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LIS508 lecture 8: looking at linux Thomas Krichel 2002-11-11.

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1 LIS508 lecture 8: looking at linux Thomas Krichel 2002-11-11

2 Structure History of unix and linux Using linux Free software

3 Early Computing History In the 1940s and 1950s, all computers were personal computers in the sense that a user would sign up to use the machine and then take over the whole machine for that period. The early 1960s were dominated by batch systems in which a user would submit a job on punched cards and wait, usually hours, before any printed output appeared.

4 Early Computing History To get around this unproductive environment, the concept of timesharing was invented by Dartmouth College and M.I.T. The M.I.T system CTSS (Compatible Time Sharing System) was an enormous success. M.I.T., Bell Labs, and General Electric created a second generation timesharing system named MULTICS (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service).

5 Early UNIX History At Bell Labs, Ken Thompson decided to write a stripped down version of MULTICS for the very small PDP-7 minicomputer which he called UNICS. Dennis Ritchie, also at Bell Labs, joined Thompson in further developments of what was now called UNIX. Together they ported the system the the larger and very popular PDP-11/20 and PDP-11/45 minicomputers.

6 Early UNIX History Thompson also rewrote the operating system in high level language of his own design which he called B. The B language lacked many features and Ritchie decided to design a successor to B which he called C. They then rewrote UNIX in the C programming language to aid in portability.


8 Early UNIX History In 1974, Ritchie and Thompson published a paper about UNIX and received the prestigious ACM Turing Award. This publication stimulated many universities to request a copies of UNIX. Since Bell Labs, part of AT&T, was not allowed to be in the computer business, it licensed UNIX to universities. Also, at that time, the PDP-11 series was the workhorse of most computer science departments. Result: UNIX was a hit on campus.

9 Early UNIX History In Version 6, the source code of UNIX was 8200 lines of C and 900 lines of assembler. The first portable version arrived with Version 7 which had 18,800 lines of C and 2100 lines of assembler. By the 1980s the use of UNIX was widespread with many vendors selling their own versions based on Version 7.

10 BSD UNIX One of the many universities that had received license for UNIX was the University of California at Berkeley. Aided by many government grants, Berkeley released an improved version named 1BSD (First Berkeley Software Distribution) In subsequent, versions Berkley added many new features including a new visual editor (vi) and a new shell (csh).

11 Two UNIX Versions Because of these and other enhancements, many companies based their UNIX on Berkeleys version as opposed to AT&Ts so- called System V. By the late 1980s, two different and somewhat incompatible versions of UNIX were in widespread use: 4.3 BSD and System V release 3.

12 UNIX Standards In addition, every vendor added its own nonstandard enhancements. In an attempt to unify the troops, the IEEE Standards Board undertook the POSIX Project (POS for Portable Operating System) and IX to make it UNIX like. POSIX 1003.1 emerged as a common ground standard. 1003.1 is the intersection of System V and BSD. (a feature had to be on both to be included in the standard)

13 UNIX Standards The POSIX standard defined a set of library procedures and systems calls that all compliant UNIX systems. It appeared that the split between System V and BSD had been somewhat dealt with. Unfortunately, a funny thing happened on the way back form the standards meeting.

14 UNIX Standards A group of vendors led by IBM, DEC, Hewlett- Packard, and others formed the OSF (Open Software Foundation) to standardize an enhanced version of UNIX in an attempt to derail AT&Ts efforts to regain control of UNIX. AT&T, Sun, UNISYS, Data General, and other companies countered and formed UI (UNIX International) based on System V.

15 UNIX Like Systems In a new trend, UNIX like operating systems began to appear. MINIX, by Andrew Tanenbaum, used a microkernel design with only 1600 lines of C and 800 lines of assembler in its first version. In 1991, a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds released another UNIX clone named Linux version 0.01.

16 Linux Linux is a monolithic design rather than a microkernel design. (9,300 lines of C and 950 of assembler) Linux quickly grew in size and functionality. Version 1, shipped in 1994, contained about 165,000 lines of code. Version 2 in 1996 contained about 470,00 lines of C and 8000 lines of assembler. Linux is released under the GNU public licence (we will cover this later).

