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RISK OF SURGERY IN THE PATIENT WITH LIVER DISEASE Ajay Jain Gastroenterology Fellow January 16, 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "RISK OF SURGERY IN THE PATIENT WITH LIVER DISEASE Ajay Jain Gastroenterology Fellow January 16, 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 RISK OF SURGERY IN THE PATIENT WITH LIVER DISEASE Ajay Jain Gastroenterology Fellow January 16, 2002

2 CASE ID/CC: 57 F admitted Aug. 28 with L femur # PMHx: HCV Cirrhosis »OGD (1998) Gr II varices »No GI bleed, encephalopathy, SBP MEDS: nadolol 40 mg OD spironolactone 100mg OD furosemide40 mg OD Other Hx: »no alcohol abuse

3 CASE O/E:110/72,70, 18, afebrile H&N:scleral icterus, jaundice, spider angiomata CVS:JVP 3cm ASA, normal S1 S2, no S3 S4, no murmurs, + SOA PULM: clear ABDO:distended, bulging flanks, + fluid wave, spleen tip palpable, liver span 8cm, non-tender NEURO: no asterixis

4 CASE LAB: n Hb97 (MCV 94)Na n WBC8.6Cr 36 n Plts84Urea 5.1 n ALB18AST 85 n INR2.1ALT 60 n T.BILI180ALP253 ABDO U/S: n nodular liver 9cm c/w cirrhosis n spleen 14cm n moderate ascites

5 n What recommendations would you provide to the orthopedic surgeon and the patient?

6 Introduction n multiple functions of the liver »synthesis of most serum proteins »metabolism of nutrients and drugs »excretion and detoxification of endogenous toxins and exogenous agents »filtering of portal venous blood

7 Introduction n any or all of the functions of the liver may be impaired in patients with liver disease n pharmacokinetic parameters of: »anaesthetics »muscle relaxants »analgesics, and sedatives can be affected by changes in their »binding to plasma proteins »detoxification »excretion

8 Introduction n bleeding risk may be increased due to coagulopathy n susceptibility to infection may be increased due to: »altered functioning of hepatic reticuloendothelial cells »changes in the immune system »portal hypertension

9 Introduction n in the vast majority of patients with liver disease in whom liver function is preserved, the operative risk is not likely to be increased n mild elevations of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, or bilirubin levels are frequent post- operatively »in pts without liver disease, these elevations are usually transient and of no clinical significance

10 Introduction A diseased liver is particularly susceptible to the hemodynamic changes that accompany surgery »altered hepatic flow may result in hepatic dysfunction in predisposed individuals Med Clin North Am, 1987 Hepatology, 1991

11 Effects of Anesthesia on the Diseased Liver n anesthesia results in moderate reduction in hepatic arterial blood flow and hepatic oxygen uptake »no clinical significance of these changes seen in healthy volunteers n liver blood flow returns to baseline during surgery »initial hypoperfusion and/or reperfusion injury may contribute to postoperative liver dysfunction

12 Effects of Anesthesia on the Diseased Liver n Volatile Anesthetics (Halothane & Enflurane) »reduce hepatic arterial (HA) blood flow (systemic vasodilatation) »small negative inotropic effect »significant hepatic metabolism (halothane - 20%, enflurane - 3%) n Isoflurane »may actually increase HA blood flow »preferred agent in patients with liver disease »undergo less hepatic metabolism (0.2%) (corresponds with lower risk of drug-induced hepatitis) (risk of halothane hepatitis quite low: 1 in )

13 Effects of Anesthesia on the Diseased Liver n Hypercarbia »sympathetic stimulation of splanchnic vasculature, thereby decreasing portal blood flow »pCO 2 should be maintained between mmHg during surgery

14 Effects of Anesthesia on the Diseased Liver n Neuromuscular Blocking Agents »prolonged in patients with liver disease due to: n reduced plasma pseudocholinesterase activity n decreased biliary excretion n increased volume of distribution n Atracurium »preferred agent in patients with liver disease »metabolism independent of the liver n Doxacurium »long-acting muscle relaxant »recommended for prolonged procedures including hepatic transplantation

15 Effects of Anesthesia on the Diseased Liver Narcotics n morphine and meperidine »reduces hepatic blood flow n fentanyl »preferred narcotic agent Sedatives n diazepam »prolonged metabolism in patients with liver disease n lorazepam »eliminated by glucoronidation without hepatic metabolism »preferred agent

16 Effect of Type of Surgical Procedure on the Diseased Liver n important determinant of post-operative hepatic dysfunction n risk: laparotomy > extra-abdominal surgery »greater reduction in HA blood flow n cholecystectomy, gastric surgery and colectomy associated with high mortality rates in patients with decompensated cirrhosis n morbidity/mortality higher for emergent than elective surgery

17 Effect of Type of Surgical Procedure on the Diseased Liver n Cardiac Surgery (limited experience) »13 pts with alcoholic cirrhosis underwent emergent CABG/valve replacement »post-operative mortality rate n Childs A: 0 % n Childs B:80 % Ann Thorac Surg, 1998

