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Selecting Focal Species for a Comprehensive Ecosystem Umbrella.

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Presentation on theme: "Selecting Focal Species for a Comprehensive Ecosystem Umbrella."— Presentation transcript:

1 Selecting Focal Species for a Comprehensive Ecosystem Umbrella

2 Existing Selection Approaches Vulnerable Species Endemic Species Flagship Species Phylogenetically Distinct/Evolutionarily Important EDGE Taxonomic Groupings Indicator Species Umbrella Species Keystone Species Focal Species Landscape Species

3 5 criteria for selecting landscape species area vulnerability functionality heterogeneity socio-economic significance Selecting Landscape Species

4 Choosing a Focal Species Suite to Create a Complete Conservation Umbrella Goals: Conserve sufficient quantity and quality of all major habitat types to support ecologically functional populations of all native species present in the planning area. Implement mitigation strategies that effectively reduce the impact of all activities that significantly threaten the persistence of any native species to levels that insure a high likelihood of persistence for the next 100 years. Ensure the continuation of all natural ecosystem processes (either through natural occurrence or simulation by prescription) that are necessary for the long-term persistence of all native species within their natural range of variability of abundance. Respect the importance of wildlife to local economies and culture, and implementing strategies to maximize positive, and minimizes negative, effects of wildlife on these economies while preserving cultural values.

5 Complete Conservation Requires Multiple Umbrellas Area Complete Communities - all native species in natural abundance Complete Ecosystem Function Human Values Habitat Threats Processes

6 Hierarchy of Conservation Needs Area Sufficient area to support individuals and populations at ecologically functional levels Habitat Availability of appropriate habitat types in sufficient quantity and quality to support individuals and populations Security Security from direct and indirect threats that threaten the survival or natural abundance of individuals or populations Ecological Processes Allow or simulate natural processes to sustain natural habitat heterogeneity Social Acceptance Public values that support conservation

7 Using Focal Species to Address Conservation Needs NeedFocal Species Attribute AreaLandscape Species Select large area generalists to protect sufficient area and diversity of habitat types HabitatHabitat Types Make sure suite of focal species covers all major habitat types in the area SecurityThreats Make sure suite of focal species covers all major threats that impact wildlife populations in the area Ecological Processes Ecological Processes and Key Species Include key species needed to maintain natural community, and species that depend on ecological processes to sustain ecologically functional populations Social AcceptanceSocio-economic Values Identify values that compliment or conflict with conservation objectives

8 Preparation List of native species sorted by area requirements List of major habitat types in planning area List of major threats in planning area List of important ecological processes List of key species List of important socio-economic values

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11 Candidate SpeciesMajor Habitat Types Major ThreatsKey SpeciesImportant Ecological Processes Important Socio- Economic Values American Badger American Beaver American Bison American Black Bear American Kestrel American Marten American Mink American Pika Big Brown Bat Bighorn Sheep Black-tailed Jackrabbit Blue Grouse Bobcat Boreal Chorus Frog Boreal Owl Bull Snake Bushy-tailed Woodrat California Myotis Canada Lynx Cinereus Shrew Columbian Ground Squirrel Common Raven Cooper's Hawk Cougar Coyote Deer Mouse Desert Cottontail Dwarf Shrew Elk Ermine Ferruginous Hawk Fisher Golden Eagle Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel Gray Wolf Great Basin Pocket Mouse Great Gray Owl Great Horned Owl Grizzly Bear Hispid Pocket Mouse Hoary Bat Least Chipmunk Little Brown Bat Long-billed Curlew Long-eared Myotis Long-eared Owl Long-legged Myotis Long-tailed Vole Long-tailed Weasel Meadow Vole Merriam's Shrew Montane Shrew Montane Vole Moose Mountain Cottontail Mule Deer Muskrat North American Porcupine Northern Flying Squirrel Northern Goshawk Northern Grasshopper Mouse Northern Harrier Northern Pocket Gopher Northern Pygmy-Owl Northern Raccoon Northern River Otter Northern Saw-whet Owl Northern ShrikeOrd's Kangaroo Rat Prairie Vole Preble's Shrew Pronghorn Red Fox Red Squirrel Red-tailed Chipmunk Red-tailed Hawk Richardson's Ground Squirrel Rough-legged Hawk Ruffed Grouse Sage Grouse Sagebrush Vole Sharp-shinned Hawk Short-eared Owl Silver-haired Bat Snowshoe Hare Southern Red-backed Vole Spotted Bat Spruce Grouse Striped Skunk Swainson's Hawk Tiger Salamander Townsend's Big-eared Bat Turkey Vulture Uinta Chipmunk Uinta Ground Squirrel Vagrant Shrew Water Shrew Water Vole Western Harvest Mouse Western Heather Vole Western Jumping Mouse Western Rattlesnake Western Screech-Owl Western Toad Western Small-footed Myotis White-footed Mouse White-tailed Deer White-tailed Jackrabbit Wolverine Wyoming Ground Squirrel Wyoming Pocket Gopher Yellow-bellied Marmot Yellow-pine Chipmunk Yuma Myotis Agriculture Alpine Meadow Aspen Foothill Shrub/Xeric Woodland Lentic Water Lotic Water Mesic Shrub Montane Conifer Native Grassland Non-Native Grass Recently Burnt Forest Riparian Forest Riparian Shrub Rock/Cliff/Talu s Shrub-steppe Subalpine Forest Wetlands (Marsh) Dewatering Exotic Disease Farming Fencing Fire Fire Suppression Fishing Grazing Harvest (Hunting) Homesite Development Invasive Aliens Loss Of Ecosystem Integrity Management/P redator Control Migratory Sensitivity Mineral Mining Motorized Recreation Nonmotorized Recreation Nonnative Introductions Oil/Gas/Cbm Pollution Powerlines Road Chemical/Sedi mentation Roading Timber Harvest Vehicular Traffic Weed/Pest Control American Beaver American Bison Elk? Gray Wolf Periodic Fire Grazing Riparian Flooding Sport Hunting and Fishing Cattle Ranching and Rural Lifestyle Open Space, Wild Areas, and Wildlife Viewing Opportunities

