Presentation on theme: "POOR! Coffee – problems due to worldwide overproduction Sugar/Sugarcane – for rum, not enough flatlands and rain Local consumption: rice, corn, yams, vegetables,"— Presentation transcript:
2POOR!Coffee – problems due to worldwide overproductionSugar/Sugarcane – for rum, not enough flatlands and rainLocal consumption: rice, corn, yams, vegetables, fruits, mangoesManufacturing: shrunk since the 1970’s due to political instability and international trade embargoBaseballs – manufacture the most baseballsFoodstuffs, beverages, household goods, building materials are for domestic consumptionCigarettes, detergents, bath soap – top three goods manufactured
4Mining – ferronickel, bauxite, ore Sugar – most advanced farming techniques & 4th largest producerCoffee, cocoa beans, & tobacco – first produced by Taino IndiansPlantainsOthers - Rice, corn, sorghum, plantains, beans, tubers, bananas, peanuts, guavas, tamarind, passion fruit, coconuts, tomatoes, carrots, lettuce, cabbage, scallions, coriander, onions, and garlicNontraditional exports - ornamental plants, winter vegetables, citrus and tropical fruits, spices, nutsLivestock – beef and poultryLatifundios (large landholders), Minifundios (small landholders), Campesinos (very small landholders), tarea = 0.15 acres
5Sugar – main crop that declined after Soviet Union fell Nickel – 2nd largest exportCoffeeTobacco – famous for cigarsCattleOthers: rice, citrus fruits, bananas, pineapples, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoesFishing*Must use animal power instead of Soviet built farm machines for lack of spare parts.
6Timber to agriculture and fishing Sugar biggest export Bananas, oranges, pomelos, grapefruit, cacao, seafoodMarijuanaIndustry is agriculture based: flour milling, production of citrus concentrate, animal feedLocal consumption: rice, kidney beans, beef, pork, chicken, milk, eggs, corn, beer, cigarettes, soft drinks, furniture, construction materialFishing: shrimp, lobster tails, conch. Fishermen work in cooperatives = make more money than working for a company. Going to farming fish because the sea has seen a decline in the number of exportable fish due to over fishing.Sugarcane: cutting sugarcane is one of the worst jobs in the world, since the cane fields are full of snakes and rats, and the leaves on the cane are razor sharp
7Agricultural reform in 1960’s Plantations of bananas & cacao, rice paddies, fruit orchards, sugarcane fields, and cattle ranches prosper inland.Largest Exporter of BananasFishing is an important industry for towns and villages along the Pacific coast.Oil discovery 1970’s – has devastated the native peoples of the Amazon areaDomestic consumption – Farmers work their own small plots growing cassava, peanuts, bananas, plantains, coffee, cacao, cotton, and corn.
8CoffeeCacaoLumber and forest productsOil and oil explorationCooperative farms or small plots for farmers growing cotton, citrus fruits, oranges, corn, rice and vegetablesFishing – anchovy which is ground to form fish meal and is one of Peru’s bigger exports
9Tin has been the mainstay of the economy for the most of the 20th century but in the 1980’s the tin market collapsedLowlands are rich in oil, gas, iron, gold, and timber and are suitable for agricultureEast-facing slope of the Andes produces: forest goods, feathers and medicinal plants. Coca (the leaves produce the drug cocaine today) which is strictly controlled. Coca is considered to be a sacred plant. Native Americans chew the mildly narcotic leaves to stave off cold and hunger and use specially selected leaves for magic and divination.Oil and gas were discovered and are now the most important source of income.
10Crops include: Cotton, sugarcane, soybeans, corn, wheat, tobacco, and fruit: 45% of the population is involved in agriculture; timber is cleared to make way for more farmlandCattle ranchesCereals and Milk products - Mennonites produceWine production is a growing business.Farmers produce vegetables and many different types of fruit, including grapes.
