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2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This Power-Point presentation was first delivered as a lecture to the Yorkshire Medical and Dental History Society at the Thackray Museum in Leeds on the evening of Tuesday 15 th July 2008 The assistance and constructive feedback provided by members of those two bodies is gratefully acknowledged – as is the feedback provided by family and friends

3 BACKGROUND 8 September 1855: During an attack on the Redan Redout Sevastopol, Sergeant Andrew Monynihan personally encountered and killed five Russians and afterwards under heavy fire rescued Lieutenant Swift and Ensign Maude, who had fallen near the fortress. He subsequently serves in India. His father Malachi Monyihan had come from Southern Ireland. There were 14 generations of soldiers in the Moniyhan family. 24 th February 1857: Andrew Moynihan awarded the V.C. 2 October 1865: Birth of Berkeley Moniyhan (BM) in Malta to Captain Andrew Moynihan, V.C., and Ellen Anne, his wife daughter of Thomas Parkin, a cabinet maker at Hurst, near Ashton-under-Lyne. 19 May 1866: Death of Captain Andrew Moynihan through Malta Fever (contracted through drinking untreated Goats milk) aged 37. His widow narrowly survived an attack of this very same fever. December 1867: Mrs Moynihan came to Leeds with a pension of one pound a week on which to support two daughters and a son. She joined forces with her childless sister who was married to Alfred Ball, a police inspector, living at Millgarth Street. BMs education began in Leeds. September 1875: BM attended Blue Coat School, then in its original quarters in Newgate Street, London with a presentation from H.R.H. Field-Marshal the Duke of Cambridge. During his school career he was undistinguished, except that he did well in swimming and football. 8 September 1855: During an attack on the Redan Redout Sevastopol, Sergeant Andrew Monynihan personally encountered and killed five Russians and afterwards under heavy fire rescued Lieutenant Swift and Ensign Maude, who had fallen near the fortress. He subsequently serves in India. His father Malachi Monyihan had come from Southern Ireland. There were 14 generations of soldiers in the Moniyhan family. 24 th February 1857: Andrew Moynihan awarded the V.C. 2 October 1865: Birth of Berkeley Moniyhan (BM) in Malta to Captain Andrew Moynihan, V.C., and Ellen Anne, his wife daughter of Thomas Parkin, a cabinet maker at Hurst, near Ashton-under-Lyne. 19 May 1866: Death of Captain Andrew Moynihan through Malta Fever (contracted through drinking untreated Goats milk) aged 37. His widow narrowly survived an attack of this very same fever. December 1867: Mrs Moynihan came to Leeds with a pension of one pound a week on which to support two daughters and a son. She joined forces with her childless sister who was married to Alfred Ball, a police inspector, living at Millgarth Street. BMs education began in Leeds. September 1875: BM attended Blue Coat School, then in its original quarters in Newgate Street, London with a presentation from H.R.H. Field-Marshal the Duke of Cambridge. During his school career he was undistinguished, except that he did well in swimming and football.

4 BACKGROUND 8 September 1855: During an attack on the Redan Redout Sevastopol, Sergeant Andrew Monynihan personally encountered and killed five Russians and afterwards under heavy fire rescued Lieutenant Swift and Ensign Maude, who had fallen near the fortress. He subsequently serves in India. His father Malachi Monyihan had come from Southern Ireland. There were 14 generations of soldiers in the Moniyhan family. 24 th February 1857: Andrew Moynihan awarded the V.C. 2 October 1865: Birth of Berkeley Moniyhan (BM) in Malta to Captain Andrew Moynihan, V.C., and Ellen Anne, his wife daughter of Thomas Parkin, a cabinet maker at Hurst, near Ashton-under-Lyne. 19 May 1866: Death of Captain Andrew Moynihan through Malta Fever (contracted through drinking untreated Goats milk) aged 37. His widow narrowly survived an attack of this very same fever. December 1867: Mrs Moynihan came to Leeds with a pension of one pound a week on which to support two daughters and a son. She joined forces with her childless sister who was married to Alfred Ball, a police inspector, living at Millgarth Street. BMs education began in Leeds. September 1875: BM attended Blue Coat School, then in its original quarters in Newgate Street, London with a presentation from H.R.H. Field-Marshal the Duke of Cambridge. During his school career he was undistinguished, except that he did well in swimming and football. 8 September 1855: During an attack on the Redan Redout Sevastopol, Sergeant Andrew Monynihan personally encountered and killed five Russians and afterwards under heavy fire rescued Lieutenant Swift and Ensign Maude, who had fallen near the fortress. He subsequently serves in India. His father Malachi Monyihan had come from Southern Ireland. There were 14 generations of soldiers in the Moniyhan family. 24 th February 1857: Andrew Moynihan awarded the V.C. 2 October 1865: Birth of Berkeley Moniyhan (BM) in Malta to Captain Andrew Moynihan, V.C., and Ellen Anne, his wife daughter of Thomas Parkin, a cabinet maker at Hurst, near Ashton-under-Lyne. 19 May 1866: Death of Captain Andrew Moynihan through Malta Fever (contracted through drinking untreated Goats milk) aged 37. His widow narrowly survived an attack of this very same fever. December 1867: Mrs Moynihan came to Leeds with a pension of one pound a week on which to support two daughters and a son. She joined forces with her childless sister who was married to Alfred Ball, a police inspector, living at Millgarth Street. BMs education began in Leeds. September 1875: BM attended Blue Coat School, then in its original quarters in Newgate Street, London with a presentation from H.R.H. Field-Marshal the Duke of Cambridge. During his school career he was undistinguished, except that he did well in swimming and football.

