Presentation on theme: "Team Performance Measurement"— Presentation transcript:
1 Team Performance Measurement Jill MacBryde & Kepa MendibilCentre for Strategic ManufacturingUniversity of Strathclyde, Scotland
2 Feedback - Australia July 2001…. Increasingly companies in Australia are adopting team-based approaches to workBut many companies are not achieving the benefits they thought they would get from teamsAnd many people working in teams are dissatisfiedReal interest in team performance managementCompanies want a simple tool that they can use at any level of the organisationWhat to measureHow to measure it
3 Feedback – UK 2000-2002 The story is the same…. I don’t think we will ever get the best out of our teams - not when the reward system is an individual one and people are shooting each other in the back!We have a team that consistently performs well - how can we get the other teams to perform at this level ?How can we continue to motivate staff when we have taken away so many middle management jobs ?I want teams to manage themselves more!How do we create measures on which to base team variable pay ?How can I define performance measures for “hard to measure” white collar jobs ?I want a system to manage my team’s performance – but if I wait for the senior management to buy into some system then I’ll be waiting a long time!
4 Confusion! The horizontal processes pull people in one direction; FUNCTIONSManage processesSupport processesPROCESSESOperate processesThe horizontal processes pull people in one direction;the traditional, vertical, management systems pull them in another!
5 So why teams?Many people don’t seem happy with their team performance….So why are we using teams more?And are teams really the way forward?
6 Why Teams ? Working effectively, teams can result in: increased flexibilitycost savingsfocus on the customerinnovation and continuous improvementownership & responsibilityhappier staffetc.…...
7 What the “consultants” fail to tell you… It’s not about teams; its about performanceIt’s not about individuals; its about organisational designIt’s not about structure as much as its about management philosophyIts not about empowerment; its about responsibility and accountability…..and that’s the bits that we will try to help you sort out today….
8 Why Teams ? Some examples of good team performance management: Litton Rank ZeroxDutton Engineering
9 Why Teams ? Litton Interconnection teams run their own mini-business no job is a black boxeveryone receives basic manufacturing trainingcustomers are much happierteam members are more motivatedflexibilitythe team is responsible for recruiting, scheduling etc..shared values
10 Why Teams ? Rank Zerox self managed teams productivity up employee satisfaction significantly uptraining was importantflexibility
11 Why Teams ? Dutton Engineering annual hours effort put in when its neededhealthy competitionorder fulfilment improvedemployee satisfaction
12 So what’s the success factor? We believe establishing a team performance measurement system is central to successBut you first have to recognise the things that will contribute to team performanceMany performance measurement systems measure the process (output, quantity, quality etc.)But often measuring the process is not enoughSome measure individuals contribution (skills, attitudes, output etc)But often the way we measure individuals is counter-productive to the team or process effortWe don’t want measures that just report on the pastWe want a performance measurement system that will help the team look forward as well as back.
13 Agenda for the day Introduction and background to our work Introductions – tell us about your team***What influences team performance?What should we measure?Introducing the team performance measurement workbookUsing the workbook to design your own team performance measurement systemGroup presentations & discussionNext steps – what you should do nextFeedback & close
15 Background to CSM The Centre for Strategic Manufacturing (CSM) Based within the University of Strathclyde, GlasgowOur Mission - to facilitate performance improvements in manufacturing industriesCore areas of expertise:Business process improvementPerformance measurementStrategy managementIt was whilst working with companies in these areas that the issue of team performance surfaced
16 Initial ProjectFunded by UK Government through the Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)5 initial collaboratorsIBMUDVHighland SpringRolls RoyceApplecross PropertiesComparative study between industrial partners and ‘best practice’ organisationsIdentifying the things that contribute to team performanceDeveloping a framework of what to measure
17 Initial FindingsWe found no performance measurement system that included all critical aspects we believed to affect team performanceOrganisations told us they would like a practical tool that will help them to manage their teamsSo we set about develop such a toolAnd the workbook that you have in front of you is the output!
20 What Influences Team Performance ? Before we can design a team performance management system it is necessary to first look at the critical factors influencing team performance.We looked at the literature on teams and performance managementWe visited companies that we believed to be “best practice”
21 What Influences Team Performance ? Factors identified as being major contributors to team performance:Alignment with strategic objectivesUnderstanding the desired outcomesThe existence of a performance measurement systemThe skills and abilities within the team (eg. education, ability to tackle problems etc)Organisational support & management (training & development, keeping the team informed, rewarding, motivating etc..)Type of team (eg. task force, project, self-directed etc.)
