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© 2006 Open Grid Forum Semantic Annotation of Service Level Agreement A lightweight annotation approach of WS- Agreement based specifications Ioannis Kotsiopoulos – The University of Manchester firstname.lastname@example.org OGF25/EGEE User Forum Catania, Italy March 5 2009 Catania, Italy March 5 2009 GRAAP-WG
© 2006 Open Grid Forum 2 OGF IPR Policies Apply I acknowledge that participation in this meeting is subject to the OGF Intellectual Property Policy. Intellectual Property Notices Note Well: All statements related to the activities of the OGF and addressed to the OGF are subject to all provisions of Appendix B of GFD-C.1, which grants to the OGF and its participants certain licenses and rights in such statements. Such statements include verbal statements in OGF meetings, as well as written and electronic communications made at any time or place, which are addressed to: the OGF plenary session, any OGF working group or portion thereof, the OGF Board of Directors, the GFSG, or any member thereof on behalf of the OGF, the ADCOM, or any member thereof on behalf of the ADCOM, any OGF mailing list, including any group list, or any other list functioning under OGF auspices, the OGF Editor or the document authoring and review process Statements made outside of a OGF meeting, mailing list or other function, that are clearly not intended to be input to an OGF activity, group or function, are not subject to these provisions. Excerpt from Appendix B of GFD-C.1: Where the OGF knows of rights, or claimed rights, the OGF secretariat shall attempt to obtain from the claimant of such rights, a written assurance that upon approval by the GFSG of the relevant OGF document(s), any party will be able to obtain the right to implement, use and distribute the technology or works when implementing, using or distributing technology based upon the specific specification(s) under openly specified, reasonable, non- discriminatory terms. The working group or research group proposing the use of the technology with respect to which the proprietary rights are claimed may assist the OGF secretariat in this effort. The results of this procedure shall not affect advancement of document, except that the GFSG may defer approval where a delay may facilitate the obtaining of such assurances. The results will, however, be recorded by the OGF Secretariat, and made available. The GFSG may also direct that a summary of the results be included in any GFD published containing the specification. OGF Intellectual Property Policies are adapted from the IETF Intellectual Property Policies that support the Internet Standards Process.
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Presentation Outline Motivation, problem area Proposed Specification Objectives Annotation Mechanisms Annotating WS-Agreement Documents WS-Agreement Support
© 2006 Open Grid Forum 4 SLA Context Contract in the market between customer providers required to protect both customers and providers in the process of service trading The Service Level Agreement is a legal relationship between the two and forms part of a legally binding contract. Information specified in the SLA: Terms for the provision of the service (service description) Quality of service (QoS) level to be maintain Information about resources to be provided The liability to compensation if SLAs are not met. The contract is the result of a negotiation process between both parties about WS Agreement standard which defines the SLA specification and the templates required for negotiation Open marketplace: Providers and consumers are collaborating on a global scale competing for offering and consuming services Entities can enter in the market without any predefined agreement 4
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Motivation WS-Agreement covers the syntactic aspects of the protocol definition for the establishment of agreement between two parties a schema for specifying an agreement, a schema for specifying an agreement template, and a set of port types and operations for managing agreement life-cycle, including creation, expiration, and monitoring of agreement states. 5
© 2006 Open Grid Forum WS-Agreement Non-Goals Quote from WS-Agreement spec (Section 1.1.2 page 6) Defining specific service level objective terms for a specific usage domain such as network, server, applications, etc. Defining Specification of metrics associated with agreement parameters i.e., how and where these are measured Specification assumes that other complimentary specifications will address these requirements
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Semantic Annotation of SLAs What is a Semantic Annotation? What does it bring into the table? Does everyone has to use them? What happens if my tool fails to deal with them? Can I see an example? 7
© 2006 Open Grid Forum What is a Semantic Annotation? It is a reference to conceptual model - ontology Conceptual Model/Ontology An agreed upon model that captures the semantics of domain Common Nomenclature Domain Knowledge (facts) Using this link we can get richer semantic information about a concept defined outside WS- Agreement Formal semantics allow machines to interpret the meaning of a concept 8
© 2006 Open Grid Forum What do Semantics bring into the table? Improved interoperability between service providers and clients Beyond syntax to semantics, mapping of data exchanged between the negotiating parties (very time consuming without semantics, just as XML in WS-Agreement gives syntactic interoperability, SA-SLA gives semantic interoperability) Increased automation in certain tasks where precise understanding of metadata is required i.e. SLA negotiation 9
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Does everyone have to use them? No! Annotation Styles Intrusive: require modification of XML schema Non-intrusive: use extensibility point of XML schema Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema (SAWSDL) SAWSDL is a W3C recommendation and in stable format SA-SLA Specification is backward compatible If annotation is found then extra reasoning is feasible If NOT then negotiation algorithm continues normal operation 10
© 2006 Open Grid Forum 11 Example Provider 2 Price = 100 Availability: 95% AverageResponseTimeGuarantee: 0.5 seconds Provider 1 Coste = 210 Disponibilidad: 85% Tiempo de respuesta 1,5 horas Customer Prix < 200 Disponibilité > 90% Temps de réponse < 2,1 heures Negotiation Different languages, different metrics
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Example of Semantic Annotation Definition of Quality of Service Metric Total Cost Metric The annotation carries a reference to a concept in a semantic model (in this case BREIN Business Ontology) that provides a high level description of a Quality of Service metric which can be interpreted by the Negotiation Broker in a meaningful way. Agreed Conceptual Model
© 2006 Open Grid Forum 13 SA-SLA Tools and Applications Tools SASLA4j library: To work with SA-SLA files SASLA processing: Algorithm to value SLA template offers with respect to customers requirements SA-SLA GUI: Tool to create WS-Agreement templates and annotate by SA-SLA specification SA-SLA repository Applications Service and Resource Selection Based on non-functional properties specified in the SLA templates annotated with SA-SLA Semantic enabled Negotiation
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Annotation tool I
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Annotation tool II
© 2006 Open Grid Forum SLA Template Selector 16
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Conclusion and outlook Proposed specification can address certain interoperability issues during automated negotiation of SLAs Using semantic technologies in a non-intrusive way addresses the issue of backwards compatibility and eases development of tools Our proposal is based on existing standards (WS- Agreement, Trustcom, SAWSDL) Proposed specification can be released within 2009 Supporting toolkit is under development Some components are already complete Ontologies will be released to the community
© 2006 Open Grid Forum Thank you for listening Any questions? Acknowledgements Henar Munoz Frutos (TID), Bastian Koller (HLRS) Ignacio Soler Jubert (ATOS) The Semantic Group of the BREIN Consortium John Brooke and Carole Goble (University of Manchester) Henar Munoz Frutos (TID), Bastian Koller (HLRS) Ignacio Soler Jubert (ATOS) The Semantic Group of the BREIN Consortium John Brooke and Carole Goble (University of Manchester) Acknowledgements
© 2006 Open Grid Forum 19 Full Copyright Notice Copyright (C) Open Grid Forum (applicable years). All Rights Reserved. This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works. The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by the OGF or its successors or assignees.
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