5 BACKGROUND 8 September 1855: During an attack on the Redan Redout Sevastopol, Sergeant Andrew Monynihan personally encountered and killed five Russians and afterwards under heavy fire rescued Lieutenant Swift and Ensign Maude, who had fallen near the fortress. He subsequently serves in India. His father Malachi Monyihan had come from Southern Ireland. There were 14 generations of soldiers in the Moniyhan family. 24 th February 1857: Andrew Moynihan awarded the V.C. 2 October 1865: Birth of Berkeley Moniyhan (BM) in Malta to Captain Andrew Moynihan, V.C., and Ellen Anne, his wife daughter of Thomas Parkin, a cabinet maker at Hurst, near Ashton-under-Lyne. 19 May 1866: Death of Captain Andrew Moynihan through Malta Fever (contracted through drinking untreated Goats milk) aged 37. His widow narrowly survived an attack of this very same fever. December 1867: Mrs Moynihan came to Leeds with a pension of one pound a week on which to support two daughters and a son. She joined forces with her childless sister who was married to Alfred Ball, a police inspector, living at Millgarth Street. BMs education began in Leeds. September 1875: BM attended Blue Coat School, then in its original quarters in Newgate Street, London with a presentation from H.R.H. Field-Marshal the Duke of Cambridge. During his school career he was undistinguished, except that he did well in swimming and football. 8 September 1855: During an attack on the Redan Redout Sevastopol, Sergeant Andrew Monynihan personally encountered and killed five Russians and afterwards under heavy fire rescued Lieutenant Swift and Ensign Maude, who had fallen near the fortress. He subsequently serves in India. His father Malachi Monyihan had come from Southern Ireland. There were 14 generations of soldiers in the Moniyhan family. 24 th February 1857: Andrew Moynihan awarded the V.C. 2 October 1865: Birth of Berkeley Moniyhan (BM) in Malta to Captain Andrew Moynihan, V.C., and Ellen Anne, his wife daughter of Thomas Parkin, a cabinet maker at Hurst, near Ashton-under-Lyne. 19 May 1866: Death of Captain Andrew Moynihan through Malta Fever (contracted through drinking untreated Goats milk) aged 37. His widow narrowly survived an attack of this very same fever. December 1867: Mrs Moynihan came to Leeds with a pension of one pound a week on which to support two daughters and a son. She joined forces with her childless sister who was married to Alfred Ball, a police inspector, living at Millgarth Street. BMs education began in Leeds. September 1875: BM attended Blue Coat School, then in its original quarters in Newgate Street, London with a presentation from H.R.H. Field-Marshal the Duke of Cambridge. During his school career he was undistinguished, except that he did well in swimming and football.

6 ANDREW MONYIHAN V.C. Dukinfield has proud memories of Andrew Moynihan who came to Crescent Road as a child, his family having moved from Wakefield. He went to the Wesleyan Methodist School in Ashton and worked at Flash Hall Mills on Old Street before moving to James Ogden's Mill at Hall Green The Redan was a heavily armoured fortress defending the entrance to Sebastopol which the British Army were assigned to attack. An initial attack failed in June 1855 but in September 1855 they made headway led by Moynihan. The Russians drove them back and wounded Lieutenant Swift. Moynihan fearlessly re-entered the building to rescue Swift and was bayoneted twice then taken captive. A renewed British attack secured Moynihan's release. Again the Russians retaliated pushing the British back to their trenches and again Moynihan helped save a wounded colleague despite his own injuries. By the end of the day he had twelve wounds. Moynihan had a hero's welcome on his return to Dukinfield in A special reception took place at the Astley Arms and presentations to him included an inscribed watch from the local people. The following year he received his Victoria Cross from Queen Victoria. A blue plaque to commemorate the life of Andrew Moynihan is sited on the Astley Arms, Chapel Hall, Dukinfield.

7 CENSUS RETURNS 55 Amberley Grove, Potternewton. Leeds, 2 nd April 1871 The General Infirmary 5 th April 1891 Alfred Ball 39 Police Inspector Belper Derbyshire May Bell 39 wife in Liverpool in Lancashire Ellen Moynihan 36 sister-in-law Annuitant Liverpool Lancashire Eva Moynihan 9 Scholar Ireland (later a Governess) Berkeley Moynihan 5 Scholar Malta (later a Governess) (The population of Leeds was 259,212) 3 rd April 1881 Is mentioned in a census List of year old boys at Christs Hospital School Newgate Street London. (The population of Leeds was 309,119) Edwin M. Light 29 Resident Medical officer London B. G. A. Moynihan 25 Resident Surgical Office Malta British Subject William A. Stott 28 Obstetric Surgeon Leeds John G. Mcandlish 22 House Surgeon Leeds Frederick R. Bird 26 House Surgeon Huddersfield Robert E. Howell 25 House Physician Newcastle Northd Charles A. J. Dalglesh 22 House Physician Liverpool John B. Hall 24 House Surgeon Leeds Henry Tempest 22 House Surgeon Otley

