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Presentation on theme: "SELECTION SKILLS."— Presentation transcript:


2 PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES n Create an understanding of Selection tools and techniques and their appropriateness n Understand competency based selection n Learn interviewing skills n Understand the need for psychometric testing

3 LEARNING GRID Unconscious Incompetence Conscious incompetence Conscious competenceUnconscious competence I II III IV Awareness Learning/Training Practice Unlearning/Review

4 RECRUITMENT & SELECTION n Manpower Planning n Setting Specs n Advertising/Consultant/Online/Referral n Shortlisting CVs n Calling candidates n Group Process/Psychometric Testing n Interviews n Offer letter n Joining n Induction n Training n Grooming for productivity

5 COMMON ERRORS IN RECRUITING Selected Not selected Right personWrong Person A B

6 Selection Techniques n Interviews n Tests - General Ability,special aptitudes n Simulation exercise n Work Sample Tests n Personality questionnaires n Interest questionnaires n Bio Data n Reference Checks n Group Discussions n Handwriting Analysis etc. n Case discussions n Presentations n On - field accompaniment n In tray exercises n Assessment Centres (combination of above items)

7 Perfect Prediction - Validity Smith, Gregg & Andrews - 1987 Chance Astrology/Graphology References Typical Interviews Structured Interviews Work sample Tests Ability Tests Assessment Centers (development) Assessment Centers (selection) Personality Tests 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.5

8 RANKING OF SELECTION METHODOLOGIES 1 Patterns of past behaviour 2 TESTS - reported present behaviour 3 Interviews - with many How would you behave in the future questions

9 WHY DIFFERENT SELECTION TOOLS ? n Any one tool cannot get all the data n Need a set of different tools, which involve testing different faculties and behavior of candidates n Each tool is effective for for a specific set of relevant attributes

10 Critical Attribute Physical attribute : e.g. 6 feet tall Attainment :e.g. B.Tech Competency/Talent/Traits : e.g. Achievement Orientation Intuition Charisma

11 Competency Any quality or characteristic of a person, which underpins recurring successful performance

12 Skills, Knowledge & Talent n Skills : The How - tos of the role Capabilities that can be transferred from one person to another n Knowledge What you are aware of Factual ( things you know) Can & should be taught Experiential (understandings you have picked up along the way). Less Tangible and therefor much harder to teach n Talent Recurring patterns of thought feeling behavior,that carve individual minds If someone does not have the talent as part of his filter, then very difficult for others to inject it.

13 The three levels of competencies are n DISTINGUISHING n THRESHOLD n FUNCTIONAL

14 A CHECK LIST FOR BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS Each indicator should: n Describe directly observable behavior, or other specific evidence of an individuals competency n Describe just one piece of behavior of evidence n Not to be duplicated under two or more competencies n Include a verb phrase i.e. describe action

15 THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING Definition : Level 1 - Junior Manager n Manages own time and personal activities n Breaks complex activities into manageable tasks n Identifies possible obstacles to planned achievements

16 THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING Definition : Level 2 - Middle Manager n Produces contingency plans for possible future occurrences n Estimates in advance the resources and time scales needed to meet objectives n Co-ordinates team activities to make the best use of individual skills and specializations

17 THE COMPETENCY PLANNING & ORGANISING Definition : Level 3 - Senior Manager n Identifies longer term operational implications of business plans n Effectively plans utilization of all resources

18 THE 12 MOST COMMON COMPETENCIES n Communication n Achievement orientation n Customer Focus n Team work n Leadership n Planning and organising n Commercial awareness n Flexibility n Developing others n Problem solving n Analytical thinking n Building relationships Source: Competency based Recruitment & Selection by Robert Wood and Tim Payne

19 Competencies & Trainability TRAITS MOTIVES VALUES COGNITIVE CAPBILITIES SKILLS KNOWLEDGE More conscious More trainable Less Conscious Less Trainable E.g.: Has contacts E.g.: Results orientation,planning abilities

20 Critical Attributes for Sales Managers ( Example) n Interpersonal Skills n Influencing Skills n Results orientation n Customer Concern n Technical expertise n Providing direction n Analytical Thinking n Conceptual thinking n Information seeking n Staff development n Team building n Planning n Decision Making

21 Interview Entrevoir ( French) to have a glimpse of

22 WHAT IS AN INTERVIEW? A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants oral responses to oral enquiries

23 OBJECTIVES OF SELECTION IN INTERVIEW 1 Selecting people for jobs by: Informing applicants about the job Gaining unbiased factual information against the criteria Influencing suitable candidates to accept 2 Demonstrating that the company operates a fair and equitable selection procedure (Public Relations)

24 Goodwill Bank n Need a process that will enhance company stature –Fair –Friendly –Rigorous –Respect for individual - Time bound How will a candidate not selected speak of your organisation?

