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HSM Overview for Grid Computing

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Presentation on theme: "HSM Overview for Grid Computing"— Presentation transcript:

1 HSM Overview for Grid Computing
Dave Madden, Business Development Safenet Inc.

2 The Foundation of Information Security
Encryption experts with 25 year history of HARDWARE security protection for: Communications Intellectual Property Rights Data and Identities Global Company with Local Service Headquartered in Maryland, USA Regional headquarters in Camberley, UK Hong Kong 30 + offices located in more than 20 counties Encryption technology heritage 43 patents issued, 31 patents pending Majority of the leading security vendors embed SafeNet’s technology in their offerings Fastest Growing Networking Company – 2005 1. Not necessarily supported by SafeNet

3 PKI Overview What is a Digital ID? What is a PKI? What is an HSM?
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO PKI Overview 27/03/2017 What is a Digital ID? What is a PKI? What is an HSM? How are these used? SafeNet Confidential

4 What is a Digital Identity?
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO What is a Digital Identity? 27/03/2017 An asymmetric key pair assigned to a particular individual Implemented using a digital certificate Contains information about you…name etc. plus your public key Certificate is digitally signed by a trusted source It’s like issuing a digital passport Therefore the keys are important to protect – not the locks! John Smith Certified & Signed by: Private Key Public Key What is Digital Identity? A Digital Identity is the representation of a human identity that is used in a distributed network interaction with other machines or people. The purpose of the Digital Identity is to restore the ease and security human transactions once had, when we all knew each other and did business face-to-face, to a machine environment where we are often meeting each other for the first time as we enter into transactions over vast distances. Attributes of a Digital Identity A Digital Identity only needs to be as complete as a particular transaction requires. That is to say, some transactions require a far more robust Digital Identity than others, since the degree of trust and information required can vary significantly based on the type of transaction. A Digital Identity consists of two parts: Who one is (identity) The credentials that one holds (attributes of that identity). These credentials define a Digital Identity, and they can be quite varied, of widely differing value, and have many different uses. The full Digital Identity is quite intricate and has legal as well as technical implications (here is a MIT white paper on the subject that will give you the idea.) However, the simplest possible Digital Identity consists of an ID (such as a user name) and an authentication secret (such as a password). In this simplest Digital Identity the user name is the identity while the password is said to be the authentication credential. As computerized systems become more networked and distributed, Digital Identity must become more robust to make complex distributed user interactions easy while achieving the required control and security. Ultimately Digital Identity will become as complex and flexible in use as a real-world human identity. A Digital Identity can facilitate the following operations: Authentication - Proving the Digital Identity is what it is representing itself to be in the transaction Authorization - Gaining permission to access certain data or program applications Confidentiality - Assuring that an unauthorized party cannot usefully intercept the data being transmitted Data Integrity - Assuring that the data has not been tampered with during transmission Proof of Source - Using public/private key encryption to assure the origination source of a document Non-Repudiation - Using public/private key encryption to verify the source and destination entity of a transaction Reputation - Aggregating signed information from various sources as credentials based on past transaction history A Digital Identity allows transactions in which the parties are separated in time and space while retaining the ability of these transactions to contain all of the human identity based attributes that transactions between people have always had. The ability to have third party transactions such as power of attorney, agency, and others handled through Digital Identity are just some of the types of attributes that the Digital Identity will grow to have. (For a complete white paper discussion of these attributes of a Digital Identity, click here.) The human context must be restored to the impersonal, distributed, networked communications world where transactions arise ad hoc. Often one or more of the parties to such transactions is an automated computerized system that has to operate on a set of rules that require certain identity information, the release of which must be negotiated with its owner. Accomplishing this very personal task in an inherently impersonal setting is the purpose of the Digital Identity. CA John Smith How do you use your digital identity? Use your private key digitally sign documents Others verify your signature with the public key on your certificate SafeNet Confidential

5 UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO What is a PKI? 27/03/2017 A Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a system to deploy and manage digital identities Issue digital identities Revoke digital identities Publish public keys via directories John Smith John Smith Certified by: John Smith Certified by: John Smith Certified by: A Public Key Infrastructure consists of software and procedures put in place by an organization to support the use of Public Keys for authentication--in identifying users, services, and confirming digital signatures. Public keys usually conform to the X.509 standard for certificates, and usually are based on the RSA public/private key encryption algorithm--if you encrypt with the public key, you can only decrypt with the private key, or you can encrypt with the private and decrypt only with the public key. You keep your private key a closely guarded secret, but the public key can be given out to anyone whom you want to be able to verify that a message or file really did originate from you. CA SafeNet Confidential