22 Lets look at these things that contribute to team performance in more detail…
23 AlignmentThe team needs to know what the organisation is trying to achieveThe team should also be aware of the measures that are important to the organisationThe team should be able to see how they are helping the organisation to achieve its objectivesIn today’s workshop this is one of the first things we will do…look at what your organisation is trying to achievelook at what is being asked of the teamAnd ask if there is alignment
24 Understanding the desired outcomes It is human nature - people to want to be appreciatedPeople want to know what is being asked of them - knowing where the goalposts are!Achieving the desired outcomes should be celebrated and can help with affirmation of the teamIn the workshop we will help you to establish what the desired outcomes of your team process or task are…
25 The existence of performance measures Its true what they say…“What gets measured gets done!”Measuring performance provides information to help with training, coaching, rewarding etc..Performance measures help to create a positive feedback cycleLater in the workshop we will help you to develop the appropriate measures for your team.
26 Team skills, behaviours etc. In order to successfully achieve their process objectives the team will need to develop certain competencies and capabilities…SkillsExperienceTeam dynamicsLeadershipCommunicationAttention to qualityCreativityFlexibility etc…Different teams will have different requirements in terms of competencies and capabilitiesIn the workshop we will help you to establish what “enablers” will be crucial for your team…
27 Organisational support and management The organisation needs to support the team in order for them to achieve their objectives.For example the team may need..InformationAccess to resourcesSpreading best practiceTrust etc…Different teams will have different requirements in terms of support they need from the organisationIn the workshop we will help you to establish what organisational “enablers” will be crucial for your team…
28 Type of team Teams come in different guises Some of us work in one team on one processFor others we will be part of many teams that are put together for specific purposes eg. a task forceBefore we develop performance measures we need to take the type of team into consideration
29 What type of team do you have? DescriptionWhich Type?Simple Problem-Solving TeamAddress intra-unit problems over a fixed time frame. Membership is mandated, and the team is reactive and tacticalTask ForceComposed of members from various departments or functions - brought together to research, propose, and recommend solutions to one specific functional problemCross-Functional TeamSimilar to task forces, but implement what they propose and recommendSelf-Directed Work TeamA small group of employees who are responsible for carrying out a significant piece of work. This team is empowered to control their work environment and to strive for self-sufficiencyVirtual TeamA team where members are from different departments, organisations, or locations, or where members work in the team for different durations
30 - the building blocks of the team performance measurement system What should we measure?- the building blocks of the team performance measurement system
32 The process we will follow 1.1understand what the outputs of the team task or process are1.2 identify process objectives1.3 establish the appropriate measures to check performance against objectives2. The Team Enablers2.1 understand what the team needs to do to achieve the process objectives2.2 identify team objectives2.3 establish the appropriate measures to check performance against objectives3. The Organisational Enablers3.1 understand what the organisation needs to do to help the teamto achieve its process and team objectives3.2 identify organisational objectives3.3 establish the appropriate measures to check performance againstobjectives
33 1. Identifying Process Objectives The first thing we have to establish is the objectives of the process that the team is responsible forWhat we mean by a business process is a series of linked activities, with a clear output that adds value to the business or to internal stakeholders
34 Questions we need to ask… Who are the “customers” of the team ?What does the process team deliver to the “customer” ?What performance criteria are the “customers” usingWhat is the organisation really paying this team to achieve?
35 2. Identifying team objectives Having established the process objectives we now need to ask:what does the team need to do to achieve these objectivesWhat sort of competencies and capabilities will they needCan we set objectives for the team to gain these competencies and exhibit these capabilities
36 Questions we need to ask…. What sort of behaviour is required to achieve the process goals ?What are the values you want the team to share ?Are there any procedures or processes you want the team to adhere to ?What level of teaming is required ?How crucial is communication amongst the team ?What competencies are important ?
