Presentation on theme: "Parliamentary Procedures AKA: Robert’s Rules of Order"— Presentation transcript:
1 Parliamentary Procedures AKA: Robert’s Rules of Order Mike Schnoke, CM
2 MeetingsMeetings are indispensable when you don't want to do anything. - John Kenneth Galbraith
3 Name, Rank and Serial Number Company/ChapterPosition in ChapterWhat you expect from tonightSomething else you would like to share with us
4 Parliamentary Procedure HistoryWhat Is Parliamentary Procedure?Why is Parliamentary Procedure Important?Using PP for meetings
5 History English Parliament Journal 1580 Virginia House of Burgesses 1619Jefferson’s Manual 1801; others followedHenry M. Robert1863, Captain, New Bedford MA meeting1876, Brig. Gen., Pocket Manual, “vanity publication” by Griggs & Co.1912, Roberts Rules, Revised – modern format1923, Family trusteeship1970, Robert’s Rules of Order, Newly Revised2000, RONR, 10th EditionRather than being a recent development, parliamentary law can be traced back many centuries. Anglo-Saxon tribes in England were following basic rules similar to parliamentary procedure by the fifth century A.D. These rules were later improved by the early English Parliament. It is from the word "Parliament" that we get the term "parliamentary procedure."Although originating in Britain, parliamentary law has seen its greatest development in America. In 1801 Thomas Jefferson compiled a manual of parliamentary practices. This handbook became the basis for the rules followed by the United States Congress. A later book by Luther Cushing of Massachusetts further spread the use of parliamentary procedure to voluntary organizations.The use of parliamentary procedure did not become widespread in the United States until Henry Martyn Robert published his famous Rules of Order in Robert's Rules of Order established a systematic method for organizing and conducting meetings. This widely-used book has gone through nine editions since the first publication and has sold over four million copies.Parliamentary procedure today takes many forms. Although Robert's Rules is most popular, a number of other well-known parliamentary guides exist. For example, dental societies often use Sturgis Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure. Labor unions frequently use Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law and Procedure. Many governmental bodies such as the North Carolina General Assembly adopt their own rules of order. Most corporations and organizations supplement guides such as Robert's with the adoption of bylaws and other rules.
6 Robert’s Rules of Order [A] very brief pocket manual, so cheap that every member of a church or society could own a copy, and so arranged as to enable one quickly to find when any particular motion could be made.- Henry M. Robert, describing his vision of his Rules Smedley The Great Peacemaker
8 PP and RONRParliamentary procedure is not synonymous with the book Robert's Rules of Order "RONR".Various versions of Robert’s Rules of Order are used by approximately 80% of organizations in the United States.The second most commonly used parliamentary authority is Sturgis Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, used by approximately 15% of groups (particularly physicians and dentists).The third most popular parliamentary manual is Demeter's Manual of Parliamentary Law and Procedure, used by about 5% of groups (particularly unions).Other well-known parliamentary texts include Riddick’s Rules of Procedure, Mason’s Manual of Legislative Procedure (used by many legislatures), and Bourinot’s Rules of Order (used in Canada).What Is Parliamentary Procedure?It is a set of rules for conduct at meetings, that allows everyone to be heard and to make decisions without confusion.
9 Who should follow PP?The Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure by Alice Sturgis states:Deliberative bodies, such as business, cultural, religious, social, fraternal, professional, educational, labor, civil, scientific, medical, and governmental organizations, are subject to the principles of common parliamentary law. All profit and non-profit corporations and associations and the boards, councils, commissions, and committees of government must observe parliamentary law.Parliamentary procedure, or parliamentary law, is the code of rules and ethics by which organizations make decisions. Businesses use parliamentary procedure in shareholders' meetings, corporate decision-making, and the election of officers and directors. Elected officials follow such procedures to establish laws and regulations. Government bodies, such as school boards, must use parliamentary procedure to take official action. In fact, courts have held that all groups must follow general parliamentary law whenever they meet to transact business.
10 Following RulesUnless the reason for a rule is understood, it is difficult to learn the rule, and it is still more difficult to apply it successfully in practice.George C. Crocker, President Massachusetts Senate Crocker's Principles of Procedure preface, 1889
11 What is Parliamentary Procedure Parliamentary procedure, or parliamentary law, is the code of rules and ethics for working together in groups.Parliamentary law refers to the rules, laws, or regulations of organizations, governing the orderly, expeditious and efficient transaction of business and meetings and conventions. Without rules, there would be injustice and confusion. Hence, it is as necessary to follow the rules of parliamentary law as it is to follow the rules of a ball game or a card game.
