Presentation on theme: "Advanced Operating Systems Prof. Muhammad Saeed. February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems2 The part of the operating system that makes the choice of."— Presentation transcript:
Advanced Operating Systems Prof. Muhammad Saeed
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems2 The part of the operating system that makes the choice of the process is called the scheduler, and the algorithm it uses is called the scheduling algorithm.
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems3 The part of the operating system that makes the choice of the process is called the scheduler, and the algorithm it uses is called the scheduling algorithm.
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems4 The separation of mechanism and policy is a design principle in computer science. It states that mechanisms (those parts of a system implementation that control the authorization of operations and the allocation of resources) should not dictate (or overly restrict) the policies according to which decisions are made about which operations to authorize, and which resources to allocate.
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems5 Scheduling the processor among all ready processes The goal is to achieve: High processor utilization High throughput number of processes completed per of unit time Low response time time elapsed from the submission of a request until the first response is produced
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems6 Long-term: which process to admit? Medium-term: which process to swap in or out? Short-term: which ready process to execute next?
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February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems8 Determines which programs are admitted to the system for processing Controls the degree of multiprogramming Attempts to keep a balanced mix of processor-bound and I/O-bound processes CPU usage System performance Makes swapping decisions based on the current degree of multiprogramming Controls which remains resident in memory and which jobs must be swapped out to reduce degree of multiprogramming
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems9 Selects from among ready processes in memory which one is to execute next The selected process is allocated the CPU It is invoked on events that may lead to choose another process for execution: Clock interrupts I/O interrupts Operating system calls and traps Signals
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems10 The selection function determines which ready process is selected next for execution The decision mode specifies the instants in time the selection function is exercised Nonpreemptive Once a process is in the running state, it will continue until it terminates or blocks for an I/O Preemptive Currently running process may be interrupted and moved to the Ready state by the OS Prevents one process from monopolizing the processor
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems11 The dispatcher is the module that gives control of the CPU to the process selected by the short-term scheduler The functions of the dispatcher include: Switching context Switching to user mode Jumping to the location in the user program to restart execution The dispatch latency must be minimal Context Switching: Saving and loading registers and memory maps, updating various tables and lists, flushing and reloading the memory cache, and so on.
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems12 Processes require alternate use of processor and I/O in a repetitive fashion Each cycle consist of a CPU burst followed by an I/O burst A process terminates on a CPU burst CPU-bound processes have longer CPU bursts than I/O-bound processes
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems13 User-oriented criteria Response Time: Elapsed time between the submission of a request and the receipt of a response Turnaround Time: Elapsed time between the submission of a process to its completion System-oriented criteria Processor utilization Throughput: number of process completed per unit time fairness
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems14 First-Come, First-Served Scheduling Shortest-Job-First Scheduling Also referred to as Shortest Process Next Priority Scheduling Round-Robin Scheduling Multilevel Queue Scheduling Multilevel Feedback Queue Scheduling
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems15 Process Arrival Time Service Time Service time = total processor time needed in one (CPU-I/O) cycle Jobs with long service time are CPU-bound jobs and are referred to as long jobs
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems16 Selection function: the process that has been waiting the longest in the ready queue (hence, FCFS) Decision mode: non-preemptive a process runs until it blocks for an I/O
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems17 Favors CPU-bound processes A CPU-bound process monopolizes the processor I/O-bound processes have to wait until completion of CPU-bound process I/O-bound processes may have to wait even after their I/Os are completed (poor device utilization) Better I/O device utilization could be achieved if I/O bound processes had higher priority
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems18 Possibility of starvation for longer processes Lack of preemption is not suitable in a time sharing environment SJF/SPN implicitly incorporates priorities Shortest jobs are given preferences CPU bound process have lower priority, but a process doing no I/O could still monopolize the CPU if it is the first to enter the system
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems19 If the metric is turnaround time (response time), is SJF or FCFS better? For FCFS, resp_time=( )/5 = ? Note that Rfcfs = 3+(3+6)+(3+6+4)+…. = ? For SJF, resp_time=( )/5 = ? Note that Rfcfs = 3+(3+6)+(3+6+4)+…. = ? Which one is smaller? Is this always the case?
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems20 Take each scheduling discipline, they both choose the same subset of jobs (first k jobs). At some point, each discipline chooses a different job (FCFS chooses k1 SJF chooses k2) Rfcfs=nR1+(n-1)R2+…+(n-k1)Rk1+….+(n-k2) Rk2+….+Rn Rsjf=nR1+(n-1)R2+…+(n-k2)Rk2+….+(n-k1) Rk1+….+Rn Which one is smaller? Rfcfs or Rsjf?
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems21 Implemented by having multiple ready queues to represent each level of priority Scheduler the process of a higher priority over one of lower priority Lower-priority may suffer starvation To alleviate starvation allow dynamic priorities The priority of a process changes based on its age or execution history
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems22 Clock interrupt is generated at periodic intervals When an interrupt occurs, the currently running process is placed in the read queue Next ready job is selected Known as time slicing Uses preemption based on a clock An amount of time is determined that allows each process to use the processor for that length of time
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems23 Selection function: same as FCFS Decision mode: preemptive a process is allowed to run until the time slice period (quantum, typically from 10 to 100 ms) has expired a clock interrupt occurs and the running process is put on the ready queue
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems24 Quantum must be substantially larger than the time required to handle the clock interrupt and dispatching Quantum should be larger then the typical interaction but not much larger, to avoid penalizing I/O bound processes
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February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems26 Still favors CPU-bound processes An I/O bound process uses the CPU for a time less than the time quantum before it is blocked waiting for an I/O A CPU-bound process runs for all its time slice and is put back into the ready queue May unfairly get in front of blocked processes
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems27 Preemptive scheduling with dynamic priorities N ready to execute queues with decreasing priorities: P(RQ0) > P(RQ1) >... > P(RQN) Dispatcher selects a process for execution from RQi only if RQi-1 to RQ0 are empty New process are placed in RQ0 After the first quantum, they are moved to RQ1 after the first quantum, and to RQ2 after the second quantum, … and to RQN after the Nth quantum I/O-bound processes remain in higher priority queues. CPU-bound jobs drift downward. Hence, long jobs may starve
February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems28 Different RQs may have different quantum values
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February 11, 2014Advanced Operating Systems31 Give processes lottery tickets for various system resources, such as CPU time. Whenever a scheduling decision has to be made, a lottery ticket is chosen at random, and the process holding that ticket gets the resource. When applied to CPU scheduling, the system might hold a lottery 50 times a second, with each winner getting 20 msec of CPU time as a prize. More important processes can be given extra tickets, to increase their odds of winning. If there are 100 tickets outstanding, and one process holds 20 of them, it will have a 20% chance of winning each lottery. In the long run, it will get about 20% of the CPU. In contrast to a priority scheduler, where it is very hard to state what having a priority of 40 actually means, here the rule is clear: a process holding a fraction f of the tickets will get about a fraction f of the resource in question.
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