25 SELECTION INTERVIEW - EFFECTIVENESS Bottom line Test - Answering Three key questions n Can he do the job(Competence) n Will he do the job( Motivation) n Will he fit in ( Team / Organisation)?( Match)

26 SELECTION INTERVIEW IF EFFECTIVE n Saves Time n Better job/person matching n Satisfied interviewers/Interviewees n Good image / PR n Tightening of recruitment process IF INEFFECTIVE n May end up recruiting unfit candidates n Missing suitable candidates n Demotivating suitable candidates from joining

27 UNDERSTANDING YOUR APPLICANTS According to research, students have listed the following Organisational characteristics as important to them: n Type of work you would do n Type of people you would like to work with n Training & development opportunities n Chances of promotion n Salary n Job security n Working condition n Reputation/image of the organisation n Geographical location n Hours expected at work n Benefits ( Company car, Pension, Loans etc.)

28 INTERVIEW PROCESS - REQUIREMENTS Venue INTERVIEW PROCESS CANDIDATE Expects Professionalism Realistic picture of job & company/organisation Input on where he stands (process, time scale etc.) Minimal Wait Objectivity INTERVIEWER Needs: Purpose of I/V Agreed Criteria Application form Time to prepare and judge job and company knowledge Skills to obtain & evaluate information and make effective judgements Relaxed and open minded Right attitude

29 List the things you would like to have seen when you last went for an interview. What did you expect from the company ?

30 SETTING THE ENVIRONMENT n No disturbance n No phone Calls n Seating - Neutral ( Perhaps an L shape ) n No distraction in the vicinity n No Power Statements n Having water available on the table ( for candidate ) n Have stationary ready ( for candidate )

31 Remember n Note taking - minimal, with permission n Stress Interviews - Try to avoid n Politeness - specially to bad n Airtime - 80 - 20

32 INTERVIEW STRUCTURE 1 Opening, rapport building 2 Current & previous roles 3 Aspirations & awareness 4 Education & upbringing 5 Circumstances & interests 6 Closing, wrap up

33 Interview - An Information Sorting Model Opening & Rapport Building Current & Previous Roles Aspirations & Awareness Education & Upbringing Circumstances & Interest Closing/Wrap up CA 1 CA2 CA3 CA4 CA5 Information Sorting Assessment

34 OPENING, RAPPORT BUILDING n Appropriate recognition n Relaxed Approach n Introduce yourself n Share - Interview purpose »Recruitment process »Job Role ( briefly) »Interview structure & Time n Check Understanding

35 Things to look out for in a CV n Organisation of events - Priority accordance n Clarity of depiction and succinctness n Unexplained breaks in Service and Education n Extent of customisation to the job applied n Quality of the CV: mode, spelling errors, verbosity


37 TYPE OF QUESTIONS n Factual recall n Comparison n Opinion n Case Problems n Hypothetical n Rhetorical n Leading n Pumping

38 PAST BEHAVIOUR is the single best predictor of future behaviour

39 Structure of Questions n Open ended Questions How - What - When - Where - Who - Why n Close ended Questions Do you - Did you - Can you - Will you - Could you - Would you - Should you n Prompting/ encouraging expressions Tell me…, Describe … For example?, For instance?, In what sense? How come?, In simpler terms...

40 Questioning Pattern Broad Open ended Probe Narrow Close Summarise

41 Characteristics of Good Questions n Purposeful n Relevant n Clear & concise n Limited to one idea n Neutral in tone & substance

42 The quality & value of answer depends on the quality of the question

43 QUESTIONS COVERAGE n WHAT Qs - Elicit information about knowledge, facts/data, opinions n WHY Qs - Analytical skills, reasoning, logic etc. motivations( what else…How else…, Where else….) n HOW Qs - Knowledge of functional skills, process/steps ( also analytical skills) n HOW MUCH/HOW WELL Qs - validating achievements



46 THE PANEL INTERVIEW SOME GUIDELINES n Agree roles & structures n Stick to roles n Do not interrupt n Do not help the candidate n Select lead interviewer n The others listen,take notes ( factual), ask questions around other key areas and observe non verbal behavior n Follow up at end of a section

47 Questioning Technique n S n Situation n T n Task n A n Achievement n R n Review

48 Telephonic Interviews n You cannot see the candidate, so you have to trust only two senses - hearing & intuition n Do not short circuit the interview. The process should be the same as a face-to-face interview n Follow the interview structure n Use the funnel - what, why, how,how well n Use many encouraging, prompting expressions,like … Yes Tell me more Describe I see For example? In what sense? n Keep sentences & discussions short n Summarise each section

49 INTERVIEW TIPS n Interviewers need to be provided with job description & specification of the requirements of the position to minimize the influence of stereotypes n Interview questions need to be job related n Avoid making quick decisions about an applicant n Avoid giving too much weight to a few characteristics n Try to put the applicant at ease during the interview n Communicate clearly with the applicant n Maintain consistency in the questions asked

50 Management Interviewing n Less emphasis on background : more on role and work n Ask about aspirations before role n Easy for candidate to obscure track record through jargon and generalities n A look good, talk good candidate may land up interviewing the interviewer - superficial interview may take place n Hence be specific - focus on Critical attributes

