGFBPs 2,4-6) IGFBP GROWTH target cell Growth Hormone IGF REC IGF IGFBP IGF IGF Axis

28 45 kDa 30 kDa 28 kDa Controls 30 kDa IGFBP-1 Rat Plasma Control Stressed Jack Mackerel Trachurus symmetricus increased IGFBP-1 >> growth inhibition Stress Effects on Plasma IGFBP Levels cell culture work supports this

29 Thyroxine & Triidothyronine Testosterone & 11-ketotestosterone 17 β -Estradiol & 17 α -Ethinylestradiol IGF-I & IGFBPs Endocrine DisruptionSF Bay Fish Cortisol & Cortisone * * POTW, seasonal effects?? ?! (June 2007) [Yellow=Year-1 fish analyses] * =spatial differences detected Hepatic contaminants (chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHs)

30 San Pablo Bay (Loch Lohmand Marina) Berkeley Waterfront Oakland Inner Harbor Redwood City far-field reference: Tomales Bay Bodega Bay Study Sites 2007 July-August Richmond (Laurentian Channel, DDTs) San Leandro Bay (PCBs) South of Dunbarton (POTW)

31 Stress (HPI) Axis – Continuing Analyses 2007 Field season July-Aug 2007 a) interrenal histology a) interrenal histology b) hepatic contaminants correlation b) hepatic contaminants correlation c) ACTH-challenge* c) ACTH-challenge* d) cortisone measurement* (11β-HSD-2) d) cortisone measurement* (11β-HSD-2) e) ectoparasitic infestation assessment e) ectoparasitic infestation assessment f) growth endocrine system (IGF-I, IGFBPs) f) growth endocrine system (IGF-I, IGFBPs) g) steroidogenic enzyme expression* (StAR, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-HSD-2) g) steroidogenic enzyme expression* (StAR, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-HSD-2) *b-d = potential bioassays for disruption (EDC screening?) With an emphasis on Oakland Inner Harbor (San Pablo Bay, San Leandro Bay??) vs. control sites

32 Thyroid (HPT) Axis – Continuing Analyses 2007 Field season July-Aug 2007 a) T3 measurement* a) T3 measurement* b) hepatic contaminants correlation b) hepatic contaminants correlation c) thyroid histology [?] c) thyroid histology [?] d) TSH-challenge* [?] d) TSH-challenge* [?] e) peripheral deiodinases (D1-3)* [?] e) peripheral deiodinases (D1-3)* [?] f) thyroid hormone receptors (TR α & TR β)* [?] f) thyroid hormone receptors (TR α & TR β)* [?] g) growth endocrine system (IGF-I, IGFBPs) g) growth endocrine system (IGF-I, IGFBPs) *b-d = potential bioassays for disruption (EDC screening?)

33 ?? QUESTIONS

34

35 Liver Contaminant Analysis, GC/MS Selected Contaminants*Shiner Surfperch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Chlordane-gamma1 – 4 2 – 5 Chlordane-alpha3.5 – 156 – 10 trans-Nonachlor3.5 – 125 – 20 cis-Nonachlor1.5 – 54 – 13 4,4-DDE20 – 4748 – 54 *range of ng/g wet weight values shown So-Calif would have 4, 4-DDT Nov. 2006

36 Selected Contaminants*Shiner Surfperch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin PCB 0956 – 128 – 14 PCB – 3525 – 35 PCB – 7056 – 63 PCB – 4728 – 58 PCB 194nd – 86 – 21 PCB – 6656 – 68 Other congeners measured: 28, 31, 44, 49, 52, 66, 70, 74, 87, 99,101, 105, 110, 118, , 141, 151, 156, 158, , 170, 177, 183, 187, – 162 – 35 *range of ng/g wet weight values shown Nov Liver Contaminant Analysis, GC/MS

37 Selected Contaminants*Shiner Surfperch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Naphthalene13 – – 20 2-methylnaphthalene9 – 156 – 17 1-methylnaphthalene5 – 136 – 8 Biphenyl1 – 5.52 – 5 Fluorine2.5 – – 5 Phenanthrene6.5 – – 8 *range of ng/g wet weight values shown Nov Liver Contaminant Analysis, GC/MS

38 Russell Fairey et al. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories

39 Southern California Sea Grant Program San Francisco Estuary Institute

40 cholesterol pregnenolone progesterone 11-deoxycorticosterone corticosterone aldosterone mitochondria 17 -hydroxypregnenolone 17 -hydroxyprogesterone 11-deoxycortisol cortisol dehydroepiandrosterone androstenedione testosterone estradiol-17 Cortisone (inactive) 11 -HSD-2 steroidogenic targets StAR, PBR P450scc P P P450 arom

41 Thyroxogenesis

42 handlinghandling crowding / captivity water quality Stimulate the HPI Axis elevated CORTISOL levels Glucose, other fuels Hepatic glucose production AA release from muscle Lipid breakdown increased fuel mobilization & availability Overall: increased fuel mobilization & availability Glucose, other fuels Hepatic glucose production AA release from muscle Lipid breakdown increased fuel mobilization & availability Overall: increased fuel mobilization & availability Growth & Repair Reproduction Immune function reduced energy- Overall: reduced energy- expensive processes expensive processes Growth & Repair Reproduction Immune function reduced energy- Overall: reduced energy- expensive processes expensive processes Anabolic Pathways Catabolic Pathways Stress!!Stress!!

43 Elthusa californica... was commonly found in opercular chambers of shiner surfperch (staghorn sculpin, to lesser degree)


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