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Copyright All Rights Reserved 1 Chapter 3 WIMP 3.1 Definitions 3.2 Alternative Expansions 3.2.1 Window(s) 3.2.2 Icon(s) 3.2.3 Menu(s) 3.2.3.1 Advantages.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright All Rights Reserved 1 Chapter 3 WIMP 3.1 Definitions 3.2 Alternative Expansions 3.2.1 Window(s) 3.2.2 Icon(s) 3.2.3 Menu(s) 3.2.3.1 Advantages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright All Rights Reserved 1 Chapter 3 WIMP 3.1 Definitions 3.2 Alternative Expansions Window(s) Icon(s) Menu(s) Advantages of Menus Designing Menus Types of Menus Pointing device(s) Pointing Tasks Direct-Control Pointing Devices

2 Copyright All Rights Reserved2 Chapter 3 WIMP Definition Different sources expand the acronym WIMP differently. The terms may be plural or singular, and the term corresponding to P varies the most. Different sources expand the acronym WIMP differently. The terms may be plural or singular, and the term corresponding to P varies the most. W: Window(s) W: Window(s) I: Icon(s) I: Icon(s) M: Menu(s); Mouse/Mice (rarely) M: Menu(s); Mouse/Mice (rarely) P: Pointing device(s); Pointing; Pointer(s) P: Pointing device(s); Pointing; Pointer(s)

3 Copyright All Rights Reserved3 Chapter 3 WIMP Window(s) A window is the area of the screen that behaves as if it is independent terminal in its own right. A window can usually contain text information or graphics, and can be moved or resized with the help of mouse. More than one window can be opened on the screen at a time, allowing separate tasks, since the windows operating systems provide multitasking facility. User can pay his attention to the deferent windows as he/she switches from one thread of work to another. If one window overlaps other, back window is partially masked, and then refreshed when exposed again. When a window is partially obscured, it is functioning in background (in minimized mode). A window is the area of the screen that behaves as if it is independent terminal in its own right. A window can usually contain text information or graphics, and can be moved or resized with the help of mouse. More than one window can be opened on the screen at a time, allowing separate tasks, since the windows operating systems provide multitasking facility. User can pay his attention to the deferent windows as he/she switches from one thread of work to another. If one window overlaps other, back window is partially masked, and then refreshed when exposed again. When a window is partially obscured, it is functioning in background (in minimized mode).

4 Copyright All Rights Reserved4 Chapter 3 WIMP Icon(s) A computer icon is a small graphic, usually ranging from 16 pixels by 16 pixels up to 128 pixels by 128 pixels, which represents a file, folder, application or device on a computer system. Icons were first developed as a tool for making computer interfaces easier for novices to grasp in the 1970s at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center facility. Icon-driven interfaces were later popularized by the Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating environments. A computer icon is a small graphic, usually ranging from 16 pixels by 16 pixels up to 128 pixels by 128 pixels, which represents a file, folder, application or device on a computer system. Icons were first developed as a tool for making computer interfaces easier for novices to grasp in the 1970s at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center facility. Icon-driven interfaces were later popularized by the Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating environments.

5 Copyright All Rights Reserved5 Chapter 3 WIMP Menu(s) A menu is a graphical user interface element which allows the user to select one among several, presumably related, choices. A common use of menus is to provide convenient access to various operations such as saving or opening a file, quitting a program, or manipulating data. Most widget toolkits provide some form of pull-down or pop-up menu. Pull-down menus are the type commonly used in menu bars (usually near the top of a window or screen), which are most often used for performing actions, whereas pop-up menus are more likely to be used for setting a value, and might appear anywhere in a window. A menu is a graphical user interface element which allows the user to select one among several, presumably related, choices. A common use of menus is to provide convenient access to various operations such as saving or opening a file, quitting a program, or manipulating data. Most widget toolkits provide some form of pull-down or pop-up menu. Pull-down menus are the type commonly used in menu bars (usually near the top of a window or screen), which are most often used for performing actions, whereas pop-up menus are more likely to be used for setting a value, and might appear anywhere in a window.

6 Copyright All Rights Reserved6 Chapter 3 WIMP Advantages of Menus Menus in GUI applications have been popular for many years. In these applications, users can issue commands by selecting choices from a menu of displayed options. Menus provide the following advantages: Menus in GUI applications have been popular for many years. In these applications, users can issue commands by selecting choices from a menu of displayed options. Menus provide the following advantages: Menus do not require uses to memorize large commands. Users only need to remember what they need or the term that refers to that commands. However, you are not required to remember the actual command used to perform the action. Menus do not require uses to memorize large commands. Users only need to remember what they need or the term that refers to that commands. However, you are not required to remember the actual command used to perform the action. Compared to the command-line interface, the use of menus reduces the number of actions required to perform a specific task. Compared to the command-line interface, the use of menus reduces the number of actions required to perform a specific task. Menus enhance the navigation of an application. In a GUI application, you can provide menu items at every page or form to help the user identify the takes, and select the appropriate command to navigate further in the application. Menus enhance the navigation of an application. In a GUI application, you can provide menu items at every page or form to help the user identify the takes, and select the appropriate command to navigate further in the application. Menus increase the accessibility of an application. Unlike the command- line interface, you can add many options to complete tasks. Menus increase the accessibility of an application. Unlike the command- line interface, you can add many options to complete tasks.

