Presentation on theme: "By: John Saxton Period: 4 1/18/01 Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658 Oliver Cromwell was born into a common family of English Puritans. A devout Puritan. Educated."— Presentation transcript:
Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658 Oliver Cromwell was born into a common family of English Puritans. A devout Puritan. Educated at Huntingdon, Cambridge, and Lincoln's Inn Cromwell had the God-given ability to earn the loyalty and respect of people who served him. Cromwell represented Huntingdom in the Parliament of 1628 and Camrbidge in both the Short Parliament and in the Long Parliament.
Civil War On one side the King and his supporters fought for traditional government in Church and State. On the other side, the supporters of Parliament sought radical changes in religion and economic policy, and a greater share of power at the national level. Oliver Cromwell led cavalry known as the Ironsides, who showed a mixture of religious sincerity and astute political opportunism.
Civil War Continued 1647- Oliver Cromwell led the New Model Army against the government. 1649- The King was exevuted …In comes the Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth Established in 1649. 1653- Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament, leaving himself as the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth ended in 1653 with Cromwells establishment of the Protectorate.
The Protectorate The Instrument of Government, which Cromwell accepted in December of 1653,assumed Cromwell the title Lord Protector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland and stated that Cromwell would agree to share his power with a council of the state and a Parliament of one house. Cromwells Protectorate was a virtual dictatorship resting on the power of the army.
The Protectorate After a royalist uprising in 1655, Cromwell divied the country into 11 military districts, each under the administration of a major general who enforced the laws and collected the taxes. Religious toleration was extended to all Jews and to all non-Anglican Protestants, but not to Roman Catholics.
The Protectorate In 1654, the first of the Dutch Wars was brought to a close and the English sea power turned against Spain. The Humble Petition and Advice of 1657, the Parliament offered Cromwell the throne (which Cromwell refused), allowed him to name a successor, and set up an upper house to be chosen by him. This attempt at constitutional revision had little practical effect on the government.
The Protectorate The successor was Richard Cromwell, who succeeded as the Lord Protector after the death of his father in 1658. Richard Cromwell was unable to gain the army, which was power behind the Protectorate. This caused Richard Cromwell to resign in May of 1659.
The End of the Protectorate The Rump was recalled and the Commonwealth resumed. After a period of chaos, General George Monck recalled the Long Parliament and brought about the Restoration of Charles II.