12 Robert on PPThe assembly meets to transact business, not to have members exploit their knowledge of parliamentary law. A business meeting is not a class in parliamentary law.Parliamentary law should be the servant, not the master, of the assembly.- Henry M. Robert Parliamentary Law, p. 151
13 What is the Goal?The application of parliamentary law is the best method yet devised to enable assemblies of any size, with due regard for every member's opinion, to arrive at the general will on the maximum number of questions of varying complexity in a minimum amount of time and under all kinds of internal climate ranging from total harmony to hardened or impassioned division of opinion.Parliamentary Procedure is the best way to get things done at your meetings. But, it will only work if you use it properly.Allow motions that are in order.Have members obtain the floor properly.Speak clearly and concisely.Obey the rules of debate.Most importantly, BE COURTEOUS.
14 Why We MeetWe are here to get at the will of the assembly. This is the only valid reason for holding a meeting, and that must be the basis of all parliamentary action.- Henry M. Robert Smedley The Great Peacemaker
15 ConsensusHistorically, the claim of consensus has been the first refuge of scoundrels; it is a way to avoid debate by claiming that the matter is already settled.- Michael Crichton
16 Why is it Important? All members have equal rights Minority rights must be protectedFull and free discussion is an essential rightUse simplest and most direct procedureOnly one question considered at a timeLogical precedence governs order of discussionWhy is Parliamentary Procedure Important?Because it's a time tested method of conducting business at meetings and public gatherings. It can be adapted to fit the needs of any organization. Today, Robert's Rules of Order newly revised is the basic handbook of operation for most clubs, organizations and other groups. So it's important that everyone know these basic rules!
17 Why is it Important? Members must be recognized before speaking All remarks are directed through the chairNo member may speak twice to the same question until all others have had an opportunity to speakMembers may not question the character or motives of other membersMembers have a right at all times to know what question is before the assembly and what affirmative and negative votes meanBasic Principles1. Parliamentary procedure exists to facilitate the transaction of business and to promote cooperation and harmony.2. All members have equal rights, privileges, and obligations.The majority has the right to decide.The minority has rights which must be protected.3. A quorum must be present for the group to act.4. Full and free discussion of every motion considered is a basic right.5. Only one question at a time can be considered at any given time.6. Members have the right to know at all times what the immediately pending question is, and to have it restated before a vote is taken.7. No member can speak until recognized by the chair.8. No one can speak a second time on the same question as long as another wants to speak a first time.9. The chair should be strictly impartial.
18 Why is it Important?Robert's 'Rules of Order' are the rules of a fight; they are intended to prevent unfair advantage and to give the minority a fighting chance.- H. S. Elliott, The Process of Group Thinking (1938), p. 190
19 12 Angry Men - MovieAs in any American criminal case, the twelve men must determine, unanimously, whether the accused is not guilty or guilty of the charge of murder of his own father. The jury is further instructed that a guilty verdict will be accompanied by a mandatory death sentence.In a preliminary vote they are startled to find that one juror has voted "not guilty."The eventual result is a vote of 12-0 in favor of acquittal, and the jurors leave the room to present their verdict to the court.
20 Basic Tools - Definitions Quorum: more than half of active membership*Majority: more than half of those voting*2/3 Majority: 2/3 or more of those voting*Motion: A proposal by a member to take a particular actionNominate: To propose an individual for office* Note: Unless specified otherwise in the By-Laws
21 By-Laws Rules governing the internal management of an organization. The highest body of rules of an organization.An organization is free to adopt any rules it may wish.Bylaws cannot countermand governmental law.WHY DO WE NEED BYLAWS?Should every club, social organization, guild, church, etc. have bylaws? YES!!!!Let's think of bylaws as government by impartial law , not the changing whims of men. Bylaws enable members to determine what rules they can all agree with and abide by, and yet allow the members to make changes when the organization grows and changes. These rules ensure stability, continuity, and structure, especially during times of rapid growth or when there are not many "old" members to tell the new members what to do.Every member who joins the club should be given a copy of the bylaws and it should be impressed upon them to read and understand them. All members should obey the bylaws. This prevents many problems. If there are bylaws the members are opposed to, it is better to change them than not to obey them.Although bylaws should be "custom made" to the organization the following essentials should be included in the bylaws.
22 Components of By-Laws Article I Organization Article II Purposes Article III MembershipArticle IV MeetingsArticle V VotingArticle VI Order Of BusinessInclude the following to avoid some of the most common mistakes found in bylaws:Explain the nominating procedure.State when dues are due and what are the penalties for being late or for non-payment.State the standing committees and allow for the appointment of special committees.Have a clause for removing officers; or include the phrase “or until their successors are elected.”Include a clause to cancel and reschedule meetings in case of an emergency or inclement weather.Include a quorum number for meetings, board meetings and committee meetings.Provide for special meetings and who may call them.Include a clause to conceal or reschedule meeting at the end of that clause put: “Be sure to state how the members are notified of the rescheduled meeting.”
