5Hurricane Katrina to hit New Orleans? NEW ORLEANS, Louisiana (CNN) -- A solemn New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin ordered mandatory evacuations Sunday as his city faced its worst fear -- the threat of a direct hit from a major hurricane that could swamp the low-lying city.August 28, 2005
6By mid-morning Sunday, Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane with maximum sustained winds near 175 mph. It was expected to make landfall Monday morning. Category 5 is the most intense category on the Saffir-Simpson scale of intensity.Officials are particularly concerned about New Orleans because about 70 percent of the city is below sea level.The city essentially sits in a bowl, protected by a series of levies that keep the Mississippi River waters out.Nagin warned that Katrina's expected storm surge -- which could top 28 feet -- would likely topple those levies.
7The last hurricane to score a direct hit on New Orleans was Hurricane Betsy, a Category 2 with 105 mph winds when it came ashore in Betsy killed more than 70 people, its storm surge overflowing the levees and reaching the eaves of many buildings.The levees are higher now, but Katrina is a stronger storm -- as strong as 1969's Hurricane Camille, which grazed New Orleans when it came ashore in Mississippi and killed more than 250 people."After Betsy these levies were designed for a Category 3," said Sheriff Jeff Hingle of Placquemines Parish, just southeast of New Orleans. "You're now looking at a Category 5. You're looking at a storm that is as strong as Camille was, but bigger than Betsy was size-wise. These levies will not hold the water back. So we're urging people to leave. You're looking at these levies having 10 feet of water over the top of them easily."
9Evacuating Before the Hurricane Hits Diamond Fowler of California drags her bag, as she and her family walk to the Louisiana Superdome Sunday [August 28, 2005].Video “Worst Case Scenario”
10NOAA HURRICANE HUNTER PILOT CAPTURES KATRINA AT HER MEANEST Sept. 1, 2005 — NOAA hurricane hunter aircraft conducted ten long flights into and around the eye of Hurricane Katrina. Lt. Mike Silah got to see Hurricane Katrina up close and personal, especially when she was an extremely dangerous Category Five storm in the Gulf of Mexico. The day before the powerful and destructive storm made landfall on the USA Gulf Coast, Silah snapped a series of images capturing the eyewall of Katrina.
18August 29, 2005 Katrina hits New Orleans Canal Street in New Orleans is empty except for the debris of thrown trees as Hurricane Katrina pounds the Crescent City on Monday, Aug. 29, 2005.
19Floodwaters surround a car in Uptown New Orleans early Monday, Aug Floodwaters surround a car in Uptown New Orleans early Monday, Aug. 29, 2005 as high winds and rain batter the Louisiana coast as Hurricane Katrina makes landfall. AP/Dave Martin
20Blair Quintana, right, and Patrick Lampano seek shelter in a doorway in the French Quarter of New Orleans as Hurricane Katrina pounds the Crescent City on Monday, Aug. 29, AP/Dave Martin
21The waters of Lake Pontchartrain surge over a road early Monday, Aug The waters of Lake Pontchartrain surge over a road early Monday, Aug. 29, 2005 in Lacombe, La., as Hurricane Katrina moved ashore about 100 miles away. AP Photo/Mari Darr-Welch
22A downed tree rests on a truck as winds from Hurricane Katrina began to increase Monday, Aug. 29, 2005 in Lacombe, La. AP Photo/Mari Darr-Welch
23Hurricane Katrina pounds New Orleans early Monday, Aug. 29, 2005. St Hurricane Katrina pounds New Orleans early Monday, Aug. 29, St. Louis Cemetery is in the foreground. AP Photo/Dave Martin
24High winds and rain pound the Louisiana Superdome as Hurricane Katrina makes landfall along the Louisiana coast on Monday, Aug. 29, Officials report that part of the roof of the Superdome, which is housing some 10,000 evacuees, is leaking. AP Photo/Dave Martin
25Charles Anslum rides his bike through downtown Morgan City, La Charles Anslum rides his bike through downtown Morgan City, La., as Hurricane Katrina makes landfall Monday, Aug. 29, AP Photo/David J. Phillip
26Waves crash against a boat washed onto Highway 80 as Hurricane Katrina hits the Gulf Coast Monday, Aug. 29, 2005 in Gulfport, Miss. AP Photo/John Bazemore
27Valence St. in Uptown New Orleans, following Katrina Valence St. in Uptown New Orleans, following Katrina. Chris Mercadel/New Orleans
28Cadiz St. in Uptown New Orleans, following Katrina Cadiz St. in Uptown New Orleans, following Katrina. Chris Mercadel/New Orleans
29A SUV is surrounded by downed trees in Walker. Andrew Gross
30Hurricane Katrina flooded yards on Hastings Street in Metairie Hurricane Katrina flooded yards on Hastings Street in Metairie. Alice Keife
31New Orleans residents are rescued by helicopter from the floodwaters of Hurricane Katrina Wednesday, Aug. 31, 2005 in New Orleans. AP Photo/David J. Phillip
32Two residents take refuge on their rooftop after the hurricane caused severe flooding in New Orleans.
