Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Language, place and class Regional and social variation.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Language, place and class Regional and social variation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Language, place and class Regional and social variation

2 A story A man migrated from Wales to southern England in the 1920s. He took his 5 year old daughter to the village school and introduced her to the headmaster saying Ive brought you a new scholar. The headmaster replied Shell be the first one weve ever had here. The man was not a coward – he had a dangerous job and had fought in France and Palestine in WW I. -- A man migrated from Wales to southern England in the 1920s. He took his 5 year old daughter to the village school and introduced her to the headmaster saying Ive brought you a new scholar. The headmaster replied Shell be the first one weve ever had here. The man was not a coward – he had a dangerous job and had fought in France and Palestine in WW I. --

3 continued but he was very afraid since he was obviously in the presence of a raving lunatic He could clearly see a hundred scholars running around the playground. but he was very afraid since he was obviously in the presence of a raving lunatic He could clearly see a hundred scholars running around the playground. Was the headmaster really insane? Was the headmaster really insane?

4 continued No. No. There was a difference in dialect. In Wales a scholar was someone who went to school. In England it referred to a knowledgeable person. There was a difference in dialect. In Wales a scholar was someone who went to school. In England it referred to a knowledgeable person.

5 Study of social and regional differences 19 th and early 20 th studies based on studies of old men 19 th and early 20 th studies based on studies of old men Geographical rather than social Geographical rather than social Drew isoglosses on maps Drew isoglosses on maps

6 continued isoglosses separated dialects isoglosses separated dialects Based on family tree model Based on family tree model Assumed real dialects spoken by older males Assumed real dialects spoken by older males

7 Continued See handout for English dialects See handout for English dialects Often highly accurate Often highly accurate Info collected – men born but can still identify place of origin of someone who left 40 years ago Info collected – men born but can still identify place of origin of someone who left 40 years ago

8 Malaysia Can similar maps be constructed for Malaysia? Can similar maps be constructed for Malaysia?

9 Dialect continuum Gradual changes from one place to another in England Gradual changes from one place to another in England Western Romance Western Romance Southern Slavic Southern Slavic West Malaysia West Malaysia

10 Problems with Dialect Studies Ignored social change – assumed no social variation in dialect areas Ignored social change – assumed no social variation in dialect areas ignored variation by gender – not interested in women or assumed followed men ignored variation by gender – not interested in women or assumed followed men

11 continued ignored variation by age ignored variation by age Ignored urban areas – not real dialects Ignored urban areas – not real dialects Non-random sampling Non-random sampling

12 Language and class Class Differences in status, prestige, respect, power Differences in status, prestige, respect, power Found in all societies, even classless ones Found in all societies, even classless ones Until 500years ago based mainly on violence Until 500years ago based mainly on violence

13 continued In western societies – mainly & increasingly income, wealth, occupation and education In western societies – mainly & increasingly income, wealth, occupation and education International stratification – economic increasingly an educational, digital and linguistic gap International stratification – economic increasingly an educational, digital and linguistic gap

14 Social Variation Languages vary by class – often formalised Languages vary by class – often formalised Words for royalty and others in Thai, Javanese, Malay, English – criminal offence in Thailandfor foreigners to use words for parts of the Kings body Words for royalty and others in Thai, Javanese, Malay, English – criminal offence in Thailandfor foreigners to use words for parts of the Kings body

15 continued Pronouns European tu/vous, du/sie systems Pronouns European tu/vous, du/sie systems Phonology – most persistent kind of social variation Phonology – most persistent kind of social variation

16 Social structure of English Social dialect -- dialect of a social group Social dialect -- dialect of a social group Accent – variations in phonology Accent – variations in phonology English – many regional dialects English – many regional dialects Standard English is a written and spoken dialect Standard English is a written and spoken dialect Most writing is in SE Most writing is in SE

