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Produce tuber and reduce hunger

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1 Produce tuber and reduce hunger
Welcome to CTCRI

2 Application of Tuber Starches in Industry
S. N. Moorthy Central Tuber Crops Research Institute Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

3 CTCRI carries out research on various aspects of Tropical Tuber Crops
Cassava Sweet potato Colocasia Dioscorea esculenta D. alata D. rotundata Amorphophallus Xanthosoma Arrowroot Pachyrrhizus Coleus Canna edulis

4 Germplasm of Tuber Crops at CTCRI
Exotic Indigenous Total Cassava Manihot Sps. 784 8 822 1606 Sweet potato 309 539 848 Yams Lesser Yam 16 98 Greater Yam 21 194 White Yam 275 604 Aroids Taro 1 397 Tannia - 40 Elephant foot yam 82 X. Violaceum 4 Giant Taro 3 Swamp taro 2 529

5 Improved cassava varieties released from CTCRI
Name of the Variety Yield (t ha-1) Potential Yield (t ha-1) Starch (%) Edible (E) Industrial (I) a. H-97 25-35 40 27-31 I b. H-165 33-38 45 23-25 c. H-226 30-35 28-30 d. Sree Visakham 35-38 25-27 E e. Sree Sahya 35-40 29-31 f. Sree Prakash E/I g. Sree Harsha 60 38-41 h. Sree Jaya 26-30 58 24-27 i. Sree Vijaya 25-28 51 27-30 j. Sree Rekha 45-48 51 26-28 E k. Sree Prabha 40-45 51 26-28 E

6 Industrial Utilization of Cassava in India (in lakh tonnes/annum)
Cassava product Current Utilization Projection for 2020 AD Demand by 2020 AD Gap Starch 1.5 2.5 3.0 -0.5 Sago 2.4 -0.1 Dry Chips 1.0 1.2 +0.3 Wafers 0.02 0.05 0.1 -0.05

7 Industrial utilization of cassava starch in India
Textiles 40-50 % Adhesives 20-25 % Food 10 % Pharmaceuticals, Liquid glucose, modified starches 5-10 % Vitamin C, Maltodextrins, Citric acid, Ethanol, Biodegradable plastics etc. 5 %

8 Tuber crop starch- properties
Tubers Starch , % Viscosity Clarity Stability Cassava 25-35 High Medium Sweet potato 20-25 Medium-high Yams 15-33 Aroids 10-20 Low-medium Low Canna 15-25 Arrowroot 16-28

Source Granule Amylose XRD Size (m) content (%) pattern Cassava A Sweet Potato A Dioscorea alata B D. esculenta B D. rotundata B Colocasia esculenta A Xanthosoma A Amorphophallus A Arrowroot A

10 Disadvantage Cohesive character in some foods
POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OF THE STARCH Cassava Starch In food industry Advantages Bland taste, high viscosity, good clarity and storage stability. Disadvantage Cohesive character in some foods

In textile and paper industry Advantages Brightness, high viscsosity easy gelatinisation & desizing Disadvantages Unstable viscosity, cohesive texture In Sweetener industry Advantages Easy gelatinisation, In Adhesive industry Advantages Good tack.

Yam starches Advantages Can be useful in food industry due to high and stable viscosity, clarity and gel stability Can also be useful in other industrial applications Disdvantages Poor starch extractability and starch often discoloured D. esculenta starch can be useful in toilet formulations and aerosols and biodegradable plastics as filler

13 Colocasia starch In food applications Easily digestible
Applications of starches Colocasia starch In food applications Easily digestible Small granules useful in: Toilet formulations and aerosols Biodegradable plastics as filler * Modifications eliminate undesirable properties

Amylose Amylopectin Separation Phy. treatment Modified Starches Dextrins Native Starch Chem. treatment Starch derivatives Transglycolysation Glycosylates Hydrolysis Mono-, di- and Oligo saccharides Maltodextrins

Auxiliary Binder, thickener etc. Raw Material Polyols, Org. acids Functional Additive Synth. Polymers Starch Component Grafted polymers Active Material Surfactants

16 STARCH MODIFICATIONS Physical Treatment Chemical Treatment Degradation
Substitution Crosslinking Pregelatinised Dextrins Glucose etc. Oxidised Ethers Esters Diethers Diesters Anionic Cationic Non-ionic

Area Modification Functions Paper Cationic starch Binding cationic charge Corrugating Pregelatinised Binding/Glueing/Initial tack / granular starch Textile Starch esters(Acetates) Sizing/ Film formation Gypsum/ mineral Starch esters/ ethers Binding/ Low gelzn. Temp. fibre board Coal briquetting Starch esters Binding Initial Tack Adhesives for Starch esters Adhesion / Quick drying Paper sacks Oil well drilling Starch esters/ ethers Water binding/ Thickening Foundry Pregelatinised starch Binding/ Green Bond stability

18 Modified Starches Developed at CTCRI
1. Starch with reduced viscosity 2. Starch acetate and other esters 3. Oxidised starch 4. Cold water miscible starch 5. Maltodextrin 6. Starch based adhesive

19 Starch of reduced viscosity
Produced by steam pressure treatment. Viscosity could be modified to desirable levels by changing the pressure and time. Simple process and easy work up.

20 Starch esters Starch acetate prepared by reaction of acetic anhydride in alkali/pyridine. Desired DS level achieved by varying the anhydride concentration. The properties depend on DS and at high DS, the starch was resistant to gelatinisation. Good film forming capacity.

21 Oxidised starch Oxidation by use of sodium hypochlorite
Lower and stabilised viscosity Simple work up Suitable for paper industries

22 Cold Water Miscible Starch
Using alcohol/alkali & precipitation by alcohol. Easily and completely soluble in cold water Good and stable viscosity

23 Maltodextrins from cassava starch and thippi
Prepared from starch/thippi using thermostable bacterial amylase, Termamyl . Low sweetness, high thickening power and readily miscible in water. Food application as low calorific product, fat substitute, encapsulation of flavours Pharmaceutical applications.

24 Novel starch based products
Polyols like Maltitol, Erythritol Organic acids like Gluconic acid Biodetergents Biodegradable plastics.

25 Thank you

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