23 Components of By-Laws Article VII Board Of Directors Article VIII OfficersArticle IX CommitteesArticle X DuesArticle XI Amendments. The bylaws should state under the article of “Amending Bylaws” what the vote requirement is. Robert’s Rules says the vote should be counted and recorded in the minutes unless it is nearly unanimous. p The vote could be a standing counted vote or a ballot vote.
24 Effective Meeting Publish Agenda before Meeting Each item is assigned a time limitStart the Meeting on TimeFollow the AgendaChanges to the Agenda require voteEnd the Meeting on Time
25 Typical Agenda Call to order Roll call of members present Reading of minutes of last meetingOfficer reportsCommittee reportsSpecial ordersUnfinished businessNew businessAnnouncementsAdjournmentThe Orders of the DayThe parliamentarian must announce the business to come before the Board of Governors in the proper order. If this duty is always performed, calling for the orders of the day will not be necessary. The call for the orders of the day serves to demand that the group conform to its program and cease talking about other things. The call for the order of the day is a privileged motion. If the parliamentarian allows the business of the meeting to stray, a member of the Board may raise his/her hand and say "I call for the orders of the day." This motion does not require a second and the parliamentarian must immediately proceed with the adopted order of business unless the Board agrees by common consent or by a two-thirds vote to do otherwise.
26 Basic Tools – The ChairMust have a quorum to conduct any business at allExcept as provided in the Rules, members must be recognized by the Chair before speakingExcept when appealed to the assembly, the Chair rules on all procedural issuesChair may not make motions nor debate questions, except speaks first and last in an appealChair may vote only to make or break a tie vote
27 Basic Tools - Motions Member obtains recognition by the chair Member states the motionAnother seconds the motion when requiredRecognition not necessaryNeed not be in favor of the motionChair restates the motion for the assemblyThe motion is debatedA vote is takenThe Chair announces the result of the voteTO OBTAIN THE FLOOR: (rise and say) Madam Chairman or Mr. Chairman Madam President or Mr. PresidentTO MAKE A MOTION SAY: I move that... or I move toTHE CHAIR STATES: It is moved and seconded that......Is there any discussion?IN TAKING THE VOTE THE CHAIR STATES: All those in favor say “aye”. Those opposed say “no”.ANNOUNCING A VOICE VOTE: The “ayes have it and the motion is carried. We will be And so and so will do it. OR The “noes” have it and the motion is lost. We will not be doing
28 Basic Tools - Nominations Chair announces nominations are openMember obtain recognition by the chairMember nominates one candidateChair announces nomination and asks for further nominationsNominations remain open until closed by motion or unanimous consent
29 Cooperation and Harmony The purpose of parliamentary procedure is to facilitate the transaction of business and to promote cooperation and harmony.- Alice Sturgis Sturgis Standard Code of Parliamentary Procedure, p. 7
30 Time to ReflectWhenever you find yourself on the side of the majority, it is time to pause and reflect. Mark Twain
32 Making A Motion How are Motions Presented? Voting on a Motion Obtaining the floorMake Your MotionWait for Someone to Second Your MotionThe Chairman States Your MotionExpanding on Your MotionPutting the Question to the MembershipVoting on a MotionThe Previous QuestionWhen a motion is discussed until it becomes tiresome or after the issues have been presented, someone should move to close the debate and vote. This may be done by obtaining recognition from the parliamentarian and then calling the "Question." This motion must be seconded and does not stop debate unless the Board is ready to stop. The motion to call the question must be voted upon.
33 Results of Vote Majority Some Motions – 2/3 Majority Plurality Special Resolutions – ¾ MajorityVoting on a Motion:The method of vote on any motion depends on the situation and the by-laws of policy of your organization. There are five methods used to vote by most organizations, they are:By Voice -- The Chairman asks those in favor to say, "aye", those opposed to say "no". Any member may move for a exact count.By Roll Call -- Each member answers "yes" or "no" as his name is called. This method is used when a record of each person's vote is required.By General Consent -- When a motion is not likely to be opposed, the Chairman says, "if there is no objection ..." The membership shows agreement by their silence, however if one member says, "I object," the item must be put to a vote.By Division -- This is a slight verification of a voice vote. It does not require a count unless the chairman so desires. Members raise their hands or stand.By Ballot -- Members write their vote on a slip of paper, this method is used when secrecy is desired.Plurality - relative majority or simple majority is the largest share of something, which may or may not be considered an absolute majority, i.e. it is the largest group/category, but is not necessarily more than half.