17 In the meantime, in the trenches In 1992, Berkeley decided to terminate BSD development with one final free release - 4.4BSD. AT&T sued claiming the version contained AT&T code. During the lawsuit, Berkeley was not allowed to distribute 4.4BSD thus giving time for Linux to become established. Had the lawsuit not occurred, there would have been serious competition between two freely available.

18 AT&Ts Exit AT&T eventually decided to focus on the long distance telephone business and sold its UNIX business to Novel in 1993. In turn, Novel sold it to Santa Cruz Operations in 1995. But who owned this version of UNIX was almost irrelevant since so many companies already had licenses.

19 UNIX Consolidation Even though there have been many vendors and many version of UNIX over the last few decades, the market is now beginning to consolidate. IBMAIX Hewlett-PackardHP/UX SunSolaris MacintoshOS X

20 Linux Distributions Linux itself is free. It is packaged, provided with installation and management tools, and made available for a small fee by various vendors on CD. These packages are known as distributions. Some common distributions are –Red Hat -- SuSE --Mandrake –Debian-- Slackware Differences –Locations of files (configuration, binaries, etc.) –GUI –Security, efficiency, etc.

21 UNIX Philosophy Make each program do one thing well. –These programs are sometimes called tools. Expect the output of every program to be the input to another yet unknown program. –Simple tools can be connected to accomplish a complex task Do not hesitate to build new tools –The UNIX tool library keeps growing

22 UNIX Philosophy The UNIX philosophy has not proven to be the best for all applications. –For example, there are lots of text manipulation tools that can be put together to accomplish a complex word processing task but the trend is definitely toward integrated word processing software.

23 Layers in the UNIX System Hardware (cpu, memory, disks, terminals, etc.) UNIX Operating System (process management, memory management, the file system, I/O, etc.) Standard Library (open, close read, write, etc.) Standard Utility Programs (shell, editors, compilers, etc.) Users System Interface calls Library Interface User Interface User Mode Kernel Mode

24 UNIX Structure The kernel is the core of the UNIX system, controlling the system hardware and performing various low-level functions. The other parts of the UNIX system, as well as user programs, call on the kernel to perform services for them. The shell is the command interpreter for the UNIX system. The shell accepts user commands and is responsible for seeing that they are carried out.

25 Famous shells The Bourne shell /bin/sh (default) The Korn shell /bin/ksh The C shell /bin/csh The Bourne Again Shell /bin/bash The Z shell /bin/zsh In linux, /bin/sh is usually /bin/bash

26 UNIX Structure Hundreds of applications are supplied with the UNIX system. They support a variety of tasks –copying files –editing text –performing calculations –developing software –Serving web pages etc

27 Using Linux/UNIX Depends on how it is set up. The following are true on wotan, on other machines it may be different. Wotan runs Debian GNU/Linux. / is the root directory /home/user (aka ~user) is the home directory of the user user. ls –l lists files in long format.

28 Permission model Permission of files are give to the owner, the group, and the rest of the world. A group is a grouping of users. Unix allows to define any number of groups and make users a member of it. The rest of the world are all other users who have access to the system, including public access on a web server, for example.

29 First element in ls -l Type indicator –d means directory –l means link –- means ordinary file 3 letters for permission of owner 3 letters for permission of group 3 letters for permission of rest of the world r means read, w means write, x means execute

30 Change permission: chmod A permission is a number –4 is read –2 is write –1 is execute Permissions are three numbers, for owner, group and rest of the world. Example: chmod 764 file Directories need to be executable to get in them…

31 Bash features Bash is the default shell on wotan cd is a command to change directory File names and command names can be completed with TAB The command history can be activated with the arrow keys of the keyboard

32 Copying and removing cp file copyfile scp user@machine:file user@machine:file –User is a user –Machine is a machine –File is the path to a file –Of course you will need permissions here! rm filethere is no recycling bin!! -r flag copies and deletes recursively

33 Directories and files mkdir file makes a directory rmdir file removes it touch file –makes a new empty file –sets the time on an existing file more file –Pages contents of file, no way back less file –Pages contents of file, u to go back, q to quit

34 Editing files There are many file editors available. I use emacs, because I am a geek. My students use nano. Invoque it with nano filename If nano in not there, try pico.

35 Thank you for your attention!

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