Presentation on theme: "Application of GIS and Remote sensing technique to assess the status of forest types of the Southern Eastern Ghats, India G.Areendran WWF-India Society."— Presentation transcript:
Application of GIS and Remote sensing technique to assess the status of forest types of the Southern Eastern Ghats, India G.Areendran WWF-India Society for conservation GIS 10 th Annual International Conference,Monterey,California,2007.
The Eastern Ghats form a broken chain of mountainous terrain spreading in the states of Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and two districts of Karnataka. Location- 11 ° ° N latitude and 76 ° ° 30 E longitude. Area 75,000 sq.kms of forested area with an average width of about km. Maximum Altitude recorded at 1762 metres.Average elevation is 750 metres.
STUDY AREA The present study area is located between 78 31E '9"E and 14 51'N – 10 55N Assemblage of discontinuous hill ranges, plateaus and escarpments. The entire Eastern Ghats constitutes major water sheds of many big rivers. The scope of the present study is restricted to stretches of the middle eastern Ghats and the southern eastern ghats mountains
Topography & Climate Geologically the Eastern Ghats present a rocky landscape, with quartzite rocks Average temperatures range from ° C and can go upto 45 °C during the summer months ( April – June) Mean annual rainfall ranges from cms exhibiting a semi arid climate
Objective of the study To prepare various thematic maps of the study area using Geographic Information techniques Map the existing vegetation of the region with a focus on forest community, using remote sensing techniques To study land use patterns in and around the natural forest patches. To detect changes in the forest cover.
Methodology GIS Analysis Scanning Toposheets, Paper maps Digitization of layers Administrative boundaries (Districts,taluk) Transport network, (Rail, Roads) Drainage,waterbodies, Contours (DEM, Slope, Aspects) Settlement locations, (Towns,villages) Global positioning system data Software used- Arcview 3.3, Arc-info ArcGIS9.1
Methodology Remote sensing analysis Data used Land sat TM,(1990) Indian Remote sensing satellite LISS III, (2003) Techniques Image enchancement Radiometric correction Georeferencing Supervised classification Un-supervised classification Masking Accuracy assessment Forest cover change detection Software used- Erdas imagine 8.7
Methodology Field survey Reconnaissance survey Pre-classification ground verification of various class based on the un-supervised classification GPS reading for different signature/class Post-classification ground verification for various vegetation and land use class Collection of photographic evidence for various vegetation classes
Results Broadly the vegetation types of Eastern ghats are Tropical evergreen forests Tropical dry deciduous forests Southern Mixed dry deciduous forests Scrub forests Tropical dry evergreen forests
Land use/Land cover Dry Evergreen Forest Dry Deciduous Forest Mixed Dry Deciduous Forest Thorn Forest Scrub Water Bodies Sandy Bed Open/Barren/Rocky Exposure/Cloud Plantation Waste Land Settlement Salt Pan Shadow Mangrove Agriculture Fallow Land Total Area in sq.kmsPercentage Results
Forest cover of TamilNadu Area in Sqkm Dry evergreen-1318 Dry deciduous Mixed dry deciduous Thorn forest-6198
Forest cover of Andhra Pradesh Area in Sqkm Dry evergreen-1164 Dry deciduous-2898 Mixed dry deciduous-4961 Thorn forest-4932
Forest cover of Southern eastern ghats Area in Sqkm Dry evergreen-2482 Dry deciduous Mixed dry deciduous Thorn forest-11130
Forest cover change detection map Area in Sqkm Dry evergreen-384 Dry deciduous-538 Mixed dry deciduous-1374 Thorn forest-587
Andhra Pradesh forest cover change Area in Sqkm Dry evergreen-986 Dry deciduous-2620 Mixed dry deciduous4230- Thorn forest-4811
Tamil Nadu forest cover change Area in Sqkm Dry evergreen-1112 Dry deciduous Mixed dry deciduous Thorn forest-5732
Percentage of forest loss
Increasing forest loss and habitat fragmentation is serious threat to biodiversity of the landscape. Native population of several flora and fauna is declining due to habitat degradation Detailed mapping of the fragmented forest patch is required to understand their nature Important corridors for mammals such as the Tiger and Elephant are highly threatened. Using satellite-based tools, regular monitoring of forest cover is suggested, which can provide valuable inputs for decision makers. Conclusions
Mixed dry deciduous
Acknowledgement Tamil Nadu Forest Department Andhra Pradesh Forest Department Public Affairs office, U.S. Embassy, New Delhi Worldwide Fund For Nature-India Society For Conservation GIS Environmental System Research Institute