2INTRODUCTIONInternet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) =Internetworking Protocol next generation (IPng)enabling a wider range of Internet-connected devicesto replace IPv4designed by IETF(Internet Engineering Task Force )recommended by IPng Area Directors of IETF at Toronto IETF meeting on 25 July 1994.
3INTRO (Cont…) IPv6 was adopted because: The use of address space is inefficient.The Internet must accommodate real-time audio and video transmission.IPv4 provided no security mechanism.IPv6 offers automatic addressing.
4INTRO (Cont…) 3 types of address: Unicast addressingMulticast addressingAnycast addressingAdditional fields included in IPv6 headerpriority field, flow field.IPv6 is a natural increment to IPv4.
6New changes in IPv6 simplified header format The IPv6 header format is simpler than IPv4longer address fieldsThe length of address field is extended the bits. The address structure also provides more levers of hierarchy.Flexible support for opinionThe length of address field is extended the bits. The address structure also provides more levers of hierarchy.
7Flow label capabilityThe options in appear in optional extension headers that are encoded in more efficient and flexible fashion than they were in IPv4.SecurityIPv6 supports built-in authentication and confidentiality.Large packetsFragmentation at source onlyIPv6 supports payloads that are longer than 64 kilo bytes, call jumbo payloads.
8No checksum fieldThe checksum field has been removed to reduce packet processing time in a router. Packets carried by the physical network such as Ethernet, ATM are typically already checked.
10Transition from IPv4 to IPv6 Dual-Stack- Strategies, which allow IPv4 and IPv6 to communicate in the same devices and networks.Tunneling- Techniques, to avoid order dependencies when upgrading hosts, routers or regions.Translation- Techniques, to allow IPv6 only devices to communicate with IPv4-only devices.
14Base Header Version - Specifies the version number - 4 bits Priority - Priority of the packet with respect to traffic congestion- Congestion-controlled (0-7)- Noncongestion-controlled (8-15)Traffic Class- Class of service desired for the datagram- 8 bits
15Flow Label- Provide special handling for a particular flow of data- 20 bitsPayload Length- Length of the data field (excluding the base header) in the datagram- 16 bitsNext Header- Defining the header that follows the base header in datagram- 8 bits
16Hop Limit- Specifies the maximum number of hops a packet may travel before reaching the destination- 8 bitsSource Address- Identifies the original source of the datagram- 128 bitsDestination Address- Identifies the final destination of the datagram
22HOP-BY-HOP OPTIONS HEADER Implement an efficient method to alert routers of a packet that requires special processing.
23ROUTING HEADER used by the source to control the routing of packet. explicitly dictate the route from the source to the destination.contains a list of one or more intermediate nodes to be visited on the way to a packet’s destination.
24FRAGMENT HEADERallows fragmented packets to traverse the IPv6 network.Performing by source nodes, not by routers along a packet’s delivery path.simplifies the routers’ work and makes routing go faster.
25will discards the packet that is too big send an ICMP packet back to the sourceuse a path MTU discovery technique to find the smallest MTU supported by any network on the pathSource then fragments by using this knowledge
26Otherwise, the source must limit all packets to 1280 octets(the minimum MTU that must be supported by each network).
27AUTHENTICATION HEADER uses an algorithm to ensure that the IPv6 packet has not been altered along its path.Ensures that the IPv6 packet has arrived from the sourced listed in the IP Header.Provides a mechanism by which the receiver of a packet can be sure of who sent it.Use cryptographic techniques to encrypt the contents of a packet so that only the intendend recipient can read it.
28ENCAPSULATING SECURITY PAYLOAD HEADER For packets that must be sent secretly.Provide confidentiality and privacy.
29DESTINATION OPTION HEADER optional information to be examined by the destination node.Not use during routing.
31Brief Introduction Provides 128 bit address space allows for 2128 ≈ 1040 different addressescan address 3.4 x 1038 nodes if address assignment efficiency is 100%.3 basic types:UnicastAnycastMulticast
32Unicast Address Corresponds to a single computer The format is: 010 RegistryProviderSubscriberSubnetInterface
33Unicast Address 3 types of Unicast Address Global unicast Site-local unicastit is designed to used for addressing inside of a site without the need for a glocal prefixn bitsm bits128 – n – m – bitsGlobal Routing PrefixSubnet IdInterface ID10 bits54 bits64 bitsSubnet IDInterface ID
34Unicast Address Link - local unicast it is used on a single link. The addresses are designed on a single link for purposes such as automatic address configuration, neighbor discovery, or when no routers are present10 bits54 bits64 bitsInterface ID
35Anycast Addressassigned to more than one interface, with the property that a packet sent to an anycast address is routed to the “nearest” interface having that address, according to the routing protocols’ measurement.allocated from the unicast address space by using any of the defined unicast address formats
36Anycast AddressA longest prefix P identifies the topological region in which all interfaces belonging to that anycast address reside.Within the region identified by P, the anycast address must be maintained as a separate entry in the routing systemOutside the region identified by P, the anycast address may be aggregated into the routing entry for prefix P.
37Multicast Address Pre-defined Multicast addresses defined for explicit scope valuesThe following slide shows the reserved Multicast Addresses. This reserved addresses shall never be assigned to any multicast group.
39Multicast Address All nodes addresses identify the group of all IPv6 nodes within 1 scope 1 (interface-local) or 2 (link-local).FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1
40Multicast Address All routers addresses FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 identify the group of all IPv6 routers within scope 1 (interface-local), 2 (link-local), or 5 (site-local).FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2
41Multicast Address Solicited-Nodes Address: Computed as a function of a node’s unicast and anycast addressesformed by taking the low-order 24 bits of an address (unicast or anycast) and appending those bits to the prefix FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00::/104 resulting in a multicast address in the range FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00:0000 to FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFFF:FFFF.Format:FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFXX:XXXX
42Address NotationNormally, a 128-bit number written in dotted decimal notation:
43Address Notation Colon Hexadecimal Notation Reduced the number of characters used to write an addresseach group of 16 bits is written in hexadecimal with a colon separating groups69DC:8864: FFFF: FFFF: 0:1280:8C0A: FFFF
44Address Notation Zero Compression replaces sequences of zeros with double semicolonscan only once per addressExample:FDEC: 0:0:0:0: BBFF: 0: FFFFcan be written asFDEC:: BBFF:0:FFFF
45Address NotationIf the 0 string begins the address, the notation starts with the double colon.Example:0000:0000:0000:0000:0AFF:1BDF:000F:0077can be written as:: 0AFF:1BDF:F:0077
46Address Notation CIDR Notation. The example below show how can we define a prefix of 60 bits using CIDR.FDEC: 0:0:0:0: BBFF: 0: FFFF/60
48CONCLUSION IPv6 come at the right time- Internet growing so rapidly. Solution of the new disruptive applications.IPv4 IPv6 -larger task for some company or industry, but the rate of IPv4 address consumption is rapidly increasing.
49IPv6 has a bright future.allow us to build a more robust and reliable Internet.simplify the implementation and deployment of emergency response networks.making our lives safer & more secure.