6 What is a Hardware Security Module (HSM)?
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 27/03/2017 What is a Hardware Security Module (HSM)? Security: A device to keep private keys “close to your chest” Performance: Accelerate encryption operations to eliminate bottlenecks Audit: Provides a clear audit trail for all key materials: SAS70 / SOX / PCI / HIPPA / HSPD12 etc. Wide range of Security, Performance, Scalability & Price They are devices for keeping keys in hardware- making the keys secure Since the Keys underpin all the security mechanisms discussed- it is important that they are kept secure Keeping a Key in Hardware means that you can control when, where, and how it is used We have models that NEVER allow the key to be exported (sometimes even for backup) They Perform Cryptographic Operations on those Keys- sometime very fast (acceleration) Since most of the asymmetric crypto operations are very computationally expensive- the HSM needs to perform them quickly They come in a variety of form factors Attached to a network Embedded in a Server Portable Password Authenticated or 2 factor Authenticated They offer different programming interfaces PKCS11, JCE, CAPI Smart Card/USB Rack mount appliance PCMCIA/PCI Client security Mid-security High-security SafeNet Confidential

7 How are Digital IDs, PKI and HSMs Used?
Suppliers, Partners, Contractors Salomon Smith Barney concluded over 80% of Fortune 500 using PKI used SafeNet HSMs to protect their root key Signed RFPs B2B Internet Customers, Employees Back-end Systems & Databases System Access Root Certificate Authority Certificate Issuance Subordinate CAs Sub-CA certificates

8 Types of HSMs Embedded HSMs Network HSMs Application Security Modules
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Types of HSMs 27/03/2017 Embedded HSMs Network HSMs Application Security Modules SafeNet Confidential

9 Embedded HSMs PCI PCMCIA permanently installed removable cartridge
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Embedded HSMs 27/03/2017 PCI permanently installed PCMCIA removable cartridge FIPS level 2 or 3 Acceleration from 10’s to 1000’s signatures/sec* Standard APIs PKCS#11, CAPI, OpenSSL, JCE/JCA * asymmetric encryptions/second using the industry standard 1024 bit RSA algorithm SafeNet Confidential

10 Network HSMs Same cryptographic functionality as embedded HSMs
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Network HSMs 27/03/2017 Standard I/F Network HSM PKCS#11 MS-CAPI OpenSSL Java JCE/JCA Same cryptographic functionality as embedded HSMs HSM can be shared by multiple application servers over the network Keys are stored and managed centrally Reduced hardware and operations costs SafeNet Confidential

11 Application Security Modules
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Application Security Modules 27/03/2017 Application code Programmable I/F HTML XML Other… Protects encryption keys with onboard HSM Also protects the application code that uses the keys Programmable custom interfaces e.g. HTML, XML Create sealed transaction appliances that integrate application code with cryptographic operations More secure and easier to deploy SafeNet Confidential

12 What is a High Assurance HSM?
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO What is a High Assurance HSM? 27/03/2017 Keys Always in Hardware True Trusted Path Authentication Premium Certifications SafeNet Confidential

13 SafeNet Advantage: 3 Layers of HW Security
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 27/03/2017 SafeNet Advantage: 3 Layers of HW Security Creation Tamper Resistant Hardware Storage Destruction Hardware- Secured Key Lifecycle 2 1 Multi-Person Two-Factor Access Control 3 Usage 1 Distribution 3DES Key Encryption Safenet built its products as the basis for protecting customers vital keys. No other vendor has the ability to protect keys in FIPS validated hardware SafeNet uses a 3 layer security model as the basis for designing hardware systems The First layer – is software security which is primarily concerned with maintaining the integrity of the software execution environment. Specifically, the goal of this layer ,via 3DES encryption technology, is to create an isolation barrier around the software environment such that it is difficult or impossible to introduce any rogue code The Second layer – is the operational security layer which is concerned with the procedures and mechanisms that are used to authenticate and control the access to the system. In particular this layer addresses the problem of legitimate users engaging in illegitimate activity by limiting access control via a Pin Entry Device – which is similar to the procedure to operate a nuclear submarine The Third layer – hardware security includes a tamper proof hardware device to create a physical isolation barrier required to defend against all forms of physical attack. In addition, unlike other HSM vendors, SafeNet always stores the private keys in hardware! Software cannot meet audit requirements for protecting vital corporate root keys SafeNet Confidential

