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Using Information Technology Chapter 4 Hardware--The CPU & Storage.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Information Technology Chapter 4 Hardware--The CPU & Storage."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Information Technology Chapter 4 Hardware--The CPU & Storage

2 Hardware--The CPU & Storage How to Buy a Multimedia Computer System 4.1Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility 4.2The System Unit 4.3Secondary Storage

3 4.1 Microchips, Miniaturization, & Mobility From Vacuum Tubes to Transistors to Microchips Vacuum Tubes – 18,000 in ENIAC in Failed every 7 minutes, took 15 minutes to replace! Transistor (1 st was 1/100 th size of vacuum tube) - a tiny electrically operated switch, or gate, that can alternate between on and off many millions of times per second 1960 – 1 transistor was ½ centimeter sq – 3 million transistors on ½ cent sq. 1940s vacuum tube towering over 1950s transistor

4 4 CHIP or MICROCHIP A tiny piece of silicon (semiconductor) that contains millions of micro-miniature electronic components, mainly transistors. Silicon is found in sand. Microprocessor: Miniaturized circuitry of a computer processor – the part that processes, or manipulates data into information

5 Steps in Manufacture of a Microchip 1. Make large drawing. Reduce drawing hundreds of times to microscopic size. 2 Duplicate reduced photo many times on sheet. 3 Print sheet of multiple copies on a wafer made of silicon, a semiconductor. 4 Print layer after layer above and below original silicon surface. 5 Cut wafer into chips. 6 Mount chip in frame with connective pins extruding. [Note: THEN transistors were individually formed. Circuits attached w/wire & solder. TODAY integrated circuits & wires are formed together in a single chip.

6 4.2 The System Unit The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions The binary system has only two digits--0 and 1. Bit - binary digit Byte - group of 8 bits used to represent one character, digit, or other value

7 The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions Kilobyte1000 bytes Megabyte1,000,000 bytes (one million) Gigabyte1,000,000,000 bytes (one billion) Terabyte1 trillion bytes Petabyte1 quadrillion bytes

8 The Binary System: Using On/Off Electrical States to Represent Data & Instructions ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) - the binary code most widely used with microcomputers EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) - used with large computers UnicodeUnicode - uses two bytes for each character rather than one. Instead of 256 character combinations of ASCII, 65,536 character combinations allow all languages to be represented.

9 The Computer Case: Bays, Buttons & Boards Bay - a shelf or opening used for the installation of electronic equipment System unit - houses the motherboard, power supply, and storage devices Case - empty box with just power supply Overhead view of system unit

10 The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip Motherboard - the main circuit board in the system unit Expansion - increasing a computers capabilities by adding hardware Upgrading - changing to newer, more powerful versions

11 The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip Two principal architectures or designs of microprocessors: CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) - Supports a large number of instructions at relatively low processing speeds RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) - Supports a reduced number of instructions in order to obtain faster processing speeds Two kinds of microprocessors used in most microcomputers today: Intel-type chips for P/Cs made by Intel, AMD, and others (Pentium. The P4 has 42 million transistors) Motorola-type chips made by Motorola for Apple Macintosh computers

12 The Motherboard & the Microprocessor Chip MICROPROCESSOR – contains a system clock, which controls how fast all the operations within a computer takes place System clock – uses fixed vibrations from a quartz crystal to deliver a steady stream of digital pulses or ticks to the CPU. Ticks are called cycles Faster clock speeds result in faster processing and execution of program instructions. Steps in the machine cycle (Tick) [series of operations performed by control unit to execute a single programmed instruction]: 1.Fetch an instruction 2.Decode the instruction 3.Execute the instruction 4.Store the result Microprocessor speed expressed in Megahertz, a frequency equivalent to 1 million cycles (ticks) per second. (1 GHz - 1 billion cycles per second)

13 How Processor or CPU works: Control Unit, ALU, & Registers CPU – Central processing unit (Brain): consists of 2 parts (both contain registers, high speed storage areas). 2 parts are linked by electronic roadways bus. 1. Control unit – deciphers each instruction stored in it and carries out. Directs electrical signals bet main memory & ALU & input/output devices. 2. Arithmetic Logic Unit – ALU – performs arithmetic & logic operations (comparisons) & controls speed

14 How Processor or CPU works: Control Unit, ALU, & Registers Word size - # of bits a processor may process at one time. 32-bit word microprocessor will transfer data w/in each processor chip in 32-bit chunks. BUS – bits are transmitted within the CPU and between CPU & other components of motherboard.

