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Pressure groups in the USA Quick quiz Katy Ivey Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Key pressure groups: what do these acronyms stand for? 1.NRA 2.AARP 3.ACLU 4.NOW 5.AIPAC 6.NAACP 7.AMA 8.LCV 9.ABA 10.NFIB Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Pressure group activities: define the following 1.Direct action 2.Lobbying 3.‘Revolving door’ 4.Clientelism 5.‘Iron triangles’ 6.Pluralism 7.Elitism 8.PAC 9.Super PAC Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Examples of pressure group activities 1.Which pressure group compiles the ‘Dirty Dozen’ list and are they successful? 2.Which pressure group successfully campaigned against George W. Bush’s changes to social security (pensions)? 3.Which two weapons manufacturers dominate military spending in the USA? 4.Which pressure group sponsored Oliver Brown in the case of Brown v. Board (1954)? 5.Which pressure group provides ratings for Supreme Court nominees? Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Pressure groups, Congress and the Supreme Court 1.Why do 99% of all pressure groups seek to testify at Congressional committee hearings? 2.Which law prohibited pressure groups from donating directly to Congressional candidates? 3.ACLU is very active in pursuing court cases. Give an example of when the Supreme Court has ruled in its favour. 4.A record 148 Amicus Curiae briefs were filed in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) which decided on same-sex marriage. What are amicus briefs? 5.How did the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act (2007) limit lobbying? Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Acronyms: answers 1.NRA – National Rifle Association 2.AARP – American Association of Retired Persons 3.ACLU – American Civil Liberties Union 4.NOW – National Organization of Women 5.AIPAC – American Israel Public Affairs Committee 6.NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 7.AMA – American Medical Association 8.LCV – League of Conservation Voters 9.ABA – American Bar Association 10.NFIB – National Federation of Independent Business Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Definitions: answers 1.Direct action – A method used by pressure groups to gain publicity and raise awareness of issues. This is usually a sign that they are outsiders. E.g. Occupy. 2.Lobbying – An attempt to exert influence on policy-making, legislative or judicial process by individuals or organised groups. Opensecrets.org publishes details of lobbying activities (www.opensecrets.org/lobby/); total expenditure on lobbying in 2014 was $3.24 billion.www.opensecrets.org/lobby/ 3.‘Revolving door’ – The process by which former legislators or bureaucrats work for lobbying firms to use their expertise and contacts to lobby the institution of which they were once a member, e.g. The Ashcroft Group. While this was limited in the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, there is evidence that the revolving door still operates by stealth.stealth Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Definitions: answers 4.Clientelism – When agencies serve the interests of those they are supposed to be overseeing, usually at the expense of the public interest. E.g. MMS allowed BP to complete its own safety checks on Deepwater Horizon so it could collect revenue from drilling.safety checks 5.‘Iron triangles’ – A strong relationship between a pressure group, the relevant congressional committee and a government department in an attempt to guarantee outcomes to the benefit of all three, e.g. the military-industrial complex.the military-industrial complex 6.Pluralism – Dahl’s book Who Governs argues that ‘an active and legitimate group can make itself heard efficiently at some stage in the decision making process’. No law prevents any pressure group from campaigning on any issue. Indeed, it is encouraged by the first amendment and Supreme Court rulings such as Snyder v. Phelps (2011). Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Definitions: answers 7.Elitism – C. Wright Mills argued in The Power Elite that America was controlled by a small elite of wealthy and powerful individuals acting in their own interests. For example, the vitamin supplement industry in the USA is largely unregulated, partially due to the campaign donations to Tom Harkin and Orrin Hatch.Tom Harkin and Orrin Hatch 8.PAC – A group which donates directly to a candidate (usually connected to a PG). It aims to raise and spend money to elect and defeat candidates. They are limited to $5,000 in receipts and expenditures by FECA. E.g. AT&T PAC donates roughly equally to both parties.AT&T PAC 9.Super PAC – A group