18 Modified Child-Pugh Score Points Points Parameter 123 albumin > <28 INR 2.3 bilirubin (mg/dL) 3.0 ascites absent slight-mod tense encephalopathy none Gr. I-II Gr. III-IV Class A:5-6points Class B:7-9 points Class C:10-15points

19 Estimating Operative Risk in Patients with Liver Disease n minimal data on precise estimates of operative risk n most data from small retrospective studies of cirrhotic patients undergoing abdominal surgery n pre-operative risk likely dependent on type of underlying liver disease

20 Contraindications to Elective Surgery in Patients with Liver Disease n Acute viral hepatitis n Acute alcoholic hepatitis n Fulminant hepatic failure n Severe chronic hepatitis n Childs class C cirrhosis n Severe coagulopathy (PT > 3 sec vs control, Plt 3 sec vs control, Plt<50) n Severe extrahepatic complications »hypoxemia »cardiomyopathy, heart failure »acute renal failure

21 Acute Hepatitis n acute hepatitis contraindication to elective surgery n peri-operative mortality rates: 9.5 to 13% (in icteric patients) n surgery also contraindicated in patients with a histological diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis »mortality rates as high as 55% reported in patients undergoing open liver biopsy or portosystemic shunt surgery JAMA, 1963 Br J Surg, 1982

22 Chronic Hepatitis n surgical risk correlate with clinical, biochemical, and histological severity of disease n elective surgery reported to be safe in patients with asymptomatic mild chronic hepatitis

23 Fatty Liver and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis n alcoholic or non-alcoholic fatty liver is not a contraindication to elective surgery n trend toward increased mortality following hepatic resection in patients with moderate to severe steatosis (ie. >30% of hepatocytes containing fat) J Gastrointest Surg, 1998 n period of abstinence from alcohol before surgery advisable

24 Fatty Liver and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis EFFECT OF PREOPERATIVE ABSTINENCE ON POOR POSTOPERATIVE OUTCOME IN ALCOHOL MISUSERS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL (BMJ, 1999) n 41 alcoholic (>60g ethanol/d) patients without liver disease undergoing elective colorectal surgery n abstinence from alcohol (n=20) vs continuous drinking (n=21) AbstinenceContinuous n post-op complications 31% 74% n post-op myocardial ischemia 23% 85% n post-op arrhythmias 33% 86%

25 Other Causes of Liver Disease n Autoimmune Hepatitis »if in remission, elective surgery well tolerated in patients with compensated liver disease »perioperative administration of stress doses of hydrocortisone indicated in patients taking prednisone n Hemochromatosis »monitoring of diabetes in perioperative period »assess for possibility of cardiomyopathy n Wilsons Disease »neuropsychiatric involvement - interferes with consent »D-pencillamine can impair wound healing - decrease dose in first 1-2 postoperative weeks

26 Cirrhosis n retrospective studies have shown that perioperative mortality and morbidity rates correlate well with the Child- Turcotte-Pugh class of cirrhosis n Alcoholic Cirrhosis (abdominal surgery): Mortality Rates »Childs A 10% 10% »Childs B »Childs C n some studies have not confirmed predictive value of Childs classification, mainly due to few Childs C patients n APACHE III can predict survival in cirrhotic patients admitted to an ICU; yet to be studied in cirrhotics undergoing surgery

27 Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) n annual incidence of HCC 3 to 5% n perioperative mortality rate for hepatic resection 3 to 16% n postoperative morbidity rates as high as 60% n 5 year recurrence rates are as high as 100% n 5 year survival rates are no higher than 50%

28 Preoperative Evaluation n 1 in 700 otherwise healthy individuals will have abnormal liver function tests n any patient undergoing surgery: »careful history to identify risk factors for liver disease »a history of jaundice or fever after anesthesia »alcohol history and complete review of medications »sx or findings on physical examination suggestive of liver dz n patients with known liver disease: »identify presence of jaundice, ascites, or encephalopathy »complete biochemical assessment of liver function »correct coagulopathy, ascites and encephalopathy

29 Postoperative Period n monitor for signs of liver decompensation including worsening jaundice, encephalopathy and ascites n bilirubin and prothrombin time best measures of hepatic function n renal function important to monitor because of the risk of hepatorenal syndrome n monitoring of serum glucose levels as hypoglycemia often accompanies postoperative hepatic failure

30 CASE - Hospital Course Hospital Day 4 n doubling of Cr and urea, small drop in Hb n diagnostic paracentesis c/w SBP ==> ceftriaxone Hospital Day 6 n asterixis n bili 398, INR 1.90, increasing Cr Hospital Day 9 n OGD - Gr III varix - no active bleed

31 CASE - Hospital Course Hospital Day 12 n Na + 122, Cr 170, T.Bili 493, INR 2.2 n drowsy n DNR status obtained Hospital Day 13 n hypotensive - Rx with IV fluids n comfort measures Hospital Day 14 n progressive obtundation n glucometer 1.5 n expired


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