15 How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash Types of memory chips: 1.RAM - Random Access Memory, used to temporarily hold software instructions & data in main memory (volatile) 2.ROM 3.CMOS 4.Flash 4 types of RAM chips: 1. DRAM – Dynamic RAM – must be constantly refreshed 2. SDRAM – Synchronous DRAM – Synchronized by system clock, goes faster 3. SRAM – Static RAM – doesnt need to be refreshed, faster than DRAM

16 How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash Types of memory chips: 1. RAM 2. ROM - Read-Only Memory, which cannot be written on or erased by the computer user. Contains fixed start-up instructions 3. CMOS 4. Flash

17 How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash Types of memory chips: 1 RAM 2 ROM 3 CMOS - Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor; powered by a battery and thus doesnt lose its contents when the power is off (non volatile) 4 Flash

18 How Memory Works: RAM, ROM, CMOS, & Flash Types of memory chips: 1 RAM 2 ROM 3 CMOS 4 Flash memory chips – to store program - can be erased and reprogrammed more than once (non volatile)

19 How Cache Works: Level 1 (Internal) & Level 2 (External) Cache - temporary storage for instructions and data that the processor is likely to use frequently, thus speeding up processing Level 1 (L1) internal cache - built into the microprocessor (8-256 kilobytes – operates fast) Level 2 (L2) external cache - consists of RAM chips outside microprocessor (64-2MB) Virtual memory - current operating systems allow for use of free hard-disk space used to extend the capacity of RAM

20 Ports & Cables Types of ports (connecting socket or jack on the outside of the system unit into which are plugged different kinds of cables): 1 Serial port - sends bits one at a time, one after another (keyboards, mouse, monitor, modem) 2 Parallel port 3 SCSI port 4 USB port 5 Dedicated port 6 Infrared port

21 Ports & Cables 1 Serial port 2 Parallel port - transmits 8 bits simultaneously (fast data over short distances – 15 ft) (printers, external zip drive) 3 SCSI port 4 USB port 5 Dedicated port 6 Infrared port

22 Ports & Cables 1 Serial port 2 Parallel port 3 SCSI port - allows fast data to be transmitted in a daisy chain to up to 7 devices 4 USB port 5 Dedicated port 6 Infrared port

23 Ports & Cables 1 Serial port 2 Parallel port 3 SCSI port 4 USB Port (universal serial bus) - can theoretically connect up to 127 peripheral devices daisy-chained to one general-purpose port (allows plug & play – so peripheral devices & expansions cards can be automatically configured while they are being installed. 5 Dedicated port 6 Infrared port

24 Ports & Cables 1 Serial port 2 Parallel port 3 SCSI port 4 USB 5 Dedicated port - special-purpose ports 6 Infrared port Dedicated ports: mouse port, telephone jack, modem port, and keyboard port

25 Ports & Cables 1 Serial port 2 Parallel port 3 SCSI port 4 USB 5 Dedicated port - special- purpose ports 6 Infrared port - allows a computer to make a cableless connection with infrared-capable devices (handheld TV remote)

26 Expandability: Buses & Cards (Open vs. closed architecture) Expansion slots- sockets on the motherboard into which you can plug expansion cards Expansion cards - circuit boards that provide more memory or that control peripheral devices