38Water flows over a levee on the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal in New Orleans, Louisiana, August 30. Officials say the New Orleans levee system wasn't built to withstand a storm of Katrina's size. Photograph by Smiley N. Pool/Dallas Morning News/Corbis
45New Orleans residents wait to be rescued from the floodwaters of Hurricane Katrina Wednesday, Aug. 31, 2005 in New Orleans. AP Photo/David J. Phillip
46UrgentURGENT - WEATHER MESSAGE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NEW ORLEANS LA Sunday, Aug. 28, 2005 at 6:56 PMMOST OF THE AREA WILL BE UNINHABITABLE FOR WEEKS...PERHAPS LONGER. AT LEAST ONE HALF OF WELL CONSTRUCTED HOMES WILL HAVE ROOF AND WALL FAILURE. ALL GABLED ROOFS WILL FAIL...LEAVING THOSE HOMES SEVERELY DAMAGED OR DESTROYED. THE MAJORITY OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS WILL BECOME NON FUNCTIONAL. PARTIAL TO COMPLETE WALL AND ROOF FAILURE IS EXPECTED. ALL WOOD FRAMED LOW RISING APARTMENT BUILDINGS WILL BE DESTROYED. CONCRETE BLOCK LOW RISE APARTMENTS WILL SUSTAIN MAJOR DAMAGE...INCLUDING SOME WALL AND ROOF FAILURE. HIGH RISE OFFICE AND APARTMENT BUILDINGS WILL SWAY DANGEROUSLY...A FEW TO THE POINT OF TOTAL COLLAPSE.
47Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. Photo fromAn interdisciplinary, critical inquiry.
48LandfallArnold James tries to keep his feet as a strong gust nearly blows him over as he tries to make his way on foot to the Louisiana Superdome. The roof on James's home blew off, forcing him to seek shelter at the Superdome. AP Photo/Dave MartinWaves crash against a boat washed onto Highway 80 as Hurricane Katrina hits the Gulf Coast Monday, Aug. 29, 2005 in Gulfport, Miss. AP Photo/John Bazemore
49The Water is RisingResidents wait to be rescued from the floodwaters of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans September 1, Chaos and lawlessness hampered the evacuation of New Orleans on Thursday and a U.S. senator said thousands may have died in Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina devastated the U.S. Gulf Coast. In New Orleans, shell-shocked officials tried to regain control of the historic jazz city reduced to a swampy ruin by Monday's storm. Bodies floated in the flooded city and authorities still could only guess how many people had died. (David J. Phillip/Pool/Reuters) Photo at
50Flooding the French Quarter A woman crosses a flooded Bourbon Street in the French Quarter in New Orleans, Louisiana. On August 29, Hurricane Katrina swamped New Orleans, a city built below sea level, sustained by a complex system of dams and whose buffer against storm surges, the wetlands of the Mississippi Delta, had been eroded by reckless development.(AFP/Getty Images/File/Scott Morgan)A city built below sea level is sustained by a complex system of dams serving as a buffer against storm surges and the wetlands of the Mississippi Delta.