12 Species Area Requirements Five functional categories Large Landscape – Classic landscape species – Habitat generalists requiring large contiguous, or connected areas of habitat (> 500 ha). Meso-scale – require moderately size contiguous habitat areas (~ ha). Habitat Selectors – travel between relatively small habitat patches but not sensitive to habitat changes between patches. Restricted or Sedentary – Small home ranges < 5 ha Habitat Specialists – Majority of seasonal use tied to one, or few habitat types. – Critical habitats often small patch sizes Microhabitat Specialists – Restricted to very specific and very small habitats (e.g. warm springs)

13 Species PoolLand Area Requireme nt Category Cohort 1Cohort 2Cohort 3Cohort 4Cohort 5Cohort 6 Wolverine Sage Grouse Grizzly Bear Ferruginous Hawk Gray Wolf Golden Eagle American Bison Elk Long-billed Curlew Cougar American Black Bear Canada Lynx Western Toad Turkey Vulture Boreal Owl Pronghorn Bighorn Sheep Western Rattlesnake Common Raven Moose Tiger Salamander Northern Goshawk Coyote Fisher Mule Deer Boreal Chorus Frog Bull Snake Blue Grouse Bobcat Rough-legged Hawk White-tailed Deer Great Horned Owl Red-tailed Hawk Swainson's Hawk Northern River Otter American Marten LL-1 LL-2 LL-3 LL-4 LL-5 LL-6 Meso-1 Meso-2 Meso-3 Meso-4 Meso-5 Meso-6 Meso-7 Meso-8 Wolverine Sage Grouse Grizzly Bear Ferruginous Hawk Gray Wolf Golden Eagle Gray Wolf Golden Eagle American Bison Elk Long-billed curlewCougar American Black Bear Canada Lynx Western Toad Turkey VultureBoreal Owl Pronghorn Bighorn Sheep Western Rattlesnak e Common Raven Moose Tiger Salamander Moose Tiger Salamander Northern Goshawk Coyote Fisher Mule Deer Boreal Chorus Frog Bull SnakeBlue Grouse Bobcat Rough-legged Hawk White-tailed Deer Great-horned Owl Red-tailed Hawk Swainsons Hawk Northern River Otter STOP

14 Complete Conservation Requires Multiple Umbrellas Habitat Threats Agriculture Alpine Meadow Aspen Foothill Shrub/Xeric Woodland Lentic Water Lotic Water Mesic Shrub Montane Conifer Native Grassland Non-Native Grass Riparian Forest Riparian Shrub Rock/Cliff/Talus Subalpine Forest Wetlands (Marsh) Shrub-steppe Recently Burnt Forest Dewatering (P) Exotic Disease (P) Farming (P) Fencing Fire Suppression (P) Fishing Migratory Sensitivity (P) Oil/Gas/CBM (P) Power lines Grazing Harvest (Hunting) Homesite Development Invasive Aliens Loss Of Ecosystem Integrity Management/Predator Control Mineral Mining Motorized Recreation Nonmotorized Recreation Nonnative Introductions Pollution Road Chemical/Sedimentation Roading Timber Harvest Vehicular Traffic Weed/Pest Control

15 Special Elements: Habitats Covered Under Umbrella Habitats Outside Cumulative Umbrella Threats Covered Under Umbrella Threats Outside Cumulative Umbrella Special Elements Added to Complete Umbrella Focal Species Suite Sage GrouseShrub- steppe Recently Burnt Forest (P) Farming (P) Oil/Gas/CBM (P) Power lines Dewatering (P) Exotic Disease (P) Fencing Fire Suppression (P) Fishing Migratory Sensitivity (P) Sage Grouse Pronghorn Westslope Cutthroat American Beaver – key species (replaces otter) Black-backed Woodpecker Grizzly Bear Elk Western Toad Bighorn Sheep Northern Goshawk Northern River Otter – replaced by beaver as special element Special Elements: Sage Grouse Pronghorn Westslope Cutthroat American Beaver Black-backed Woodpecker PronghornRecently Burnt Forest (P) Fencing Migratory Sensitivity (P) Dewatering (P) Exotic Disease (P) Fire Suppression (P) Fishing Westslope Cutthroat Recently Burnt Forest (P) Dewatering (P) Exotic Disease (P) Fishing Fire Suppression (P) American Beaver Lotic WaterRecently Burnt Forest (P) Fire Suppression (P) Black- backed Woodpecker Recently Burnt Fire Suppression (P) Completing the Conservation Umbrellas

16 Complete Conservation Requires Multiple Umbrellas Area Complete Communities - all native species in natural abundance Complete Ecosystem Function Human Values Habitat Threats Processes


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