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Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT): The Holy Grail of automotive transmission systems? Salim Nasser Mechanical Design II Fall Semester 2002 Mechanical.

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Presentation on theme: "Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT): The Holy Grail of automotive transmission systems? Salim Nasser Mechanical Design II Fall Semester 2002 Mechanical."— Presentation transcript:


2 Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT): The Holy Grail of automotive transmission systems? Salim Nasser Mechanical Design II Fall Semester 2002 Mechanical Engineering Dept. Florida International University

3 Overview of a CVT: Varies the transmission ratio continuously Shifts automatically with an infinite number of ratios. Seamless power delivery Constantly changes its gear ratio to optimize engine efficiency Allows the engine to rev almost immediately to deliver maximum torque

4 Main types of CVTs: Metal Push Belt CVT. Toroidal Drive CVT. Variable Diameter Elastomer Belt CVT Nutating Traction Drive CVT

5 History of CVTS: 1490: Leonardo da Vinci drew sketches of his ideas for a CVT. 1886:The first CVT was built by Daimler and Benz. 1930s: GM developed a toroidal CVT. 1958: Daf (Netherlands) developed and produced a belt driven CVT for a 0.6L engine.

6 Austin 18. Used a CVT 1934

7 The good and the bad of CVTs: ADVANTAGES Decreases engine fatigue Allows for an infinite number of gear ratios, maintaining the engine in its optimum power range More mechanically efficient than Automatic transmissions. Greater fuel efficiency than both manual and automatic transmissions.(Fuel savings of more than 17% have been achieved). Cheaper and lighter than Automatic trans. Smooth, responsive and quiet to drive Newer CVTs have a manual option, giving the driver more control, simulating a MT. CPU can be configured to suit a wide range of driving modes and styles. DISADVANTAGES Limited torque capacity when compared w/manual transmissions. Larger and more costly than manual transmissions. Slipping in the drive belt or pulleys.(NO LONGER AN ISSUE DUE TO NEW ADVANCES). Rubber band effect.(SOLVED) Complacency by the automobile industry, unwilling to discard billions of dollars in development in MT & ATs. CVT AT MT

8 Metal Push Belt CVT: Uses a pair of axially adjustable sets of pulley halves(Variators). Both pulleys have one fixed and one adjustable pulley halve. The transmission ratio is varied by adjusting the spacing between the pulleys in line with the circumference of the tapered pulley halves. A belt is used to transfers the engine's power from one shaft to another. The variators are adjusted hydraulically. When one pulley is varied, the other pulley must adapt itself inversely since the length of the belt is fixed.

9 Push Belt CVT Illustrations: A CVT can convert every point on the engine's operating curve to a corresponding point on its own operating curve. The belt rides lower or higher along the walls of the pulley, depending on driving conditions, thereby changing the gear ratio.

10 CVT Schematic :Belt Drive

11 Hondas V-Belt CVT The acceleration clutch is placed on the driven shaft in order to control torque at the closest possible place to the axle. This allows for smooth acceleration and a modest amount of creep.(eliminates need for a torque converter. )

12 Van Doorne Steel Belt (1): oAlmost all of todays belt driven CVTs use this design invented by Dutch CVT specialist Van Doorne. o Maximum torque it can withstand is around 150 lb-ft (190hp). Used in: Honda Civic HX Nissan Primera Toyota Prius Honda Insight BMW Minicooper Saturn Vue.

13 Van Doorne Steel Belt (2): Assembled/Disassembled

14 1993 Williams/Renault FW15C CVT prototype 1994 FIA banned CVTs from F1 racing Without as much development as the MT version, the experimental CVT Formula One was 1 second faster per lap.

15 CVT Vs. Manual Transmission Theoretical comparison under ideal conditions. The Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) proved 35% more efficient than the Manual Transmission (MT). With same car and engine, the CVT takes only 75% of the time to accelerate to 100km/h, compared to the MT. 1991 FIAT UNO: M=1250kg Torque=101.2 N-m Torque=101.2 N-m n=5700rpm n=5700rpm CVT MT 8.8 sec.11.9 sec. 0-100 km/h

16 CVT Power transmission:

17 CVT Simulation: Audi A6 Multitronic Audi A6 3.0 L 0-60 mphMileage A6 5-speed manual 8.2 sec 9.9 litre / 100km A6 5-speed Tiptronic 9.4 sec 10.6 liter 100km A6 Multitronic CVT 8.1 sec 9.7 litre / 100km

18 Audi Multitronic CVT: Used in Audis 1.8L A4 and 3.0L A8. A Uses a multi-plate clutch instead of a torque converter The electronics detect uphill and downhill gradients, and assist the driver by compensating for the added load or boosting engine braking torque accordingly.

19 Audis Chain Belt design: link-plate chain made entirely from steel As flexible as a V-belt Composed of several layers of platesside by side connected by high strength pins. The chain's tension is transmitted to the variator pulleys at the pin ends. Torque capacity of around 280 N-m.

20 Toroidal Traction Drive CVT: Uses rollers to transmit torque between the input disc (which connects the crankshaft) and output disc (which connects the driveshaft). A viscous fluid with high shear strength properties is fundamental in transmitting torque between rollers and discs. Rollers and discs never touch. The angle of the rollers changes relative to shaft position resulting in a change in gear ratio. The change in angle by a roller must be mirrored by the opposing roller.

21 Basic theory of Toroidal CVT:

22 Sample of gear changes in TCVTs:

23 The oil is specially formulated to become highly viscous under pressure. When pressure is exerted at the contact points between the rollers and the discs the oil resists the tendency to slide and transmits the power effectively. Non-Newtonian Oil in TCVT:

24 Nissan Extroid Toroidal CVT: Used by Infinitys Q35 and Nissans Cedric.

25 Torotrak IVT: 3D View Transmission ratios are achived using a typical Toroidal CVT. The torque converter is replaced by a Planetary gearset/multiple-clutch system. The Planetary gearset is engaged or disengaged depending on the TCVT ratio. Input gears Variator(TCVT) Epicyclic gearset FR chain clutch

26 Torotrak IVT: Toroid Drive HIGH REGIME: LOW REGIME: 2 nd Gear+ Below 2 nd Gear Eliminates need for Torque Converter Developed successfully for GMs 5.4L Ford Expedition. (70 mph@1000 rpm.)




30 Future of CVTs: The internal combustion (IC) engine is nearing both perfection and obsolescence; advancements in fuel economy and emissions have effectively stalled. CVTs could potentially allow IC vehicles to meet the first wave of new fuel regulations As CVT development continues, costs will be reduced further and performance will continue to increase. This cycle of improvement will ultimately giveCVTs a solid foundation in the worlds automotive infrastructure.

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