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Copyright All Rights Reserved 1 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface 5.1 User-Centered Design 5.1.1 Aim of User center design 5.1.2 Human-Computer.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright All Rights Reserved 1 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface 5.1 User-Centered Design 5.1.1 Aim of User center design 5.1.2 Human-Computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright All Rights Reserved 1 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface 5.1 User-Centered Design Aim of User center design Human-Computer Interaction Vs. User-Centered Design 5.2 Factors in Interface Design Human Factors Software Factors Hardware Factors 5.3 HCI Design Models 5.4 Task Analysis 5.5 Design Cycle Gathering Requirements and Analyzing Design Designing Coding Testing and Validating 5.6 Need for Evaluation of Interface 5.7 The Process of Interface Analysis Analyze the Users and Their Tasks Evaluating a Centric Design 5.8 User Documentation Issues in User Documentation Creating User Documentation

2 Copyright All Rights Reserved2 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface User-Centered Design (UCD) User centered design is a philosophy and a process that places a person (user) at the center in the design process. UCD Also defined as a process those forces on cognitive factors such as learning, problem solving and human memory, etc. As they come into play during peoples interactions with things. User centered design concerns itself both with usefulness and usability. To design an interface that can induce in the users mind a correct model of the system, a user centered approach has to be adopted. User centered design mainly consists of three issues: User centered design is a philosophy and a process that places a person (user) at the center in the design process. UCD Also defined as a process those forces on cognitive factors such as learning, problem solving and human memory, etc. As they come into play during peoples interactions with things. User centered design concerns itself both with usefulness and usability. To design an interface that can induce in the users mind a correct model of the system, a user centered approach has to be adopted. User centered design mainly consists of three issues: users (steelworkers) have to be involved in each step of the design process; users (steelworkers) have to be involved in each step of the design process; the design process is centered on the work activates to be supported rather than on the technological opportunities; the design process is centered on the work activates to be supported rather than on the technological opportunities; Cycles of work analysis-design-prototype-evaluation have to be foreseen. Cycles of work analysis-design-prototype-evaluation have to be foreseen.

3 Copyright All Rights Reserved3 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface Aim of User Center Design It cuts the cost and increase user satisfaction and productivity. The main purpose of user centered design is to involving the user from the beginning during design process. The main factors are: It cuts the cost and increase user satisfaction and productivity. The main purpose of user centered design is to involving the user from the beginning during design process. The main factors are: Discovering the mental lend of users. Discovering the mental lend of users. Discovering their expectations. Discovering their expectations. Include the user as the part of designing team. Include the user as the part of designing team. Observing the uses workplace. Observing the uses workplace. Analyzing the task of user. Analyzing the task of user. Taking feedback via walk with through, paper prototype, think aloud sessions and other methods. Taking feedback via walk with through, paper prototype, think aloud sessions and other methods.

4 Copyright All Rights Reserved4 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface User centered design seeks the answers of following questions: Who are the users of the product? Who are the users of the product? What are the users tasks and goals? What are the users tasks and goals? What are the users experience level with this thing, and thinks it What are the users experience level with this thing, and thinks it What functions to the uses need from the product? What functions to the uses need from the product? What information might the users need and in what from they need it. What information might the users need and in what from they need it. How do the users think this product should work? How do the users think this product should work? How the design of the product can facilitates users cognitive process? How the design of the product can facilitates users cognitive process?

5 Copyright All Rights Reserved5 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface Factors in Interface Design Designing an interface is not merely a software engineering concept. It is more of a creative and artistic activity. By combining the engineering principles and methodologies with artistic view you can create a good GUI. The Human factors affect the design of a user interface. These factors are: Designing an interface is not merely a software engineering concept. It is more of a creative and artistic activity. By combining the engineering principles and methodologies with artistic view you can create a good GUI. The Human factors affect the design of a user interface. These factors are: Human factors Human factors Software factors Software factors Hardware factors Hardware factors