which cannot donate directly to a candidate but can spend unlimited amounts independently of a candidate. E.g. Restore Our Future spent $142m in 2012 (video explaining super PACs).video explaining super PACs Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Examples of activities: answers 1.Which pressure group compiles the ‘Dirty Dozen’ list and are they successful? League of Conservation Voters; critics argue that candidates targeted for defeat are likely to lose anyway.League of Conservation Voters 2.Which pressure group successfully campaigned against George W. Bush’s changes to social security (pensions)? AARP 3.Which two weapons manufacturers dominate military spending in the USA? Lockheed Martin and Boeing 4.Which pressure group sponsored Oliver Brown in the case of Brown v. Board (1954)? NAACP 5.Which pressure group provides ratings for Supreme Court nominees? ABA, though the Federalist Society provided ratings for G. W. Bush Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Pressure groups, Congress and the Supreme Court: answers 1.Why do 99% of all pressure groups seek to testify at Congressional committee hearings? Because Congressional committees write legislation 2.Which law prohibited pressure groups from donating directly to Congressional candidates? FECA 3.ACLU is very active in pursuing court cases. Give an example of when the Supreme Court has ruled in its favour. Reno v. ACLU (1997)Reno v. ACLU (1997) 4.A record 148 Amicus Curiae briefs were filed in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) which decided on same-sex marriage. What are amicus briefs? ‘Friends of the court’ can submit information when the Supreme Court hears cases relating to their own interests. 5.How did the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act (2007) limit lobbying? This aimed to close the ‘revolving door’ by preventing former legislators from lobbying for a year after leaving office. It also banned lobbyists from ‘wining and dining’ (paying for meals and trips for) members of Congress. Philip Allan Publishers © 2015
Interest Groups Chapter 7. Types of Interest Groups Economic – Labor unions, agricultural, Business, Professional Consumer – public interest, environmental.
Interest Groups Organization of people with similar policy goals that tries to influence the political process to try to achieve those goals.
Interest Groups. The Role of Interest Groups Interest group: an organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several.
Interest Groups Chapter 16.
Review 1.What is the primary goal of Interest Groups? 2.Give 3 reasons behind the growth of Interest Groups in the United States 3.What are the reasons.
Interest Groups as Linkage Institutions. Interest Groups as Factions Madison (Federalist 10) – his description of factions defines the interest groups.
Warm-up: What does this cartoon suggest about lobbying?
Chapter 9 Interest Groups. Interest groups exist to make demands on the government and usually deal with ideological, public interest, foreign policy,
INTEREST GROUPS. Learning Objectives 12. Identify the different incentives that motivate people to join interest groups. 13. Compare types of interest.
Interest Groups Linkage Institutions. Interest Groups Organized group of individuals seeking to influence the government and policies *they operate.
Why so many Interest Groups? Diversity – “The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man.” Numerous points of access to government. Weakening.
Interest Groups Chapter 11. The Role and Reputation of Interest Groups Defining Interest Groups – An organization of people with shared interests; they.
I. Introduction A. Definition 1. An organization that shares policy views and attempt to influence public policy 2. They operate at every level of government.
Begin $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 PrimariesInterestGroupsConstitutionalClauses Political Beliefs RandomImportantCourtCases.
Which INTEREST GROUPS do you (or might you someday) belong to? Interest group: A collection of people who share certain views on public matters and work.
Chapter 9 Review Interest Groups. How does PAC spending on campaign funds compare to that of presidential campaign funds?
Interest Groups Chapter 11. The Role and Reputation of Interest Groups Defining Interest Groups Organization of people with shared policy goals entering.
Homework: Read Wilson, Chapter 9 ( ) and take notes Read Woll, Chapter 5, “Interest Groups and the American Political System” ( )
Interest Groups. Federal Budget Basics Constitutional roots Congress shall make no law…abridging …the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and.
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