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Environmental Endocrine Disruption Effects Assessment In San Francisco Bay Fishes Shiner Surfperch & Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Kevin Kelley, Jesus Reyes,

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Endocrine Disruption Effects Assessment In San Francisco Bay Fishes Shiner Surfperch & Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Kevin Kelley, Jesus Reyes,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Endocrine Disruption Effects Assessment In San Francisco Bay Fishes Shiner Surfperch & Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Kevin Kelley, Jesus Reyes, Rusty Fairey, Zed Mason, Cathy Propper, Juli Kalman Environmental Endocrinology Laboratory Institute for Integrated Research on Materials, Environment & Society (IIRMES) Center for Education in Proteomics Analysis (CEPA) Marine Biology Program, Dept of Biological Sciences, Calif. St. Univ. Long Beach Moss Landing Marine Laboratories & Northern Arizona University

2 Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in marine and estuarine environments, particularly along highly populated coastal regions: SF Bay Estuary... measures of endocrine disruption are increasingly used as sensitive bioindicators for water/environmental quality and specific contaminant effects

3 1- determine incidence and magnitude of endocrine disruption in wild fishes, 1- determine incidence and magnitude of endocrine disruption in wild fishes, emphasizing assessment of endocrine systems regulating stress responses, growth & repair, thyroid & reproduction determine whether spatial differences can be established between different SF Bay locations, with respect to endocrine disrupted condition(s) 3- determine liver contaminant concentrations in individuals, 3- determine liver contaminant concentrations in individuals, to identify correlations between specific contaminants and type(s) of endocrine disruption in fish sampled from different SF Bay locations STUDY OBJECTIVES

4 Shiner Surfperch Cymatogaster aggregata Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Leptocottus armatus pelagic benthic

5 San Pablo Bay Berkeley Waterfront Oakland Inner Harbor Redwood City far-field reference: Tomales Bay 2006 Field Sites [pilot year]

6 Tomales Bay Bodega Bay Far Field Sites

7 Thyroxine/HPT Axis IGF-I/Growth Axis Cortisol/HPI Axis San Pablo Bay Berkeley Waterfront Redwood City Oakland Inner Harbor Tomales Bay Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin ?? ?? Endocrine DisruptionSF Bay Fish S U M M A R Y

8 Testosterone/HPG Axis 17 α -Ethinylestradiol Endocrine DisruptionSF Bay Fish San Pablo Bay Berkeley Waterfront Redwood City Oakland Inner Harbor Tomales Bay Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin 17 β -Estradiol/HPG Axis Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin ? ? ??? ? ? ??? S U M M A R Y

9 Shiner Surfperch ? August 2006 Oakland Inner Harbor

10 WWTP-affected site (OCSD, turbot) Shiner Surfperch Plasma EE2 Concentration (pg/ml) 17 α -Ethinylestradiol (EE2) in Fish Plasma Pacific Staghorn Sculpin (Tomales Bay, Redwood City, Oakland Inner Harbor, Berkeley, San Pablo Bay (Loch Lohmand) N.D.N.D.

11 Liver Contaminant Analysis, GC/MS Selected Contaminants*Shiner Surfperch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Chlordane-gamma1 – 4 2 – 5 Chlordane-alpha3.5 – 156 – 10 trans-Nonachlor3.5 – 125 – 20 cis-Nonachlor1.5 – 54 – 13 4,4-DDE20 – 4748 – 54 *range of ng/g wet weight values shown So-Calif would have 4, 4-DDT

12 Selected Contaminants*Shiner Surfperch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Naphthalene13 – – 20 2-methylnaphthalene9 – 156 – 17 1-methylnaphthalene5 – 136 – 8 Biphenyl1 – 5.52 – 5 Fluorine2.5 – – 5 Phenanthrene6.5 – – 8 *range of ng/g wet weight values shown Liver Contaminant Analysis, GC/MS

13 Selected Contaminants*Shiner Surfperch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin PCB 0956 – 128 – 14 PCB – 3525 – 35 PCB – 7056 – 63 PCB – 4728 – 58 PCB 194nd – 86 – 21 PCB – 6656 – 68 Other congeners measured: 28, 31, 44, 49, 52, 66, 70, 74, 87, 99,101, 105, 110, 118, , 141, 151, 156, 158, , 170, 177, 183, 187, – 162 – 35 *range of ng/g wet weight values shown Liver Contaminant Analysis, GC/MS

14 Thyroxine & Triidothyronine Testosterone & 11-ketotestosterone 17 β -Estradiol IGF-I & IGFBPs Endocrine DisruptionSF Bay Fish Cortisol & Cortisone * * POTW, seasonal effects?? ? [Yellow=Year-1 fish analyses] * =spatial differences detected Hepatic contaminants (chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHs) 17 α -Ethinylestradiol