11MEAT! MEAT! MEAT! MEAT!Pampas – became the center of the international beef trade, quality beef cattle and sheep, also an area of growing cropsSunflower seeds and logging are important on the northern border plainsMining – iron ore, uraniumSheep
12Atacama Desert – source of wealth for many years at its heart is the world’s largest open-pit copper mine, Chuquicamata, which employs about eleven thousand miners *by Chilean standards these miners live well because of their importance in the work force enabling them to command good wages and benefitsSulfur mines in the highlandsFruit and almonds are replacing older crops in the central valley regionWines – Chile is the largest exporter of wine in Latin AmericaTrees – many different trees in parts of the country were the basis for a successful timber and furniture trade
13Agriculture is not the main economic sector Manufacturing is the main economic sector– oil industry (began 1970’s): products include farm machinery, chemicals, clothing, iron & steel, processed foods, petroleum, beer, rubber, wood pulp, paper, automobiles, railway cars: with available cheap skilled labor, Mexico is industrializing at a rapid paceMining: Silver – world’s leading producerPetroleum – one of the world’s leading producers: some of the largest oil reserves in the Western Hemisphere (the size of Saudi Arabia’s): a billion barrels each year (operated by government)Tourism – “the industry without chimneys” 20 million visitors annually
14Sugar – decline due to labor shortages Coffee – decline due to hurricanes and competition from USTobacco, Pineapples, CoconutsPoultry – increasing in productionRice – Failed Attempt*Labor shortages and using land in different waysCoffee – primary export and source of incomeCacao & Indigo but Cotton was affected by Civil War and economic conditionsSugar & Shrimp (farming) – 3rd & 4th largest exportsSoya, Cucumbers, Sesame - recentTropical flowers and ornamental plants
16Bananas – 2nd largest exporter (after Ecuador) Coffee, sugar, cocoa, cotton, hemp, livestockNontraditional exports – flowers, ornamental plants and foliage, fish and shrimp, melons, macadamia nuts, pineapplesDomestic – beans, corn, plantains, potatoes, rice, sorghum, onions, African palms (oil), cattle, pigs, horses, mules, sheep, goats, chickens*renowned for environmental efforts although the laws are often disregared
17Traditionally the economy has been based on agriculture Coffee – major crop, but declining due to workers being used for production in oil and mineralsOil & Minerals – increased as an exportEmeralds – high grade and the largest producerCoal – has the largest coal reserves in South AmericaOrchids – claims to be the world’s center for exporting these flowersDomestically – textile industry, steel mills, chemical plants, and factoriesSugar plantations, sugar processing plants, cattle ranches, coffee, rice, tobacco, cotton in the Southern highlandsTimber trade, gold mining, fishing, growing basic crops of yucca, plantains, and beans in the Pacific lowlands
18Agriculture production 25% of population – wine production, coffee growing and plantations, collecting nuts and palm oils, cattle ranchesAlso: oranges, rice, cotton, and soybeans are grown in the area of Sao Paulo, Brazil’s largest cityAlso: corn, soybeans, mines, and cattle ranches in the area of BrasiliaIndustry 25% of population – factories producing everything from canned orange juice to cars to electronic equipment along the Amazon riverService industries are where a majority of the workers are – such as in banks, or in the government or armyMining – iron oreDomestic consumption – cassava, sweet potatoes, corn*Along the Amazon river rubber was the boom, but it collapsed
191970’s under direction of President Carlos Andres Perez oil and iron industries were nationalized – 1980’s everything fell because of the overproduction of oil – 1990 not yet improvedHighlands – sugarcane, bananas, cacao, cottonLatin American immigrants – work as taxi drivers, domestic servants, and in the construction industryFactories – produce processed foods, leather and hides, glass, chemicals, and pharmaceuticalsDomestic crops include potatoes, wheat, onions, carrots, garlic, fruit such as oranges and mangoes, mustard, orchids, dahlias, carnations
20Coffee – 1st, produce more than any other country in Central America, it has a smoky, spicy flavor Sugar – 2ndBananas, cardamom (one of the world’s major suppliers), cotton – 3rdVegetables, fruit, flowers, sugarcane, fishingManufacturing industries: food, tobacco, sugar processing, pharmaceuticals, rubber (tires), cement, paper, and textiles, petroleum, mining of antimony, iron ore, and leadCattle plantationsDomestic consumption: corn, beans, squash
21Cotton and Coffee – Most important crops Corn, beans, sugarcane, bananas – othersRice most important crop raised for use in NicaraguaForestry hot in 1970’s and beginning to be profitable againMinerals are there but the country is too poor to mine for themTrade with other countries: shrimps, lobsters, and fish