17 continued Slight national variations Slight national variations Spoken by minority of native speakers – understood by most Spoken by minority of native speakers – understood by most Target language for NNSs – model in phonetics textbooks Target language for NNSs – model in phonetics textbooks RP (BBC) is an accent RP (BBC) is an accent

18 Status of RP/BBC High prestige High prestige Hostility – US films spoken by vampires, aliens and Shere Khan Hostility – US films spoken by vampires, aliens and Shere Khan Status may be declining – prestige speakers – Sean Connery (Scottish), Hugh Grant (RP), Trevor Phillips (Caribbean) Status may be declining – prestige speakers – Sean Connery (Scottish), Hugh Grant (RP), Trevor Phillips (Caribbean)

19 Recent Changes in RP Linking /r/ Linking /r/ klO:T -- klQT klO:T -- klQT Final glottalisation – noted in Diana, but not Charles or Blair Final glottalisation – noted in Diana, but not Charles or Blair Some features of Cockney Some features of Cockney

20 continued Emergence of Estuary English Emergence of Estuary English Intermediate between Cockney and RP Intermediate between Cockney and RP Spreading geographically and up and down social structure Spreading geographically and up and down social structure

21 Social Aspects of American English No equivalent to RP – closest is Network English (mid-western?) No equivalent to RP – closest is Network English (mid-western?) US presidents retain regional accents – Bush (Texas) Kennedy (Boston), Clinton (deep South) US presidents retain regional accents – Bush (Texas) Kennedy (Boston), Clinton (deep South) Social variations within regions Social variations within regions African Americans distinct African Americans distinct

22 Labovs Study Language varies by class as well as place Language varies by class as well as place Labov studied NYC department stores Labov studied NYC department stores Asking same questions in 3 stores of different status Asking same questions in 3 stores of different status

23 continued Found post-vocalic /r/has high status in NYC Found post-vocalic /r/has high status in NYC Use increases in middle and upper middle classes Use increases in middle and upper middle classes Not in Boston reverse Not in Boston reverse Not in England – found in regional dialects Not in England – found in regional dialects

24 continued Within English – a sign of low status Within English – a sign of low status In Reading used more by working class In Reading used more by working class In Malaysia? – a sign of high status --- teacher induced In Malaysia? – a sign of high status --- teacher induced

25 Other Findings Studies in UK found variation by class Studies in UK found variation by class E.g. Reading and Norwich – post vocalic /r/, /h/ deletion, /n/ rather than /ng/ E.g. Reading and Norwich – post vocalic /r/, /h/ deletion, /n/ rather than /ng/

26 continued Differences between men and women Differences between men and women Any high status form used more frequently by women Any high status form used more frequently by women Overt and covert prestige Overt and covert prestige

27 continued African-Americans distinctive African-Americans distinctive Do not participate in the Northern Cities vowel shift Do not participate in the Northern Cities vowel shift British Asians – regional varieties British Asians – regional varieties Afro-Caribbeans – revival of patois Afro-Caribbeans – revival of patois

28 Stylistic Variation Fixed – e.g. /n/ vs /ng/, post-vocalic /r/ Fixed – e.g. /n/ vs /ng/, post-vocalic /r/ Graded – e.g. types of glottalisation Graded – e.g. types of glottalisation Part of a stylistic repertoire ranging from formal to casual Part of a stylistic repertoire ranging from formal to casual

29 Gender, Class and Language Explanation of class and gender patterns Womens status dependent on male partner Womens status dependent on male partner Women can choose partners freely Women can choose partners freely Status marked by linguistic features Status marked by linguistic features Womens status can improve by adopting certain features Womens status can improve by adopting certain features Does this apply everywhere? Does this apply everywhere?

30 Conclusion Language is closely linked to social class Language is closely linked to social class Traditional patterns may be replaced by phonological variation within a language or dialect Traditional patterns may be replaced by phonological variation within a language or dialect What is happening in SE Asia? What is happening in SE Asia?

31 Question Are there social dialects in Asian languages? Are there social dialects in Asian languages?


Download ppt "Language, place and class Regional and social variation."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google