8 EARLY CAREER May 1881 to 25 July 1883: At the Royal Naval School, Eltham, and from there proceeded to the Medical School at Leeds, where he lived with his maternal uncle, his mother and two sisters. He remained closely attached to Leeds for the rest of his life. The medical school was a part of the Yorkshire College which afterwards became one of the three constituents of the Victoria University. 2 October 1883: On his eighteenth birthday he began medical training at the Yorkshire College and Leeds General Infirmary (LGI) : Around this time he starts to court Betsy Hastings Smith, the eldest daughter of Commercial Traveller Edmund Smith who lived within ten to fifteen minutes walking distance of the LGI. 1887: Graduated M.B. at the University of London in 1887 and became a Member of the College the same year. Then served as house surgeon to Arthur Fergusson McGill ( ) at the LGI 24 April1887: Moynihan was present as a dresser when McGill pioneered the first Prostate operation : Acted as private assistant to Mayo-Robson ( ), a pioneer in abdominal surgery in Leeds. Foreseeing the trend of surgery Moynihan trained himself deliberately to anticipate its arrival. Later visits Berlin 1890: Passed examination for the Fellowship of Surgeons and possibly got engaged to Betsy

9 LEEDS VISTA (1885) & STEEL WORKS

10 THE JESSOP HOUSEHOLD, ROUNDHAY MOUNT LODGE, WEST AVENUE, 5 TH APRIL 1891 Family Members & VisitorDomestics Thomas R Jessop 53 Surgeon Duly registered Brighouse Isabella W. Jessop 51 Leeds Helen M. Jessop 21 Leeds Thomas H. Jessop 20 Leeds Isabella Jessop 18 Scholar Leeds Maud Jessop 17 Scholar Leeds Ethel B. Jessop 15 Scholar Leeds Constance Jessop 14 Scholar Leeds Gladys Jessop M. 6 Scholar Roundhay Harold I. Wilson 25 Solicitor Finchley Middsx Frances E. Barker 31 Governess Bradford Mary A. Thorne Widow 67 Cook Studly Yorks William J. Hewitt 25 Butler Maltby Yorks Elizabeth Middleton Widow 35 Laundress Leeds Anne E. Harrat 23 Housemaid P Brightside Yorks Annie Leaf 20 House Maid Upsall Yorks Elizabeth Moore 20 Nurse Ricall Yorks Annie Crossland 19 Housemaid Cawood Yorks The Stables John Houlder 43 Coachman Welton-Le-Marsh Lincs Lavinia Houlder 42 Manchester Lancs

11 THE JESSOP MANNER From Bateman 1940, p.89 The Jessop manner was in accordance with the man. Silk-hatted and with an orchid in the lapel of his coat, each day he drove up to the hospital in a carriage drawn by a pair of bay [horses]. Alighting, he was met by his R.S.O. and students; in royal progress the party marched through the corridors of the infirmary. Arrived at the theatre the great man stopped, and drawing from his buttonhole the orchid, handed it to the theatre-sister. Then after the usual preparation, on with the operation. With the steady speed of the inspired craftsman the work went forward, no bombast and no fireworks. So secure was his learning that he did not hesitate to ask, where right utilize, the advice of his assistants. Like all the best of doctors he lacked the grudging intellectual pride that in its arrogance is but the mask of ignorance. Small wonder that, for those who knew him, even while Jessop was still alive, something of mythology invested the masters name. Thomas Richard Jessop, F.R.C.S, was born in 1837, he was first Resident Medical Officer at the LGI (from 1860) Honouree surgeon (from 1870) and Consultant Surgeon (from 1890). Later, Vice President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. A notably gifted teacher, he died in An old photograph shows him to be an avuncular John Bull figure. BM started to visit his home and move in his circles during the early 1890s. From Bateman 1940, p.89 The Jessop manner was in accordance with the man. Silk-hatted and with an orchid in the lapel of his coat, each day he drove up to the hospital in a carriage drawn by a pair of bay [horses]. Alighting, he was met by his R.S.O. and students; in royal progress the party marched through the corridors of the infirmary. Arrived at the theatre the great man stopped, and drawing from his buttonhole the orchid, handed it to the theatre-sister. Then after the usual preparation, on with the operation. With the steady speed of the inspired craftsman the work went forward, no bombast and no fireworks. So secure was his learning that he did not hesitate to ask, where right utilize, the advice of his assistants. Like all the best of doctors he lacked the grudging intellectual pride that in its arrogance is but the mask of ignorance. Small wonder that, for those who knew him, even while Jessop was still alive, something of mythology invested the masters name. Thomas Richard Jessop, F.R.C.S, was born in 1837, he was first Resident Medical Officer at the LGI (from 1860) Honouree surgeon (from 1870) and Consultant Surgeon (from 1890). Later, Vice President of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. A notably gifted teacher, he died in An old photograph shows him to be an avuncular John Bull figure. BM started to visit his home and move in his circles during the early 1890s.