37 Critical success factors – team enablers Type of Teamcritical success factors (TEAM)Simple Problem-Solving Team- Members should have the expertise to focus on the problem and solve it- The team should be highly committed to the task- Employees need to have initiative- Employees need to be willing to accept responsibilityTask Force- Innovation should be encouraged- Team members need the relevant skills and expertise to complete the task- The team needs to have good co-operation and little conflict- Team members need to be flexibleCross-Functional Team- As Task ForcesSelf-Directed Work Team- The team focus should be on the customer and performance- The team culture should be highly participative- Employees should be willing to work under flexible working rules- A highly skilled workforce is requiredVirtual Team- Team members should have the communication skills to work in a virtual environment
38 3. Identifying organisational objectives The team will need to be supported by the organisationWe now need to establish what the organisation can do to support the team in achieving its process and team objectives
39 Questions we will ask…What knowledge does the organisation need to provide the team with ?What technology does the team need ?What other resources are required ?
40 Critical success factors – organisational enablers Type of Teamcritical success factors (organisational resources - process)Simple Problem-Solving Team- Management should be involved on an on-going basis- Investment in training is needed to encourage commitment from employees- Decision making should be decentralised- There should be a participative, communicative culture- Significant training is required to ensure team successTask Force- The team needs to be given time to plan the project effectively- The team need training in the following areas - business planning, performance management, team design and development, and process consultation- The team require substantial organisational supportCross-Functional Team- As Task ForcesSelf-Directed Work Team- There should be no barriers to communication and co-operation- Significant training of employees to help them complete their tasks is vital- The organisation should be adaptable to change to accommodate the teamVirtual Team- Team members should be aware of any cultural differences and act to avoid damage to productivity- Technology should be in place to allow effective information sharing
41 Introducing the team performance measurement workbook - how to build your own measurement system
42 Using the workbook to set objectives The workbook will help you to look your own team and the context within which the team is workingIt will help you to set objectives each of the three areas (building blocks)Process objectivesTeam ObjectivesOrganisational Objectives
43 Measuring performance against objectives Having established objectives in the three areas we then need to think about how we measure:How the process is performing against the process objectivesHow the team is performing against the team objectivesHow the organisation is performing in terms of the support it is giving the team
44 Create Measures Not everything can be measured with numbers Good measures are those that can be observed and verified by someone elseMeasures are the yardstick used to judge how well you have performed on each resultGeneral MeasuresquantityqualitycosttimelinessSpecific Measuresnumeric measuresdescriptive measuresIn the workshop we are going to use the catalogue of measures developed by the Centre for Business Performance at Cranfield University.
45 Provide Feedback Need to give both positive and negative feedback Effective tracking systems are:relevantfrequentimmediatespecificData Collection Decisionswhat data to collectwhen to collect itwho should collect itwho should receive ithow to collect it
47 Agenda for the workshop Understanding the process the team is responsible forSetting process objectivesEstablishing appropriate process performance measures***Understanding what is needed from the teamSetting team objectivesEstablishing appropriate team performance measuresUnderstanding what the organisation needs to do to support the teamSetting organisational objectives in relation to the teamEstablishing appropriate organisational performance measures
48 What you can go and do next… Next StepsWhat you can go and do next…
49 Weight the ObjectivesWeight is a percentage that describes the relative importance of a resultWeights can help the team prioritise and manage their timeWeights help the team member prioritise both team and individual resultsLack of priorities can cause problems:confusion about what is importantlack of shared visionpeople will complain about their “lack of credit” for their contribution
50 Linking Team and Individual Objectives Human nature - people want to be recognised for their individual contributionEvaluating individual performance provides information to help with training, coaching, rewarding etc..Rewarding outstanding contribution may be valuable - even in a loosing teamThe problem is, how do we make sure the team and individual measures don’t conflict ?You might want to draw up a matrixThis may help team members to understand how the team’s objectives/deliverables fit with their own priorities
51 Linking Individual & Process Objectives Team Members
54 To concludeHopefully you are leaving today’s workshop with a better understanding of team performance managementYou should have the basis of a team performance measurement system which has been designed to suit your own team situationYou know what you should be measuringAnd you have discussed which measures are appropriate to your team, taking into account:the company strategythe type of teamthe process or task objectives (process objectives)the team competencies and capabilities (team objectives)the organisational support needed (organisational objectivesissues surrounding data collection
55 Still to do…Back at work you might consider weighting the objectives – to help the team prioritise and manage their time and resourcesAnd you may choose to link the team objectives and measures to individual objectives, measures and rewardsBut the main thing is to put your team performance measurement system in place – and start collecting the data – so that you can start to see the areas where performance needs to be improvedAnd don’t forget to review the measures you are using on a regular basis!Good luck….
56 We welcome feedback…. …. and let us know how you get on! Questions?We welcome feedback….…. and let us know how you get on!