52New Orleans SuperdomeHurricane Katrina refugees wait to be evacuated from the New Orleans Superdome. Thousands of National Guard troops moved into New Orleans to restore order to the hurricane-battered city where terrified survivors dodged looters, roaming gangs and gunmen.(AFP/Pool/David J. Phillip)
53Camping on I-10 Oil slicks in the water Victims of Hurricane Katrina camp out on an Interstate 10 bridge as the flood waters to the right show an oil contamination, Thursday, Sept. 1, 2005, in New Orleans, LA.(AP Photo/Phil Coale)Oil slicks in the water
54Leaving the Superdome Walking out on I-10 People walk along Interstate 10 as they leave the Louisiana Superdome and surrounding areas in New Orleans,Wednesday, Aug. 31, Nola.com AP Photo/S.A. Express News, Nicole FrugeWalking out on I-10
56School buses flooded in New Orleans An aerial view of flooded school buses in a lot, Thursday, Sept. 1, 2005, in New Orleans, LA. The flood is a result of Hurricane Katrina that passed through the area last Monday.(AP Photo/Phil Coale)
57Boat Jam on the roadFishing boats pushed ashore by Hurricane Katrina are shown where they came to rest on Highway 23. Four years after the September 11 attacks, the failure of the US emergency services to handle the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina is due to resources being diverted to the 'war on terror,' experts say(AFP/Getty Images/Joe Raedle)AFP/Getty Images - Sat Sep 10, 3:25 AM ET
58Stranded on RooftopsA Coast Guard helicopter works to remove victims of Hurricane Katrina from the rooftops of flooded buildings, Thursday, Sept. 1, 2005, in New Orleans, LA.(AP Photo/Phil Coale)
59Louisiana State Troops Louisiana State Police cruise the streets of the Big Easy looking for looters. They patrol Canal Street at St. Charles. David Grunfeld/Times-Picayune
61To the helicoptersDaniel Hoffmeier, right, with the Coast Guard, along with an unidentified police officer, helps load children into a helicopter while transporting victims of Hurricane Katrina from the civic center to the airport, Saturday in New Orleans. AP Photo/Rob Carr
62U. S. N. S. ComfortThe U.S. Navy Hospital Ship Comfort sits moored in Baltimore Harbor in this January 3, 2003 file photo. The U.S. military on August 31, 2005, added Navy ships, including two helicopter assault vessels and the hospital ship Comfort, and dozens of helicopters to a massive relief effort in the wake of killer Hurricane Katrina. The military's Northern Command said the Comfort, with 12 operating rooms and 1,000 beds, would soon depart Baltimore for a weeklong trip to the area, and the helicopter carrier USS Bataan and another warship were already conducting rescue missions from off the Louisiana and Mississippi coasts. (Brendan McDermid/Files/Reuters)
63Rooftop Rescues Continue Survivors are rescued by helicopter from a rooftop. Floodwaters from Hurricane Katrina stranded thousands of New Orleans residents. Survivors of Hurricane Katrina, huddled in sweltering squalor and terrorized by armed gangs, expressed outrage at the authorities' failure to stem rising chaos.(AFP/Pool/David J. Phillip)
64The Pets Animal rescues Animal rights Animal protection groups In this image provided by the U.S. Airforce, Maj. Renee Shibukawa-Kent feeds "Louis", an orphaned kitten who was airlifted to Louis Armstrong Airport in New Orleans, Tuesday, Sept. 6.A stranded dog stands on the roof of a home surrounded by floodwaters in New Orleans on Saturday, Sept. 10, (AP Photo/Steve Senne)AP Photo/Master Sgt. Jack Braden
65Thank you for rescuing me! Reuters - Fri Sep 9, 6:05 PM ET Jane Garrison of the Humane Society United States is licked by a rescued dog at the Broadmoor neighborhood of New Orleans, September 9,Jane Garrison of the Humane Society United States is licked by a rescued dog at the Broadmoor neighborhood of New Orleans, September 9, 2005.
67Foreign Aid to U.S. Members of the Mexican Navy help distribute water Members of the Mexican Navy help distribute water at a Red Cross shelter in D'Iberville, Miss., on Satuday, Sept. 10, The Mexican military contingent came ashore today to assist victims of Hurricane Katrina. (AP Photo/Rob Carr)U.S. navy sailors assigned to the amphibious assault ship USS Bataan and Mexican marines carry a log as they remove debris at D'iberville Elementary School, in D'iberville, Mississippi September 9, 2005 in support of Hurricane Katrina Relief efforts. The school will be used as a shelter, providing food and medicine for the evacuees. REUTERS/Michael Sandberg-U.S. Navy/HandoutReuters - Sat Sep 10,11:03 AM ETU.S. Navy sailors assigned to the amphibious assault ship USS Bataan and Mexican marines carry a log as they remove debris
68Mexico feeds evacuees in San Antonio Mexican soldiers prepare food as part of the Hurricane Katrina relief effort for the several thousand evacuees housed at a former United States Air Force base in San Antonio, Texas, September 9, The Mexican government sent a convoy of unarmed soldiers with 50 trucks that arrived in Texas September 8. The unit will be serving three meals a day to the evacuees for at least the next 20 days. REUTERS/Jeff Mitchell
69Why did New Orleans flood? Scientific studies - geographical, climatological and geological factsGovernment action and inactionEconomicsKatrina’s devastation 21 (AP)
70What are the environmental issues? Flood controlEPA - Pollution – toxic floodwatersCoastal erosionFossil FuelsGlobal WarmingNatural resourcesWaterwaysWildlife and fisheriesAgriculture, fishing, shrimping, oyster bedsLevee Repair (AP) Sep. 4, 2005
71Global Impact? Global Response How far-reaching is the impact of Katrina?Explore the extent of the impact within the U.S. and globally.Explore the response in the U.S. and globally.
72TechnologyWhat role did technology play in this event, before and after the hurricane?What role will it play in making changes?