27 Expandability: Buses & Cards ISA bus (industry standard architecture) - for ordinary low-speed uses; the most widely used expansion bus PCI bus (peripheral component interconnect)- for higher-speed uses; used to connect graphics cards, sound cards, modems, and high-speed network cards AGP bus (accelerated graphics port) - for even higher speeds and 3D graphics Note: system bus connects CPU to itself and to main memory

28 Expandability: Buses & Cards Graphics cards - for monitors Sound cards - for speakers and audio output Modem cards - for remote communication via phone lines Network interface cards - for remote communication via cable PC cards - for laptop computers (formally PCMCIA cards)

29 4.3 Secondary Storage Floppy disk a removable flat piece of mylar plastic packaged in a 3.5-inch plastic case Data & programs are stored on disks coating with magnetic spots following on/off patterns of data representation. Tracks sectors

30 DISK STORAGE Floppy disk – 1.44 MB (400 typewritten pages) Zip disks or 250 Mb *SuperDisks Mb *HiFD disks Mb *Drive can also read floppy

31 Hard Disks Hard disks - thin but rigid metal platters covered with a substance that allows data to be held in the form of magnetized spots Read/write head does not touch disk; rides on air cushion

32 Hard Disks Head crash - event that happens when the surface of the read/write head or particles on its surface come into contact with the surface of the hard-disk platter, causing the loss of some or all of the data on the disk

33 Hard Disks Nonremovable hard disks - housed in a microcomputer system unit and used to store nearly all programs and most data files See p. 164

34 Hard Disks Removable hard disks - one or two platters enclosed along with read/write heads in a hard plastic case, which is inserted into a microcomputers cartridge drive Bits on disk - dark stripes are 0 bits and bright stripes are 1 bits

35 Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs Optical disk - a removable disk on which data is written and read through the use of laser beams

36 Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs CD-ROM - read only. For pre- recorded text, graphics, and sound CD-R - for recording on once CD-RW - for rewriting many times CD-Rom Drives speed denoted as data transfer by X which represents rate of 150 kilobytes per second. (44X = 44x150 kb)

37 Optical Disks: CDs & DVDs DVD-ROMDVD-ROM - for reading only [extremely high capacity ( gigabytes) DVD-R - for recording on once For rewriting many times: DVD-RW DVD-RAM DVD+RW

38 Magnetic Tape (up to 66 gigabytes) Magnetic tape - thin plastic tape coated with a substance that can be magnetized (for 1s) or left non-magnetized (for 0s) Tape cartridges - modules resembling audio cassettes that contain tape in rectangular, plastic housings

39 Smart Cards Smart card (holds up to 250 pgs of data) Looks like a credit card but contains a microprocessor embedded in the card (e.g., telephone debit card) Optical card (holds up to 2000 pgs of data) Plastic, laser-recordable, wallet-type card used with an optical-card reader [Note: conventional credit card strip holds ½ page of data] Smart card in use

40 Flash Memory Cards Flash memory card – circuitry on credit-card-size PC card that can be inserted into slots connecting to the motherboard 64 MB – projected up to 1 gigabyte

41 Concept Check Which binary code is most often used with microcomputers? ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

42 Concept Check How many bytes are in a terabyte? One trillion

43 Concept Check Which type of CD can be written to only once? CD-R

44 Concept Check Which binary code can represent all the characters of virtually every language in existence? UNICODE

45 Concept Check Which chip architecture provides faster processing speed-- CISC or RISC? RISC

46 Concept Check Which measure of storage represents one billion bytes? Gigabyte

47 Concept Check What are the two parts of the CPU? Control unit and arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

48 Concept Check What is the term for increasing a computers capabilities by adding hardware to perform tasks beyond the scope of the basic system? Expansion

49 Concept Check What is a gigahertz? A measure of processing speed representing one billion cycles per second

50 Concept Check What is the term for the special high-speed memory area on a chip that the CPU can access quickly? Cache

51 Concept Check What element are wafers composed of? Silicon

52 Concept Check What are the four steps of the machine cycle? 1. Fetch an instruction 2. Decode the instruction 3. Execute the instruction 4. Store the result


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