34 Motions Main Motions Subsidiary Motions Privileged Motions Incidental MotionsThere are four Basic Types of Motions:Main Motions: The purpose of a main motion is to introduce items to the membership for their consideration. They cannot be made when any other motion is on the floor, and yield to privileged, subsidiary, and incidental motions.Subsidiary Motions: Their purpose is to change or affect how a main motion is handled, and is voted on before a main motion.Privileged Motions: Their purpose is to bring up items that are urgent about special or important matters unrelated to pending business.Incidental Motions: Their purpose is to provide a means of questioning procedure concerning other motions and must be considered before the other motion.
35 Types of MotionsMAIN MOTIONS -- a main motion brings business before the assembly. It can only be made when no other motion is pending and ranks lowest in the order of precedence of motions
36 Types of MotionsSUBSIDIARY MOTIONS -- subsidiary motions assist the assembly in considering or disposing of a main motion (and sometimes other motions). Subsidiary motions fall into the order of precedence.
37 Types of MotionsPRIVILEGED MOTIONS -- privileged motions do not relate to the pending business, but have to do with special matters of immediate and overriding importance which, without debate, should be allowed to interrupt the consideration of anything else. Like subsidiary motions, the privileged motions fit into an order of precedence.
38 Types of MotionsINCIDENTAL MOTIONS -- incidental motions deal with questions of procedure arising out of other motions or business. They have no order of precedence among themselves. Instead, they arise incidentally and are decided as they arise.
39 Subsidiary Motions Postpone indefinitely Amend Refer Postpone to a certain timeLimit or extend limits of debatePrevious questionTable
40 Privileged Motions Orders of the Day Question (point) of privilege RecessAdjournFix time to which to adjournThe Question of PrivilegeCertain matters are of such importance that they require immediate action. Examples of such situations included where a member cannot hear the speaker. In such cases, the member does not need to recognized by the parliamentarian and may say "I rise to a question of privilege." Privilege also extends to certain motions which take precedence over the pending question and all other items of business. Privileged motions cannot be debated and require immediate action. Privileged motions are those for adjournment or recess, questions of privilege, and calls for the orders of the day.TO CALL FOR THE ORDERS OF THE DAY (member rises) Madam President, I call for the orders of the day.THE CHAIR STATES: The orders of the day are called for. The orders of the day areTO SET ASIDE THE ORDERS OF THE DAY BY THE INTIATIVE OF THE CHAIR: The orders of the day are called for. The orders of the day are (state what they are). The question is: Will the assembly proceed to the orders of the day? All those in favor of proceeding to order of the day, please rise. Be seated. Those opposed please rise. Be seated. (it takes a two thirds vote in the negative to set aside the orders of the day so it must be a rising vote)ANNOUNCING THE VOTE IF THE AFFIRMATIVE HAS IT: The affirmative has it and we will proceed to the orders of the day.ANNOUNCING THE VOTE IF THE NEGATIVE HAS IT: There is a two thirds vote in the negative and the orders of the day are set aside. We will continue discussing
41 Incidental Motions Point of order Suspension of the rules Objection to considerationConsideration seriatimDivision of the meetingMotions related to methods of votingMotions related to nominationsRequests and inquiriesTO MAKE A POINT OF ORDER: “Mr. President, I rise to a point of order.CHAIR’S RESPONSE: Please state your point.TO MAKE A PARLIAMENTARY INQUIRY: Mr. President, I rise to a parliamentary inquiry.CHAIR’S RESPONSE: Please state your inquiry.TO ASK FOR INFORMATION: Mr. President, I rise to a point of information.TO QUESTION THE CHAIR’S RULING: “I appeal from the decision of the chair. *(needs a second)
42 Precedence of MotionsPrivileged Motions 1. Adjourn 2. Recess 3. Question of privilegeSubsidiary Motions 4. Lay on the table 5. Previous question (end debate) 6. Limit or extend debate 7. Postpone to a certain time (or "postpone" definitely) 8. Commit or refer (to committee) 9. Amend 10. Postpone indefinitelyMain Motion
43 Exceptions (RONR p. 470)The conduct of business in a board or committee often varies by size. According to RONR, business should be transacted in a large board (more than a dozen members) according to the same formal rules of procedure as in other deliberative assemblies. However, such formality in a meeting of not more than about a dozen members may actually hinder business. As a result, RONR provides that the procedure in a smaller board can be less formal and include the following characteristics:
44 Becoming less Formal:Members are not required to obtain the floor and can make motions or speak while seated.Motions need not be seconded.There is no limit to the number of times a member can speak to a question, and motions to close or limit debate generally should not be entertained (unless the group has adopted a rule to the contrary).The chair need not rise while putting questions to vote.The chair can speak in discussion without rising or leaving the chair; andSubject to rule or custom within the particular group, the chair usually can make motions and usually votes on all questions.
45 ResourcesRobert’s Rules of Order Newly Revised, 10th Edition, 2000,Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, MA, 704 pp. (Often cited as RONR)Toastmasters Success leadership Series, Parliamentary Procedure