6 Copyright All Rights Reserved6 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface Human Factors Human factors or human factors engineering is the term mainly used in USA on place of ergonomics as used in Europe. Human factors is the study of human behavior, cognition, and ability. Research performed in human factors such as learning, memory recall, metaphors, consistency, and effects of system feedback are transferred into product design. Human factors techniques can be used to profile the user community, build product requirements, and ensure that valid data is collected and accurately interpreted. Often human factors research is delivered as design guidelines, style guides, and conformance check lists of dos and donts in interface design. The most effective way to incorporate human factors is to include human factors specialists on the design team to assist with user interviews, requirements gathering, and user interface design. Human factors or human factors engineering is the term mainly used in USA on place of ergonomics as used in Europe. Human factors is the study of human behavior, cognition, and ability. Research performed in human factors such as learning, memory recall, metaphors, consistency, and effects of system feedback are transferred into product design. Human factors techniques can be used to profile the user community, build product requirements, and ensure that valid data is collected and accurately interpreted. Often human factors research is delivered as design guidelines, style guides, and conformance check lists of dos and donts in interface design. The most effective way to incorporate human factors is to include human factors specialists on the design team to assist with user interviews, requirements gathering, and user interface design. Software Factors Software factors that affect interface design concern the way the interface is designed, as well as the choices developers must make to create accurate and efficient software. The real world is huge and full of possibilities. All these possibilities cannot be emulated in the interface. Thus, many assumptions and simplifications are made about the user and the working environment, which limit these possibilities. Software factors that affect interface design concern the way the interface is designed, as well as the choices developers must make to create accurate and efficient software. The real world is huge and full of possibilities. All these possibilities cannot be emulated in the interface. Thus, many assumptions and simplifications are made about the user and the working environment, which limit these possibilities.

7 Copyright All Rights Reserved7 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface Hardware Factors Hardware factors deal with hardware support available in the users working environment. These factors determine the technical working environment. The hardware depends on financial constraints and the architectural setup of the work place of the user. For instance, if an interface requires 3D effects, the developer must be aware of the available hardware and the financial constraints of the customers. Hardware factors deal with hardware support available in the users working environment. These factors determine the technical working environment. The hardware depends on financial constraints and the architectural setup of the work place of the user. For instance, if an interface requires 3D effects, the developer must be aware of the available hardware and the financial constraints of the customers. Task Analysis Task analysis is the process of analyzing the way the people perform their functions on things they do, the things they act on and the things they need to know. The task analysis is done on existing systems and procedures. The main tools of task analysis are observations in various forms. The purpose of task analysis is to provide the function in order to try to ensure that: Task analysis is the process of analyzing the way the people perform their functions on things they do, the things they act on and the things they need to know. The task analysis is done on existing systems and procedures. The main tools of task analysis are observations in various forms. The purpose of task analysis is to provide the function in order to try to ensure that: they have been fully understood. they have been fully understood. nothing has been omitted. nothing has been omitted. options about task order have been considered. options about task order have been considered.

8 Copyright All Rights Reserved8 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface Design Cycle The prototyping paradigm technique begins with gathering information about the requirements of the user and his working environment. This is followed by a design phase. Next prototype or a trial product is developed from this design. The prototype of the GUI is presented to the user and testing is done. At this phase, the user may give more inputs for refinement. The whole process is repeated to build a prototype that is closer to the final product, after the inputs from the user. Designing a user interface is an iterative process that comprises of the following steps: Gathering requirements and analyzing design Gathering requirements and analyzing design Designing Designing Coding Coding Testing and validating Testing and validating

9 Copyright All Rights Reserved9 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface The design process cycle is shown in following diagram:

10 Copyright All Rights Reserved10 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface The Process of Interface Analysis Because a good interface combines aesthetics, usability, and functionality, designing user interfaces is as much an art as it is a science. Following is a five-step process for analyzing and designing user interfaces: Analyze the users and their tasks. Analyze the users and their tasks. Identify the systems user interfaces. Identify the systems user interfaces. Select a dialog type for each interface. Select a dialog type for each interface. Develop a prototype. Develop a prototype. Review and revise as needed. Review and revise as needed.

11 Copyright All Rights Reserved11 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface User Documentation User documentation is the part of the user interface that describes how to use the system. User documentation may include the following components: User documentation is the part of the user interface that describes how to use the system. User documentation may include the following components: A user guide that describes the system and explains its use. A user guide that describes the system and explains its use. A reference card that summarizes basic functions and commands. A reference card that summarizes basic functions and commands. Specialized guides that describe how to install the application or explain system error messages. Specialized guides that describe how to install the application or explain system error messages. Tutorials that instruct user in the systems basic functionality. Tutorials that instruct user in the systems basic functionality. An on-line help system that basically replicates the user guide and assists users in understanding and using system features and functions. An on-line help system that basically replicates the user guide and assists users in understanding and using system features and functions.

12 Copyright All Rights Reserved12 Chapter 5 Development and Evolution of User Interface Creating User Documentation User documentation should be created concurrently with system design and construction. If you employ use case throughout your analysis and design and select the task- oriented approach, the user guidethe most common form of user documentationwill evolve as the system evolves. A task-oriented user guide describes all the manual procedures performed by uses and relates each user interface to the procedure that uses it. Each major task is treated as a chapter. Additional chapters may provide supplemental material, such as explanation of error messages or a glossary defining important terms.


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