7 Copyright All Rights Reserved7 Chapter 3 WIMP Types of Menus Mainly two types of menus are in practice which are pop up and pull down menus. Mainly two types of menus are in practice which are pop up and pull down menus. Pop Up Menu Pop Up Menu While you click on start button in windows environment, a menu called pop up menu is appeared on the screen. As the name suggests a pop up menu opens from bottom into upward direction. While you click on start button in windows environment, a menu called pop up menu is appeared on the screen. As the name suggests a pop up menu opens from bottom into upward direction. Pull down Menu Pull down Menu A pull down menu is shown in figure 3.1 in Notepad (please refer the book). As the name suggests a pull down menu opens from top into downward direction. A pull down menu is shown in figure 3.1 in Notepad (please refer the book). As the name suggests a pull down menu opens from top into downward direction.

8 Copyright All Rights Reserved8 Chapter 3 WIMP Mice (plural of mouse) A mouse is a handheld pointing device for computers, involving a small object fitted with one or more buttons and shaped to sit naturally under the hand. The underside of the mouse houses a device that detects the mouse's motion relative to the flat surface on which it sits. The mouse's 2D motion is typically translated into the motion of a cursor on the display. A mouse is a handheld pointing device for computers, involving a small object fitted with one or more buttons and shaped to sit naturally under the hand. The underside of the mouse houses a device that detects the mouse's motion relative to the flat surface on which it sits. The mouse's 2D motion is typically translated into the motion of a cursor on the display.

9 Copyright All Rights Reserved9 Chapter 3 WIMP Pointing device(s) A pointing device is any hardware component that allows a user to input special data to a computer. CAD systems and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) allow the user to control and provide data to the computer using physical gestures - point, click, and drag - typically by moving a hand-held mouse across the surface of the physical desktop and activating switches on the mouse. A pointing device is any hardware component that allows a user to input special data to a computer. CAD systems and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) allow the user to control and provide data to the computer using physical gestures - point, click, and drag - typically by moving a hand-held mouse across the surface of the physical desktop and activating switches on the mouse.

10 Copyright All Rights Reserved10 Chapter 3 WIMP Pointing Tasks Pointing devices are applicable in six types of interaction tasks which are as follows: Pointing devices are applicable in six types of interaction tasks which are as follows: Select - The user chooses from a set of items. This technique is used for traditional menu selection, identification of a file in a directory, or marking of a part in an automobile design. Select - The user chooses from a set of items. This technique is used for traditional menu selection, identification of a file in a directory, or marking of a part in an automobile design. Position - The user chooses a point in a one-two, three or higher dimensional space. Positioning may be used to create a drawing, to place a new window, or to drag a block of text in a figure. Position - The user chooses a point in a one-two, three or higher dimensional space. Positioning may be used to create a drawing, to place a new window, or to drag a block of text in a figure. Orient - The user chooses a direction in a two, three, or higher dimensional space. The direction may simply rotate a symbol on the screen, indicate a direction of motion for a space ship, or control the operation of a robot arm. Orient - The user chooses a direction in a two, three, or higher dimensional space. The direction may simply rotate a symbol on the screen, indicate a direction of motion for a space ship, or control the operation of a robot arm.

11 Copyright All Rights Reserved11 Chapter 3 WIMP Path - The user rapidly performs a series of position and orient operations. The path may be realized as curving line in a drawing program, the instructions for a cloth cutting machine, or the route on a map. Path - The user rapidly performs a series of position and orient operations. The path may be realized as curving line in a drawing program, the instructions for a cloth cutting machine, or the route on a map. Quantify - The user specifies a numeric value. The quantify task is usually a one-dimensional selection of integer or real values to set parameters, such as the page number in a document, the velocity of a ship, or the amplitude of a sound. Quantify - The user specifies a numeric value. The quantify task is usually a one-dimensional selection of integer or real values to set parameters, such as the page number in a document, the velocity of a ship, or the amplitude of a sound. Text - The user enters, moves, and edits text in a two-dimensional space. The pointing device indicates the location of an insertion, deletion, or change. Beyond the simple manipulation of the text are more elaborate tasks, such as centering, margin setting, font sizes, highlighting (bold-face or underline), and page layout. Text - The user enters, moves, and edits text in a two-dimensional space. The pointing device indicates the location of an insertion, deletion, or change. Beyond the simple manipulation of the text are more elaborate tasks, such as centering, margin setting, font sizes, highlighting (bold-face or underline), and page layout.

12 Copyright All Rights Reserved12 Chapter 3 WIMP Direct-Control Pointing Devices The light pen was an early device that enabled users to point to a spot on a screen and to perform a select, position, or other task. In fact, the light pen could be used to perform all six tasks. The light pen was attractive because it allowed the user to gain direct control by pointing to a spot on the display, as opposed to having the indirect control provided by a graphics tablet, joystick, or mouse. Most light pen incorporates a button for the user to press when the cursor is resting on the desired spot on the screen. Unfortunately, direct control on an upright screen can cause arm fatigue. The light pens had three further disadvantages; users hands obscured part of the screen, users had to remove their hands from the keyboard, and users had to pick up the light pen. The light pen was an early device that enabled users to point to a spot on a screen and to perform a select, position, or other task. In fact, the light pen could be used to perform all six tasks. The light pen was attractive because it allowed the user to gain direct control by pointing to a spot on the display, as opposed to having the indirect control provided by a graphics tablet, joystick, or mouse. Most light pen incorporates a button for the user to press when the cursor is resting on the desired spot on the screen. Unfortunately, direct control on an upright screen can cause arm fatigue. The light pens had three further disadvantages; users hands obscured part of the screen, users had to remove their hands from the keyboard, and users had to pick up the light pen.


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