12 THE LGI GRAND ENTRANCE

13 DRS A. F. MCGILL & MAYO-ROBSON 24 April 1887 Moynihan was present as a dresser when McGill pioneered the first Prostate operation. It is said that it happened by mistake, that McGill having opened the bladder of a man with retention was feeling with his finger the size of the prostate. In doing so "it came away in his hand". Whatever the truth, McGill appreciated the importance of what he had done and remarked, "We must do this again." At the BMA meeting in Leeds two years later McGill presented a number of his patients holding their prostates in jars. 24 April 1887 Moynihan was present as a dresser when McGill pioneered the first Prostate operation. It is said that it happened by mistake, that McGill having opened the bladder of a man with retention was feeling with his finger the size of the prostate. In doing so "it came away in his hand". Whatever the truth, McGill appreciated the importance of what he had done and remarked, "We must do this again." At the BMA meeting in Leeds two years later McGill presented a number of his patients holding their prostates in jars.

14 AN EARLY CRISIS 5 th April 1891: Census Return for 18 Vernon Road Leeds Edmund Smith aged 59. Widow ~ Commercial Traveller, (His second wife Rosamond had died of TB on 30 th March) Betsey Hastings aged 31, (Born 27 th February 1861 in Leeds, as eldest daughter to Edmunds first wife Helen,) Annie aged 29, (Born in Leeds) Fred Heselwood (Frank) aged 21 ~ warehouseman, (By his second wife Rosomond) Maud aged 18, Hedley aged 12, Kathleen aged 5, Anne Spencer aged ~ servant. (By this time, the population of Leeds had climbed to 367,505, there was a severe economic recession) 14 TH March 1892: Berkeley felt the need to receive spiritual encouragement from his brother-in-law the Reverend A. N. Claye as he was suffering from a crisis of conscience that led him to delay any marriage proposal until June. According to Smith family tradition, a wedding date had already been arranged with Betsy Smith (for 1893?) Edmund appeared to threaten BM with breach of marriage contract unless generous financial provision was made for Betsy. To prevent Bms reputation from being destroyed in an embarrassing court case, Thomas Jessop provides the settlement and the matter is hushed up only to be unearthed over a century later. 1893: Master of Surgery, is awarded the gold medal. Demonstrator of anatomy in the LGI Medical School (until 1896) 1895: Entered on P.132 of the Wakefield Telephone Directory 1442 MOYNIHAN B. G. A. MS. (LOND.) F.R.C.S. (ENG.) 17 April 1895 Married Isabella Wellesley, (born in June 1873) daughter of Thomas Richard Jessop. Moves to 5 Woodhouse Square. 5 th April 1891: Census Return for 18 Vernon Road Leeds Edmund Smith aged 59. Widow ~ Commercial Traveller, (His second wife Rosamond had died of TB on 30 th March) Betsey Hastings aged 31, (Born 27 th February 1861 in Leeds, as eldest daughter to Edmunds first wife Helen,) Annie aged 29, (Born in Leeds) Fred Heselwood (Frank) aged 21 ~ warehouseman, (By his second wife Rosomond) Maud aged 18, Hedley aged 12, Kathleen aged 5, Anne Spencer aged ~ servant. (By this time, the population of Leeds had climbed to 367,505, there was a severe economic recession) 14 TH March 1892: Berkeley felt the need to receive spiritual encouragement from his brother-in-law the Reverend A. N. Claye as he was suffering from a crisis of conscience that led him to delay any marriage proposal until June. According to Smith family tradition, a wedding date had already been arranged with Betsy Smith (for 1893?) Edmund appeared to threaten BM with breach of marriage contract unless generous financial provision was made for Betsy. To prevent Bms reputation from being destroyed in an embarrassing court case, Thomas Jessop provides the settlement and the matter is hushed up only to be unearthed over a century later. 1893: Master of Surgery, is awarded the gold medal. Demonstrator of anatomy in the LGI Medical School (until 1896) 1895: Entered on P.132 of the Wakefield Telephone Directory 1442 MOYNIHAN B. G. A. MS. (LOND.) F.R.C.S. (ENG.) 17 April 1895 Married Isabella Wellesley, (born in June 1873) daughter of Thomas Richard Jessop. Moves to 5 Woodhouse Square.

