structure something about values in libraries from Rubin chapter 7 overview of Rubin chapter 1
mission & future of the library Rubin claims that libraries depends on public attitudes to –government agencies –education –serving all segments of society –importance of reading –learning –technology
values in libraries What do libraries think they are there for? In a survey in 2003 among 1000 librarians, service to the patron came out as the overriding value. Also mentioned were –intellectual freedom –information literacy –equal access
ALA statement on values, 2000 Prepared by a task force on core values: –connection of people to ideas –assurance of free and open access to recorded knowledge, information, and creative works. –commitment to literacy and learning –respect for individuality and diversity of all people –freedom for all people to form, to hold, and to express their believe
ALA statement on values, 2000 and thats not all –preservation of the human record –excellence in professional service to our communities –formation of strategic partnerships to advance these values Buschmann has dissmissed the list as a bland homogenization of euphemisms.
Ranganathans 1931 values Ranganathan proposed five laws of library science. –Books are for use. –Books are for all. –Every book its reader –Save the time of the reader –The library is a growing organism
Gorman 1995 additions Gorman proposed five new laws –Libraries serve humanity –Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated –Use technology intelligently to enhance service –Protect free access to knowledge –Honor the past and create the future
information infrastructure The amount of information grows over time. We live in the information age. Rubin claims a sense of unease. –information explosion –flood of information –bombarded by information –information overload (most widely used) Is that true?
IMHO: all wrong We can talk about an overload of data. –WWW –advertising, esp. spam –traffic signs –background music in shopping malls These things become information when they are relevant to you. Are you well-informed?
information needs Does your spouse love you? Were there ever weapons of mass destruction in Iraq? Did God create the world in 7 days? Is there a history of heart disease in your family? When is the last train before Xmas between Woodside and Brentwood that takes a bicycle?
access to information First there has to be data that encodes the information. There there has to be some way that the person with the information need finds the data if they need it. And has be some way a person is made aware of the data if there is reason to believe that it will be information to her/him. All of these are jobs of and for information professionals.
libraries they are a part of the information infrastructure that connect people with data/information. Rubin examines the place of the library in the information structure. This is matter in itself and does not need to be introduced by the debate on information overload.
information cycle information is created it is distributed it is disseminated it is used –end-use –intermediate use new information is created from old two ways to look at it –actors –channels
creators of information Rubin: –authors –artists/musicians –database producers Thomas: –archivists –educators –financial industry
products Rubin: –books –magazines –databases –web pages Thomas: –music files –records of any kind –services where information is key
product/service digital technology detaches the information from its physical container information becomes a service, rather than a product. this is a tax-relevant distinction –in Europe, there is a low VAT rate for books/journals –but electronic journals are a considered a service and get full VAT.
"servicification" of information Information is moving from product to service. To update a book –you have to print all copies anew –replace all old copies To update a web site is much easier but the web site is expected to be up-to-date. This has great potential for the information professional.
distributors Rubin: –publishers –vendors (?) can be anything –Internet service providers (?) really only arrange for transport, like pizza delivery man at most as disseminator
disseminator Rubin: –educational institutions –libraries –museums –business & government (anybody?) Thomas: –remove business, replace by advertising –leave government agencies
users This is all the rest of the community. Users may be end-consumers. Users may be authors.
disintermediation The web has brought about a possibility to dis-intermediate. Authors can directly bring content to users without the use of distributors or disseminators. However this is potential and has not been widely adopted. Good example: academic author. Bad example: real estate sales.
networks and devices Rubin examines networks and devices as an illustration of the scope taken by the information infrastructure. This is useful to get an idea, but it can not be taken as a classification or analysis of the information infrastructure.
Rubin's networks Internet Financial networks Telephone network Online services Public data network Power networks Cellular networks Broadcast TV Satellite networks Power networks Radio networks Transportation Cable TV network Public Safety networks Direct Broadcast satellite
use of information "outlets" Overall trends by Rubin –Television viewing is up broadcast television is going down cable television is going up –Video watching up –Internet usage is up strongly –Usage of print media is declining I saw a pew Internet study showing that Internet use mainly comes at cost of television watching.
print industry (Rubin probably means the contents industry) Book and e-book market is growing, but reading time remains constant. Periodicals remains steady. Printed newspaper reading is declining.
databases Database numbers are growing There is a tendency to disintermediation in vending. There is tendency away from metadata only databases towards full-text databases This implies a fuzzy border with the "print" industry If you count database purely as abstracting services they are probably declining
libraries Rubin has listed them last, and does not much have to say about them, just to say that they are evolving He has some statistics –94,345 school libraries and media centers –10,452 special libraries – 9,445 public libraries – 3,480 academic libraries – 1,326 government libraries Number of non-school libraries are falling.
Internet email and WWW They have been fastest growing media There are digital divides by race, age, income. Email has the biggest individual share, the rest are various uses of the WWW. IP phone is small but growing. Internet use is 44% from home,20% from work, 12 from school, 5% from libraries. Libraries play an important role to reduce the digital divide.
telephone system It has a dual role as –end medium –carrier of computer network traffic Cell phone usage is still growing strongly in the US. The industry as a whole still suffers from an overexpansion in the 90s
artificial intelligence This has been around for a while. The field has developed a number of theoretical tools Some of them are being used in practice now. Things like RDF, the Resource Description Framework, are based on artificial intelligence theory. It is a tool to aggregate knowledge from web resource.
http://openlib.org/home/krichel Thank you for your attention!