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Fish Effects Five-year Plan Chinook Salmon. Outline Management and Regulatory Context Management and Regulatory Context RMP objectives RMP objectives.

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Presentation on theme: "Fish Effects Five-year Plan Chinook Salmon. Outline Management and Regulatory Context Management and Regulatory Context RMP objectives RMP objectives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fish Effects Five-year Plan Chinook Salmon

2 Outline Management and Regulatory Context Management and Regulatory Context RMP objectives RMP objectives Specific questions for the next five years Specific questions for the next five years Highlights of SF Bay/Delta fish effects work Highlights of SF Bay/Delta fish effects work Priorities Priorities

3 Management Context SF Bay is critical habitat for: SF Bay is critical habitat for: Estuarine fish (e.g., Delta smelt) Estuarine fish (e.g., Delta smelt) Marine fish (e.g., herring & anchovies) Marine fish (e.g., herring & anchovies) Anadromous fish (e.g., Chinook salmon, steelhead, sturgeon) Anadromous fish (e.g., Chinook salmon, steelhead, sturgeon) 9 endangered species reside in Bay 9 endangered species reside in Bay Herring Delta Smelt

4 Management Context Many SF Bay fish are in decline: Many SF Bay fish are in decline: Shiner surfperchSource: CDFG and Delta Smelt Action Plan (2005)

5 Management Context Reasons for decline are unclear: Reasons for decline are unclear: Water diversions Water diversions Invasive species Invasive species Loss of habitat Loss of habitat Contaminants Contaminants Delta Smelt near screen Invasive asian clam Invasive cyclopoid copepod

6 Regulatory Context Few fish effect standards/guidelines exist Few fish effect standards/guidelines exist NOAA 1 ppm PAH threshold for sediments NOAA 1 ppm PAH threshold for sediments

7 Regulatory Context Few fish effect standards exist Few fish effect standards exist Basin Plan narrative objective: Basin Plan narrative objective: All waters shall be maintained free of toxic substances in concentrations that are lethal to or that produce other detrimental responses in aquatic organisms. Detrimental responses include, but are not limited to, decreased growth rate and decreased reproductive success of resident or indicator species. All waters shall be maintained free of toxic substances in concentrations that are lethal to or that produce other detrimental responses in aquatic organisms. Detrimental responses include, but are not limited to, decreased growth rate and decreased reproductive success of resident or indicator species. Chinook salmon in Santa Clara Valley watershed Delta smelt

8 RMP Objectives and Management Questions 4.0 Characterize ecological and human health risks due to pollution of the Estuary ecosystem 4.0 Characterize ecological and human health risks due to pollution of the Estuary ecosystem 4.1 Which chemicals pose ecological and human health risks and should be monitored? 4.1 Which chemicals pose ecological and human health risks and should be monitored? 4.2 What ecological and human health risks exist due to Bay pollution? 4.2 What ecological and human health risks exist due to Bay pollution? 4.3 Are management actions effective in reducing ecological and human health risks due to Bay pollution 4.3 Are management actions effective in reducing ecological and human health risks due to Bay pollution 4.4 What are the most cost-effective indicators of ecological and human health risks to support decision- making 4.4 What are the most cost-effective indicators of ecological and human health risks to support decision- making

9 Specific Questions for the Next 5 Years Are pollutants, individually or in combination, reducing viability of fish populations? Are pollutants, individually or in combination, reducing viability of fish populations? Selenium & splittail Source: Dr. Teh UC-Davis Source: Dr. David Ostrach of UC-Davis

10 Specific Questions Are pollutants, individually or in combination reducing viability of fish populations? Are pollutants, individually or in combination reducing viability of fish populations? What are appropriate thresholds for PAHs in sediments to protect fish? What are appropriate thresholds for PAHs in sediments to protect fish? English sole

11 Specific Questions Are pollutants, individually or in combination reducing viability of fish populations? Are pollutants, individually or in combination reducing viability of fish populations? What are appropriate thresholds for contaminants in sediments? What are appropriate thresholds for contaminants in sediments? What are cost-effective indicators for monitoring fish effects? What are cost-effective indicators for monitoring fish effects? English sole

12 Previous Fish Effects Work Relatively few marine fish effects studies Relatively few marine fish effects studies At PAH and PCB contaminated sites in Bay (Spies and Rice 1988), Starry flounder had: At PAH and PCB contaminated sites in Bay (Spies and Rice 1988), Starry flounder had: Higher incidence of AHH Higher incidence of AHH Poorer egg survival, decreased fertilization, and decreased embryo success Poorer egg survival, decreased fertilization, and decreased embryo success

13 Previous Fish Effects Work Field study of SF bay fish and reference site Field study of SF bay fish and reference site Increase in liver lesions in SF Bay fish correlated to higher PCB, PAH, and pesticide concentration Increase in liver lesions in SF Bay fish correlated to higher PCB, PAH, and pesticide concentration Source: Stehr et al Ecotoxicology 6, 35-65

14 RMP Fish Effects Work RMP-funded work RMP-funded work Myers et al Myers et al Significant increase in liver lesions in white croaker; difficult to correlate to contaminants to effects Significant increase in liver lesions in white croaker; difficult to correlate to contaminants to effects Spies et al Spies et al Study of effect of contaminants on growth, fitness and reproduction of shiner surfperch. Study of effect of contaminants on growth, fitness and reproduction of shiner surfperch. Skewed sex ratio; few histopathological effects; EROD somewhat ambiguous Skewed sex ratio; few histopathological effects; EROD somewhat ambiguous Kelley et al. on-going Kelley et al. on-going Evaluation of hormones/contaminants in shiner surfperch/staghorn sculpin Evaluation of hormones/contaminants in shiner surfperch/staghorn sculpin

15 Endocrine Disruption in SF Fish Shiner surfperchPacific staghorn sculpin Source: K. Kelley CSU-LB

16 Priorities for Fish Effects Link current effects work to population- level evaluations Link current effects work to population- level evaluations Identify fish effects Identify fish effects Identify suitable biomarkers of effects Identify suitable biomarkers of effects Apply models to translate individual effects to population-level effects Apply models to translate individual effects to population-level effects

17 Priorities for Fish Effects High priority pollutants High priority pollutants PAHs PAHs PCBs PCBs Endocrine disruptors Endocrine disruptors Others? Others? Lower priority pollutants Lower priority pollutants Legacy pesticides Legacy pesticides Trace metals Trace metals Others? Others?

18 Priorities for Fish Effects Evaluate thresholds for decision-making in the Bay Evaluate thresholds for decision-making in the Bay PAH threshold PAH threshold Implement use of fish effect indicators in S&T triennial sportfish monitoring Implement use of fish effect indicators in S&T triennial sportfish monitoring Liver lesions Liver lesions Gonad histopathology Gonad histopathology Incidence of parasites Incidence of parasites Others? Others?

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