15 EDMUND SMITH

16 DOCTORING THE RECORD From Bateman 1940, pp.91-2, & 97 He had always liked feminine company, preferred it in fact to that of men, but, up till now, had known few occasions to indulge his liking. Of his class he had known few women, outside it none. Neither time money, nor opportunity; had allowed him to enjoy the society of ladies. But he had a way with them. He had a remarkable, sympathetic understanding of their point of view; and this they (Betsey?) could get round him, could win him over. His susceptibility to them put pitfalls in his way. He readily believed in them, and when what they said ill-matched with later fact, was disconcerted. He was boyish, and his warm heart was too easily deceived (by Betsey?). But (unlike Betsey) there was no deception about Isabel. Berkeley was, from the day they met her hero. She had for him an awed admiration (unlike the more critical Betsey). In her eyes everything he did was right. She was surprised, almost amazed, when she found him return this admiration. She was not an intellectual, could not follow the ranging of his learned, imaginative mind; but she did understand him; better perhaps than (Betsey and) any woman he had known. She saw his weaknesses and chinks in his armour. Young as she was, she knew in her heart that she possessed, as he might never do, a worldly knowledge that exceeded his. She saw how poor was his defence against sweet flattery and importuning (from women like Betsey Hastings Smith). Isabel gave to Berkley a faithful, loving loyalty (unlike Betsey Smith.) From Bateman 1940, pp.91-2, & 97 He had always liked feminine company, preferred it in fact to that of men, but, up till now, had known few occasions to indulge his liking. Of his class he had known few women, outside it none. Neither time money, nor opportunity; had allowed him to enjoy the society of ladies. But he had a way with them. He had a remarkable, sympathetic understanding of their point of view; and this they (Betsey?) could get round him, could win him over. His susceptibility to them put pitfalls in his way. He readily believed in them, and when what they said ill-matched with later fact, was disconcerted. He was boyish, and his warm heart was too easily deceived (by Betsey?). But (unlike Betsey) there was no deception about Isabel. Berkeley was, from the day they met her hero. She had for him an awed admiration (unlike the more critical Betsey). In her eyes everything he did was right. She was surprised, almost amazed, when she found him return this admiration. She was not an intellectual, could not follow the ranging of his learned, imaginative mind; but she did understand him; better perhaps than (Betsey and) any woman he had known. She saw his weaknesses and chinks in his armour. Young as she was, she knew in her heart that she possessed, as he might never do, a worldly knowledge that exceeded his. She saw how poor was his defence against sweet flattery and importuning (from women like Betsey Hastings Smith). Isabel gave to Berkley a faithful, loving loyalty (unlike Betsey Smith.)

17 MIDDLE CAREER 1896: Elected assistant surgeon to the LGI, is also promoted to Lecturer in Surgery – a post he held until : At the Royal College of Surgeons BM was appointed an examiner in anatomy on the board of examiners in anatomy and physiology for the Fellowship. 1899: He gave three lectures as Arris and Gale lecturer in The anatomy and surgery of the peritoneal fossae, 1900: He gave three lectures in 1900 on The pathology of some of the rarer forms of hernia. 31 st March: 1901: Census return for at 13 Newport Mount Headingley Leeds, records Anne H. Smith aged 39 & Betsy H. Smith aged 41 ~ Cookery School Instructor 1904: Moved to 63 Clarendon Road 7 th May 1903: Arrived in New York aboard S.S Teutonic with his wife 1905: Produces his book on Abdominal Operations 1906: Promoted to surgeon at the LGI. 1896: Elected assistant surgeon to the LGI, is also promoted to Lecturer in Surgery – a post he held until : At the Royal College of Surgeons BM was appointed an examiner in anatomy on the board of examiners in anatomy and physiology for the Fellowship. 1899: He gave three lectures as Arris and Gale lecturer in The anatomy and surgery of the peritoneal fossae, 1900: He gave three lectures in 1900 on The pathology of some of the rarer forms of hernia. 31 st March: 1901: Census return for at 13 Newport Mount Headingley Leeds, records Anne H. Smith aged 39 & Betsy H. Smith aged 41 ~ Cookery School Instructor 1904: Moved to 63 Clarendon Road 7 th May 1903: Arrived in New York aboard S.S Teutonic with his wife 1905: Produces his book on Abdominal Operations 1906: Promoted to surgeon at the LGI.

18 CENSUS RETURNS 31 st MARCH Woodhouse Square, Leeds 18 Vernon Road, Leeds Berkeley G. A. Moynihan 35 Surgeon Own Account Malta Isabella W. 28 wife Leeds Yorkshire Dorothy W. Moynihan 3 Leeds Yorkshire Mary H. Wilson 31 sister-in-Law Laura Goodier 24 Nurse (Domestic) Wetherby Francis M. Whiteley 36 Cook (Domestic) Harewood Fanny Fox 34 (Domestic) Boston Spa Edmund Smith 69 Commercial Traveler, (Draper Worker) working on his own account, Sutton, Kildwick Sarah Smith Third Wife 62 Brighton Sussex (A widow from London who had married Edmund on 27 th December 1892) Kathleen aged 15 Leeds [Flora Burnett or Barrett] 24, Cook Domestic, Nottingham Anne J. Hewitson 22 Nurse Domestic Leeds (The population of Leeds was 428,968)

19 MIDDLE CAREER 1909: Knowing that English surgeons knew little about the work of their colleagues and less about the progress of surgery abroad. He established a small visiting club, the members of which travelled from surgical centre to surgical centre, watched and commented upon the methods of their colleagues and confrères, and cemented many friendships. 1910: he was nationally known and as Professor of Clinical Surgery he became the first clinical surgical professor within the University of Leeds. Publishes his book on Duodenal Ulcers. 1912: Began to serve on the council of the Royal College of Surgeons (until 1933), is awarded a knighthood. 25 th July 1913: A speech given to a BMA meeting in Brighton is quoted in the New York Times. Co-founds the British Journal of Surgery 1914: Moved to Carr Manor after buying it from Clifford Albutt and builds a pool. Until near his death he liked to swim in it despite it containing a rare species of sinistral snails (ones with shells which curl in the opposite than usual direction). 1909: Knowing that English surgeons knew little about the work of their colleagues and less about the progress of surgery abroad. He established a small visiting club, the members of which travelled from surgical centre to surgical centre, watched and commented upon the methods of their colleagues and confrères, and cemented many friendships. 1910: he was nationally known and as Professor of Clinical Surgery he became the first clinical surgical professor within the University of Leeds. Publishes his book on Duodenal Ulcers. 1912: Began to serve on the council of the Royal College of Surgeons (until 1933), is awarded a knighthood. 25 th July 1913: A speech given to a BMA meeting in Brighton is quoted in the New York Times. Co-founds the British Journal of Surgery 1914: Moved to Carr Manor after buying it from Clifford Albutt and builds a pool. Until near his death he liked to swim in it despite it containing a rare species of sinistral snails (ones with shells which curl in the opposite than usual direction).

