2Application of Tuber Starches in Industry S. N. MoorthyCentral Tuber Crops Research InstituteThiruvananthapuram, Kerala
3CTCRI carries out research on various aspects of Tropical Tuber Crops Cassava Sweet potatoColocasia Dioscorea esculentaD. alata D. rotundataAmorphophallus XanthosomaArrowroot PachyrrhizusColeus Canna edulis
4Germplasm of Tuber Crops at CTCRI ExoticIndigenousTotalCassavaManihot Sps.78488221606Sweet potato309539848YamsLesser Yam1698Greater Yam21194White Yam275604AroidsTaro1397Tannia-40Elephant foot yam82X. Violaceum4Giant Taro3Swamp taro2529
5Improved cassava varieties released from CTCRI Name of the VarietyYield(t ha-1)Potential Yield (t ha-1)Starch (%)Edible (E) Industrial (I)a. H-9725-354027-31Ib. H-16533-384523-25c. H-22630-3528-30d. Sree Visakham35-3825-27Ee. Sree Sahya35-4029-31f. Sree PrakashE/Ig. Sree Harsha6038-41h. Sree Jaya26-305824-27i. Sree Vijaya25-285127-30j. Sree Rekha45-485126-28Ek. Sree Prabha40-455126-28E
6Industrial Utilization of Cassava in India (in lakh tonnes/annum) Cassava productCurrent UtilizationProjection for 2020 ADDemand by 2020 ADGapStarch22.214.171.124-0.5Sago2.4-0.1Dry Chips1.01.2+0.3Wafers0.020.050.1-0.05
7Industrial utilization of cassava starch in India Textiles40-50 %Adhesives20-25 %Food10 %Pharmaceuticals, Liquid glucose, modified starches5-10 %Vitamin C, Maltodextrins, Citric acid, Ethanol, Biodegradable plastics etc.5 %
9PROPERTIES OF THE DIFFERENT TUBER STARCHES Source Granule Amylose XRD Size (m) content (%) patternCassava ASweet Potato ADioscorea alata BD. esculenta BD. rotundata BColocasia esculenta AXanthosoma AAmorphophallus AArrowroot A
10Disadvantage Cohesive character in some foods POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OF THE STARCHCassava StarchIn food industryAdvantages Bland taste, high viscosity, good clarity and storage stability.Disadvantage Cohesive character in some foods
11APPLICATIONS OF CASSAVA STARCH In textile and paper industryAdvantages Brightness, high viscsosityeasy gelatinisation & desizingDisadvantages Unstable viscosity, cohesivetextureIn Sweetener industryAdvantages Easy gelatinisation,In Adhesive industryAdvantages Good tack.
12APPLICATIONS OF STARCHES Yam starchesAdvantages Can be useful in food industry due to highand stable viscosity, clarity and gelstabilityCan also be useful in other industrial applicationsDisdvantages Poor starch extractability and starch oftendiscolouredD. esculenta starch can be useful in toilet formulationsand aerosols and biodegradable plastics as filler
13Colocasia starch In food applications Easily digestible Applications of starchesColocasia starchIn food applicationsEasily digestibleSmall granules useful in:Toilet formulations and aerosolsBiodegradable plastics as filler* Modifications eliminate undesirable properties
17APPLICATION AREAS FOR MODIFIED STARCHES Area Modification FunctionsPaper Cationic starch Binding cationic chargeCorrugating Pregelatinised Binding/Glueing/Initial tack/ granular starchTextile Starch esters(Acetates) Sizing/ Film formationGypsum/ mineral Starch esters/ ethers Binding/ Low gelzn. Temp.fibre boardCoal briquetting Starch esters Binding Initial TackAdhesives for Starch esters Adhesion / Quick dryingPaper sacksOil well drilling Starch esters/ ethers Water binding/ ThickeningFoundry Pregelatinised starch Binding/ Green Bond stability
18Modified Starches Developed at CTCRI 1. Starch with reduced viscosity2. Starch acetate and other esters3. Oxidised starch4. Cold water miscible starch5. Maltodextrin6. Starch based adhesive
19Starch of reduced viscosity Produced by steam pressure treatment.Viscosity could be modified to desirable levels by changing the pressure and time.Simple process and easy work up.
20Starch estersStarch acetate prepared by reaction of acetic anhydride in alkali/pyridine.Desired DS level achieved by varying the anhydride concentration.The properties depend on DS and at high DS, the starch was resistant to gelatinisation.Good film forming capacity.
21Oxidised starch Oxidation by use of sodium hypochlorite Lower and stabilised viscositySimple work upSuitable for paper industries
22Cold Water Miscible Starch Using alcohol/alkali & precipitation by alcohol.Easily and completely soluble in cold waterGood and stable viscosity
23Maltodextrins from cassava starch and thippi Prepared from starch/thippi using thermostable bacterial amylase, Termamyl .Low sweetness, high thickening power and readily miscible in water.Food application as low calorific product, fat substitute, encapsulation of flavoursPharmaceutical applications.
24Novel starch based products Polyols like Maltitol, ErythritolOrganic acids like Gluconic acidBiodetergentsBiodegradable plastics.