14 Luna Advantage: Multi-Person Authenticated Access
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO Luna Advantage: Multi-Person Authenticated Access 27/03/2017 This is an example of dual access control in grant operation for the keys on a Luna Product. In the real world, we will typically see customers use a minimum of 3 people who have to come together to log into our device to allow access to the keys for using the keys on the HSM. The Operational Security model Depends on 2-factor authentication as a minimum For enhanced security to protect against a single-person attack by someone with legitimate 2-factor credentials, need to use multi-person authentication In this case, the server will not grant admin access until the the minimum number of security operators have been authenticated Once the server has granted admin access, every action is logged and signed showing which authenticated operator performed which operation. These 3 mechanisms: provide a strong combination of access control and deterrent as barriers to would-be attackers. 2-Factor Authentication 2-Factor Authentication + Password Password + + Multi-person Authentication SafeNet Confidential

15 PC Keyboard is not a Trusted Path
Before After Keyboard sniffer costs about $100 Installs in about 10 seconds Is electronically undetectable Records 65,000 keystrokes

16 HSM Certifications NIST FIPS Certificates, see: Certificates include: 8, 29, 38, 39, 56, 57, 58, 168, 173, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 220, 270, 375, 436 Domus is our certification laboratory for FIPS certifications Common Criteria EAL 4+ Certificate, see: or u=9&orderindex=1&showcatagories=-33 Electronic Warfare Associates (EWA) Canada was the certification body for Common Criteria Digital Signature Law Validation

17 How are HSMs Used for PKI?
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 27/03/2017 How are HSMs Used for PKI? Protect Root keys Issue Keys to Sub CAs, Servers and Users Sign transactions Offload crypto operations A few real world examples… Keys in HW- Keys in HW Embedded Java apps SafeNet Confidential

18 HSMs: High-Availability and Disaster Recovery
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 27/03/2017 HSMs: High-Availability and Disaster Recovery Operational Disaster Recovery PKI CA PKI CA Online Hot Standby Online Hot Standby In this example, Luna CA3 is used as the HSM for PKI root key protection in a High Availability configuration with Disaster Recovery and additional keys stored securely in a safe. The customer would require several systems for hardware security throughout the infrastructure. We do have many joint customer today using this exact configuration. Physical Backup Physical Backup SafeNet Confidential

19 Securing Banking Transactions
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 27/03/2017 Securing Banking Transactions Large Banks SafeNet HSM SafeNet HSM Small Banks Applications Financial Transaction Infrastructure Payments & Cash Mgt Treasury & Derivatives Trade services Pre-Settlement/trade Clearing services Custody services Certificate Authority No matter the organizations size, there is a security solution that will work… Access Control via 2 or 3 factor Applications SafeNet HSM Key Management SSL Acceleration FIPS certified Directory SafeNet Confidential

20 Example - Manufacturing with PKI- IP Phones
Manufacturing CA Luna HSM 1 2 3 4 IP Phone The IP phone requests a certificate from the manufacturing certificate authority. (1) The certificate authority generates a new certificate that the Luna HSM signs with the root key. (2) The certificate is sent to the IP phone. (3) The IP phone now has a unique digital identity that is stamped into the phone by Cisco’s. (4) Revised 5/9/2007 SafeNet, Inc. Company Confidential 4 of 5 HSM SSK

21 secure sensitive code or place applications in untrusted environments
Toolkits 3rd Party or Customer Developed Host Application PKCS#11, Java, CAPI, OpenSSL, Custom, XML WSDL, Payments API’s Windows, Solaris, Linux, HP UX, AIX, Solaris Networked to single or multiple SSM smart card Write your own applications and load them directly onto the device secure sensitive code or place applications in untrusted environments Early-stage development all in Software

22 What to look for in an HSM?
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 27/03/2017 What to look for in an HSM? Certified by Standards Bodies Performance Level of security Auditability Ease of integration Ease of management Flexibility in use Scalability (multiple partitions) High Availability & Disaster Recovery Keys in always in hardware Keys in HW- Keys in HW Embedded Java apps SafeNet Confidential

23 Best Practices for Hardware Security Modules
UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO 27/03/2017 Best Practices for Hardware Security Modules ü Hardware-secured key generation Controlled physical access Hardware-secured key storage Host independent 2-factor authentication Hardware-secured key backup Enforced operational roles Hardware-secured digital signing Independent Audit PKI authenticated software FIPS & Common Criteria validation SafeNet Confidential

24 SafeNet – Strongest HSM Offering
Global and Stable organization: 25 years in security Broadest HSM product Suite from USB to Network Attached Best Toolkit offering featuring: Well documented API’s: OpenSSL, XML, PKCS#11, Java, CAPI A Software Emulation “HSM” for development PPO and Java environments to host and secure code as well as Keys Global F1000 trust SafeNet HSM to: Secure their 3rd Party Applications Develop on for their own security applications Deploy in house and in untrusted environments

25 Contact Details Dave Madden, Business Development Safenet Inc.

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