20 S.S TEUTONIC & MENUS

21 DUODENAL ULCERS (1910)

22 IN THE MEDIA (1913)

23 WAR TIME INTERLUDE 28 November 1914: BM was gazetted temporary colonel, A.M.S., and was serving in France. Initially attached to the 2nd Northern General Hospital of the Territorial R.A.M.C. Helped to buy an ambulance train and makes notable contributions to the surgical treatment of chest wounds. January 1915: The American Surgeon George W. Crile ( ) took a small group of Lakeside Hospital surgeons, nurses, and technicians to Paris, where for three months they staffed the Ambulance Americaine. During Crile's service in Paris, several noted surgeons visited to observe surgery, particularly Crile's blood transfusion technique (pioneered in 1906). These included Berkeley Moynihan of Britain and Alexis Carrel of France, who developed a widely used antiseptic solution. 1916: On the treatment of gun-shot wounds is published in Brit. med. J. 1916, 1, , was based on an earlier address hed given to the Harveian Society of London, February 24th, (He gave a lecture based on this paper in 1920) : chairman of the Army Advisory Board form 1916 and chairman of the council of consultants

24 WAR TIME INTERLUDE 1917: Is appointed CB and elected a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons 18 th October, 1917: Despite German U boats he arrived in New York aboard the S.S Oduna 9 th November 1917: During his American tour a speech BM delivered to audience of 1,500 physicians and their wives gives (gathered at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York) receives favourable coverage in the New York Times. The headline states that he SEES GERMANY FAR FROM DEFEAT; Sir Berkeley Moynihan Declares Teutons Can Only Be Beaten from Without. 1,000 DOCTORS CHEER HIM America, He Declares, in Her First War Fought the Same German Autocracy She Fights Now. 10,000 Doctors in Khaki. Predicts Army of 5,000, : Is appointed Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) 1919: Demobilized whilst holding the rank of Major-General 1920: First Murphy memorial lecture at Chicago in 1920 and presented a great mace from the consulting surgeons of the British Armies to the American College of Surgeons in memory of mutual work and good fellowship in the European War : Is appointed CB and elected a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons 18 th October, 1917: Despite German U boats he arrived in New York aboard the S.S Oduna 9 th November 1917: During his American tour a speech BM delivered to audience of 1,500 physicians and their wives gives (gathered at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York) receives favourable coverage in the New York Times. The headline states that he SEES GERMANY FAR FROM DEFEAT; Sir Berkeley Moynihan Declares Teutons Can Only Be Beaten from Without. 1,000 DOCTORS CHEER HIM America, He Declares, in Her First War Fought the Same German Autocracy She Fights Now. 10,000 Doctors in Khaki. Predicts Army of 5,000, : Is appointed Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) 1919: Demobilized whilst holding the rank of Major-General 1920: First Murphy memorial lecture at Chicago in 1920 and presented a great mace from the consulting surgeons of the British Armies to the American College of Surgeons in memory of mutual work and good fellowship in the European War

25 SOMME CASUALTIES (1916)

26 LATER CAREER 1920: The spleen and some of its diseases, Bradshaw lecture, R.C.S. (Published 1921) 1922: Created a baronet 18 th January 1922: Death from breast and lung cancer of Betsy Smith in The Madeline Joy Hostel, Headingley Leeds. 1924: University of Leeds made him an honorary LL.D. on the occasion of its twenty-fifth jubilee 1926: Retired from the LGI : Served six terms as President of The Royal College of Surgeons 1927: Portrait painted by Richard Jack, R.A., it still hangs the Board Room of the LGI. Is also Hunterian Orator speaking on Hunters ideals and Listers practice. December 1927: Fell ill with a duodenal ulcer, which he initially misdiagnosed as stomach cancer. He remained ill until early Around this time he began to suffer from high blood pressure. 1928: His Cancer of the Stomach was published in Practitioner, 1928, 121, and his Addresses on surgical subjects. 1920: The spleen and some of its diseases, Bradshaw lecture, R.C.S. (Published 1921) 1922: Created a baronet 18 th January 1922: Death from breast and lung cancer of Betsy Smith in The Madeline Joy Hostel, Headingley Leeds. 1924: University of Leeds made him an honorary LL.D. on the occasion of its twenty-fifth jubilee 1926: Retired from the LGI : Served six terms as President of The Royal College of Surgeons 1927: Portrait painted by Richard Jack, R.A., it still hangs the Board Room of the LGI. Is also Hunterian Orator speaking on Hunters ideals and Listers practice. December 1927: Fell ill with a duodenal ulcer, which he initially misdiagnosed as stomach cancer. He remained ill until early Around this time he began to suffer from high blood pressure. 1928: His Cancer of the Stomach was published in Practitioner, 1928, 121, and his Addresses on surgical subjects.