51 Focus on Roles n Job titles can be misleading n Main areas of job. Principal tasks that you do personally? Why? How do you divide your time? n Performance criteria,targets,priorities,performance ratings,informal reviews n Focus on relationships - up, down, or with colleagues n Time perspective n Breadth of perception of job relative to entire organisation n Perceived freedom to act n Ability to influence the organisation

52 Management skills n How results are achieved and how the candidate handles the process of management n Setting objectives for self and team n Decision making style - alone or team n Resolving conflicts - how and when n Handling customers - relationship based and task based n Resolving issues between internal demands and customer expectations

53 Management focus n Motivational style - sort of environment in team. Leading team front or back n Grooming others - spending time for developing people n Investing in self - learning & growing n Monitoring work of self and team n Handling communication & consultation n Influencing others through meetings and presentations

54 TYPES OF INTERVIEWS n Unstructured Interview n Situational Interview n Behaviour Description interview n Comprehensive structured interview n Structured behavioural interview n Oral Interview boards


56 TALENT What is Talent? A recurring pattern of thought, feeling or behavior that can be productively applied

57 TALENT According to Gallup there are 3 kinds of talent: 1. Striving : Why of the person 2. Thinking: How of the person 3. Relating : Who of the person

58 Talent ( some examples) n Striving Achiever ( A drive that is internal, constant & self imposed ) Mission ( a drive to put your beliefs into actions) n Thinking Responsibility (A need to assume personal accountability for your work ) Numerical ( An affinity for numbers ) n Relating Relator ( a need to build bonds that last ) Command ( an ability to take charge )

59 Talent Interview (Points to remember) n This should stand alone n It should be more structured, more focussed, less banter, more questions n Ask him about choices he makes n Let him reveal himself to you

60 Talent Interview (Listen for specifics) 1. Always listen for a specific example 2. Give credit only to the persons top of the mind response 3. Do not probe too much to get response Clues for talent: Rapid learning ability Source of satisfaction After they have been hired, check back to see if the people who subsequently performed well answered your question in a consistent way.This will take time and focus, but are essential to the art of interviewing for talent.

61 PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING Psychological tests have been devised and are used primarily for the determination and analysis of individual differences in general intelligence,specific aptitudes, educational achievement, vocational fitness,and non intellectual personality traits. These tests have been used for a variety of psychological, educational cultural, sociological and employment studies of groups and for individuals

62 TEST - VARIATIONS n Achievement / Attainment n Aptitude n Personality n Interest n Attitude n IQ ( Intelligence quotient)

63 APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING n Placement n Personnel selection n Training & development n Career & Succession Planning n Diagnosis & recommendation of Performance problems n Vocational education and career counseling

64 WHY TESTS n To reduce errors Standardized set of questions Objective evaluation


66 ONLINE TESTING n Standardization n Easy to administer across locations n Quick n Automatic Reports n Does not need interpretation expertise n Still requires to be anchored by qualified persons

67 REFERENCE CHECKS n Verify claims made by the candidate n Confirm selectors perceptions, sensing and inferences n Clarify doubts that may have arisen during the selection process n Add to understanding through input from referee or any specific area of concern n Hear first hand from referee or anything significant about the candidate ( positive or dysfunctional)

68 Effective Reference Checks - the Steps n Ensure that the candidate gives references that know him well n Be clear on what you wish to ask the referee n Let the referee know –That his/her input is important –that you care about the candidates career choice / direction –the context of the job that the candidate has applied for n Confirm referees extent of familiarity with the candidate n Ask open ended questions to start with n Follow through with pointed questions in your areas of concern n THANK THE REFEREE for the time invested n Do a 360 degree reference check


70 Behavior Assessment Process Observe Carefully watch and listen to what has happened Store Accurately store in memory what happened Classify Categorize behavior and other data into critical attributes Evaluate Rate data & behavior to agreed standard

71 ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES n People tend to behave in a consistent way n Understand the context of peoples behavior n Relate information from one source to another

72 RATINGS n Excellent - 4 Tremendous amount of data across all sections supporting the indicators. Goes beyond the indicators. A big strength area. This is where the candidate operates from,as a psychological platform ( will be an adjective for him )

73 RATINGS n V Good - 3 A lot of data from at least two three sections, or overwhelmingly in at least one section supporting the indicators. This is the way the indicators are defined. Supports with examples

74 RATINGS n Acceptable - 2 Evidence from at least one section of the interview. Supports at least 2/3 of the indicators. Will do. Exhibits data with some examples

75 RATINGS n Not acceptable - 1 Shows definite evidence of lack of the indicators. Falls short

76 COMMON FAILINGS IN ASSESSMENT n Leniency n The Halo effect n Mirror image n Contrast n Projection

77 Happy Interviewing

78 Dear Colleague, This is a personal invitation from us to you to join our hrcommunity. The hrcommunity virtually connects HR professionals to share current and emerging HR practices, HR resources & HR related information. Be in touch with the best brains in the hrcommunity. To join send a blank e-mail to Warm regards,Jayesh & Aruna Moderators – hrcommunity

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