15 Year – 2 Studies under way

16 San Pablo Bay (Loch Lohmand Marina) Richmond/Berkeley Waterfront Oakland Inner Harbor Redwood City far-field reference: Tomales Bay Bodega Bay Study Sites 2007 July 29-August 4 Richmond (Lauritzen Channel, DDTs) San Leandro Bay (PCBs) San Francisco Waterfront Hunters Point (POTW)

17 Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Redwood City San Francisco Waterfront S.F. Hunters Point (POTW outfall) Oakland Inner Harbor Loch Lomand Marina (San Pablo Bay) Richmond Waterfront Richmond –Lauritzen Channel (DDT-contaminated) Bodega Bay (far-field reference) San Leandro Bay (PCB-contaminated) Tomales Bay (far-field reference) FIELD DATA - AUGUST 2007 Two Harbors –Santa Catalina Island (Pacific side, far-field reference) L.A. Harbor –Inner Cabrillo Beach (collab. with Cabrillo Marine Aquarium) Added sites:

18 Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Redwood City San Francisco Waterfront S.F. Hunters Point (POTW outfall) Oakland Inner Harbor Loch Lomand Marina (San Pablo Bay) Richmond Waterfront Richmond –Lauritzen Channel (DDT-contaminated) Bodega Bay (far-field reference) San Leandro Bay (PCB-contaminated) Tomales Bay (far-field reference) Low infestation rates by Ethusa californica (Isopoda) High infestation rates by Elthusa californica (variable across sites & individuals) 55.2% 60.0 % PARASITE PREVALENCE: [#infected hosts/#examined hosts x100%] 20.2 % <10% strongly correlated with gill damage FIELD DATA - AUGUST 2007 Cortisol & Interrenal histology --under way Other parasites -to be evaluated

19 Shiner Perch Pacific Staghorn Sculpin Redwood City San Francisco Waterfront S.F. Hunters Point (POTW outfall) Oakland Inner Harbor Loch Lomand Marina (San Pablo Bay) Richmond Waterfront Richmond –Lauritzen Channel (DDT-contaminated) Bodega Bay (far-field reference) San Leandro Bay (PCB-contaminated) Tomales Bay (far-field reference) Immature, or early developing gonads Variety of reproductive states [immature, mature, gravid/pregnant] FIELD DATA - AUGUST /180 shiners were pregnant Sex ratios: TBA Gonadal somatic index: TBA Histology: under way

20 Contaminant Analyses: Feasible to measure individuals liver contaminant levels Feasible to measure individuals liver contaminant levels Key contaminants measured at high concentrations in shiner perch and Pacific staghorn sculpin Key contaminants measured at high concentrations in shiner perch and Pacific staghorn sculpin Relatively higher levels of contaminants in livers of Pacific staghorn sculpin Relatively higher levels of contaminants in livers of Pacific staghorn sculpin Liver contaminant concentrations will be correlated with indices of endocrine disruption within individuals Liver contaminant concentrations will be correlated with indices of endocrine disruption within individuals Allows analysis of whether pollutants, individually or in combination, are associated with endocrine disruption & associated reductions in physiological viability Different endocrine systems will likely exhibit different sensitivities to contaminants Will point to potential contaminant thresholds of effects in fish (further testing needed)

21 Emphasis: Stress (HPI) Axis Continuing Analyses & Emphasis 2007 a) field work -Aug 2007, completed a) field work -Aug 2007, completed b) cortisol measurement, completed, data analysis phase underway b) cortisol measurement, completed, data analysis phase underway c) interrenal histology, underway c) interrenal histology, underway d) hepatic contaminants measurement (underway) & correlation d) hepatic contaminants measurement (underway) & correlation d) cortisone measurement (11β-HSD-2) d) cortisone measurement (11β-HSD-2) e) ACTH-challenge (is interrenal responsiveness impaired?) e) ACTH-challenge (is interrenal responsiveness impaired?) f) ectoparasitic infestation assessment f) ectoparasitic infestation assessment g) growth endocrine system impacts (indices: IGF-I, IGFBPs, cartilage growth activity) impacts g) growth endocrine system impacts (indices: IGF-I, IGFBPs, cartilage growth activity) impacts h) steroidogenic enzyme expression (StAR, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-HSD-2) h) steroidogenic enzyme expression (StAR, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-HSD-2) b-d = potential bioassays for disruption (screening)

22 Thyroid (HPT) Axis Disruption – Studies proposed for 2007


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