27 LATER CAREER September 1931: A fire destroyed his Leeds surgery of 38 years 1932: He delivered the Romanes lecture at Oxford 1936: As president of the Voluntary Euthanasia Legislation Society he had undertaken to introduce a Euthanasia Bill in the autumn session of in the House of Lords. Joined the Board of Directors of Droitwich Spa, and had intended to devote himself to its development as a centre for the cure of rheumatism. 31 st August 1936: Sudden death of Lady Moynihan 6 th September 1936: Had a cerebral haemorrhage and is dead the next day without recovering consciousness, at his home Carr Manor, Meanwood, Leeds. Was subsequently buried in Lawnswood cemetery after what amounted to a state funeral in Leeds. Memorial services were held in Leeds parish church and at St Martins-in-the-fields, London. An offer was made that he should be buried in Westminster Abbey, but it was declined for family reasons.

28 BMS TRIBUTE TO HIS WIFE (1 ST SEPTEMBER 1936) she was the daughter of Richard Jessop D. L. F.R.C.S of 32 Park Square Leeds. He had the busiest and best surgical practice in Leeds. He was appointed surgeon to the Leeds General Infirmary in 1870 and became Consulting Surgeon in When I left the Infirmary in 1893, I was already engaged to his daughter Isabella Wellesley. She was then 20 years of age, born in June 1873, was short and very slim. After her marriage and before we sailed from Liverpool (to Madeira) on our honeymoon, she weighed with all her clothes on six stone and three pounds. She was lively and accomplished. She played tennis well – her sister was Yorkshire Champion for years and she could occasionally beat her. She had had trouble with her ears owing to scarlet fever when young and was always a little deaf. She danced divinely, indeed everyone agree that she was easily the most accomplished dancer in Leeds and in those days one could judge, for it was considered almost improper to dance more than once with any girl. (He then proceeded to praise his wife for her being a good housekeeper who treated the servants so wisely that they stayed with the family for years. One of these servants was a chauffeur.) She was a small yet great and lovely lady, worthy of all honour and remembrance. she was the daughter of Richard Jessop D. L. F.R.C.S of 32 Park Square Leeds. He had the busiest and best surgical practice in Leeds. He was appointed surgeon to the Leeds General Infirmary in 1870 and became Consulting Surgeon in When I left the Infirmary in 1893, I was already engaged to his daughter Isabella Wellesley. She was then 20 years of age, born in June 1873, was short and very slim. After her marriage and before we sailed from Liverpool (to Madeira) on our honeymoon, she weighed with all her clothes on six stone and three pounds. She was lively and accomplished. She played tennis well – her sister was Yorkshire Champion for years and she could occasionally beat her. She had had trouble with her ears owing to scarlet fever when young and was always a little deaf. She danced divinely, indeed everyone agree that she was easily the most accomplished dancer in Leeds and in those days one could judge, for it was considered almost improper to dance more than once with any girl. (He then proceeded to praise his wife for her being a good housekeeper who treated the servants so wisely that they stayed with the family for years. One of these servants was a chauffeur.) She was a small yet great and lovely lady, worthy of all honour and remembrance.

29 ASSESSMENT Positive Aspects Negative Aspects These Included: - 1) An strong level of motivation in his work 2) An ability to see where opportunities lie 3) An incredible level of perseverance 4) A phenomenal memory & attention to detail 5) Exceptional communication & administrative abilities 6) A wide level of interests 7) A strong devotion to his wife Overall, BM had a very systematic and methodical rather then creative mind. He used his skills to save many lives These Included: - 1) An strong level of motivation in his work 2) An ability to see where opportunities lie 3) An incredible level of perseverance 4) A phenomenal memory & attention to detail 5) Exceptional communication & administrative abilities 6) A wide level of interests 7) A strong devotion to his wife Overall, BM had a very systematic and methodical rather then creative mind. He used his skills to save many lives These Included: - 1) An ice cold ruthlessness 2) A tendency to use and dump people 3) An arrogance which could alienate colleagues 4) A petty minded vanity and obsession with honours 5) Political naivety e.g. his jingoism 6) A willingness to cover-up embarrassing facts 7) Neglect of his children Overall, BM was married to his career and could only tolerate a partner who knew her place as a Drs wife These Included: - 1) An ice cold ruthlessness 2) A tendency to use and dump people 3) An arrogance which could alienate colleagues 4) A petty minded vanity and obsession with honours 5) Political naivety e.g. his jingoism 6) A willingness to cover-up embarrassing facts 7) Neglect of his children Overall, BM was married to his career and could only tolerate a partner who knew her place as a Drs wife

30 A RELEVANT ROLE MODEL? Key Lessons for Doctors to learn from the life and loves of BM are: - 1) Be a polymath e.g. draw inspiration from a wide variety of sources including the humanities 2) Learn from the masters in your field, if necessary seek them out 3) Treat operations as a sacred rite in which the patients life is at stake 4) See yourselves as part of a great professional tradition which is there to be built on 5) Carefully select and be very passionate about any speciality you major on 6) Avoid a childish obsession with honours, let your work speak for itself 7) Try not to needlessly alienate your colleagues they will gossip and dam your reputation across the generations Key Lessons for Doctors to learn from the life and loves of BM are: - 1) Be a polymath e.g. draw inspiration from a wide variety of sources including the humanities 2) Learn from the masters in your field, if necessary seek them out 3) Treat operations as a sacred rite in which the patients life is at stake 4) See yourselves as part of a great professional tradition which is there to be built on 5) Carefully select and be very passionate about any speciality you major on 6) Avoid a childish obsession with honours, let your work speak for itself 7) Try not to needlessly alienate your colleagues they will gossip and dam your reputation across the generations

31 FINAL COMMENTS The main conclusion to draw from this study is that BM was a a love hate figure who could attract both great loyalty and dislike. He wasnt a man who left people indifferent. He may well have been a ruthless careerist but he was also lot more than that! In his profession, he came to see that he was not a lone genius but rather one member in a great medical tradition. His writings on other great surgeons such as William Hey displayed a certain degree of humility. It seems that his vanity was aimed at largely at gaining honours rather than affecting his everyday profession. Perhaps he had seen too much of death for it to be otherwise. Whether we can see his like re-emerge in British medicine today is an open question. With regard to Betsy it appears that BM had taken what was for him the right decision. Hed needed a wife who could understand and accept the burdens of being married to a successful surgeon. Betsy obviously failed to fulfil these conditions so she had to go. Once this decision had been made it was easy to imagine him being coldly logical about it. He would have taken the view that it had to be done and the sooner the better. One mystery remains over how he had first met Betsy. During his younger days he was not a churchgoer, preferring the theatre instead. Was it at the theatre that he actually first encountered her? The answer to that question remained unknown. In the final analysis, its possible to respect if not necessarily like Dr BM. By sheer bloody minded doggedness he justly became one of the great figures of modern medicine – thanks to his work countless lives have been saved and enhanced.

32 NON-ELECTRONIC SOURCES Book List Anning T. Stephen (1980) The History of Medicine in Leeds W. S. Manney & Son Ltd Bateman David (1940) Berkley Moynihan, Surgeon London Macmillan & Co Ltd Burt Steven & Grady Kevin (1994) The Illustrated History of Leeds The Breedon Book Company Franklin White A. ~ editor (1967) Selected Writings of Lord Monynihan Pitman Medical Publishing Club Rees Laurence (1997) The Nazis - a Warning From History BBC Monynihan A. G. B. (1905) Abdominal Operations W. B. Saunders and Company Parsons Malcolm (2002) Yorkshire and the History of Medicine William Sessions Ltd Thornton David (1996) The Picture Story of Leeds D & J Thornton Organizational Bodies Leeds General Infirmary Museum Thackray Medical Museum Book List Anning T. Stephen (1980) The History of Medicine in Leeds W. S. Manney & Son Ltd Bateman David (1940) Berkley Moynihan, Surgeon London Macmillan & Co Ltd Burt Steven & Grady Kevin (1994) The Illustrated History of Leeds The Breedon Book Company Franklin White A. ~ editor (1967) Selected Writings of Lord Monynihan Pitman Medical Publishing Club Rees Laurence (1997) The Nazis - a Warning From History BBC Monynihan A. G. B. (1905) Abdominal Operations W. B. Saunders and Company Parsons Malcolm (2002) Yorkshire and the History of Medicine William Sessions Ltd Thornton David (1996) The Picture Story of Leeds D & J Thornton Organizational Bodies Leeds General Infirmary Museum Thackray Medical Museum

33 ELECTRONIC SOURCES ancestry.co.uk l=http://www.maggieblanck.com/Land/PhotosEngland.html&h=392&w=640&sz=82&tbnid=m4j5C0Vy3gYJ::& tbnh=84&tbnw=137&prev=/images%3Fq%3DLeeds%2Bgeneral%2BInfirmary%2BPhotographs&hl=en&sa=X &oi=image_result&resnum=2&ct=image&cd=1 l=http://www.maggieblanck.com/Land/PhotosEngland.html&h=392&w=640&sz=82&tbnid=m4j5C0Vy3gYJ::& tbnh=84&tbnw=137&prev=/images%3Fq%3DLeeds%2Bgeneral%2BInfirmary%2BPhotographs&hl=en&sa=X &oi=image_result&resnum=2&ct=image&cd=1 ancestry.co.uk l=http://www.maggieblanck.com/Land/PhotosEngland.html&h=392&w=640&sz=82&tbnid=m4j5C0Vy3gYJ::& tbnh=84&tbnw=137&prev=/images%3Fq%3DLeeds%2Bgeneral%2BInfirmary%2BPhotographs&hl=en&sa=X &oi=image_result&resnum=2&ct=image&cd=1 l=http://www.maggieblanck.com/Land/PhotosEngland.html&h=392&w=640&sz=82&tbnid=m4j5C0Vy3gYJ::& tbnh=84&tbnw=137&prev=/images%3Fq%3DLeeds%2Bgeneral%2BInfirmary%2BPhotographs&hl=en&sa=X &oi=image_result&resnum=2&ct=image&cd=1

34 ELECTRONIC SOURCES gateway.org/server.php?change=storyInPictures&contentId=35&contentType=ConGallery&chapterId=&vie wImage=1 gateway.org/server.php?change=storyInPictures&contentId=35&contentType=ConGallery&chapterId=&vie wImage=


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