Presentation on theme: "World War I Zack Davis World History 1° 5/12/3. Entry Into War On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, both of Austria- Hungary, were."— Presentation transcript:
World War I Zack Davis World History 1° 5/12/3
Entry Into War On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, both of Austria- Hungary, were assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, one Gavrilo Princip. Austria-Hungary made harsh demands of Serbia. Serbia gave in to most of the demands. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Russia mobilized troops near its borders with Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany declared war on Russia, then France, and ally of Russia, two days later. Germany asks permission of Belgium to invade France through Belgium Belgium declines, Germany declares war on Belgium Great Britain, an ally of Belgium, declares war on Germany. Nearly all of Europe was now engaged in war. Nations outside of Europe would soon enter the conflict. The first of the World Wars had now begun.
Diplomacy Austria-Hungary made harsh demands of Serbia, it was practicing a form of diplomacy, trying to resolve issues without war. This was a very harsh example of diplomacy, of course. Serbia offered to have the demands it did not accept settled by an international conference. This act of diplomacy failed.
Europe Before the War From The First World War. http://www.pro.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/maps/europe1914.htm
Public Opinion The United States had a foreign policy of isolationism before the war. Isolationism was the belief that a country should stay out of the affairs of other countries. The sinking of the British passenger ship Lusitania on May 7, 1915 greatly swayed public opinion in the United States in favor of joining the war for the Allies. 128 Americans were killed. Germany said the ship was carrying ammunition.(It was.) Germany agreed to stop sinking neutral and passenger ships. They returned to the this policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917, however. In Feb. 1917, the Zimmerman note was made public. It was a telegram from Germany to Mexico promising Mexico United States territory if Mexico would join the Central powers. Public opinion shifted in favor of the war, and the U.S. entered the war on the side of the Allies on April 2, 1917.
Weapons Many new weapons were introduced during World War I. New weapons killed more people faster. This lead to stalemates, especially along the Western Front. New weapons for warfare included poison gas, tanks, and better machine guns. Germans used U-boats, or submarines, for naval warfare. Airplanes were used in warfare for the first time during World War I.
Strategy Political Before World War I, European nations allied with each other. If one nation went to war, the others in the alliance would help them. Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance. When the war actually started, Italy switched sides. France, the United Kingdom, and Russia formed the Triple Entente. Other nations would later join the war on this side, which would also be called the Allies. Countries would try to draw other nations into the war on their side. The Zimmerman Note mentioned earlier is a key example of this.
Strategy Economic Economic supply lines were very important in the war. Countries set up blockades to prevent supply shipments to other countries. Germany was able to successfully shut off Allied supply lines to Russia, greatly weakening Russias war effort. One of the reasons Germany went back to a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 was that the German leaders thought they could starve Britain into defeat before the United States entered the war.
Strategy Physical Schlieffen Plan Germanys plan for war The Schlieffen Plan was for Germany to quickly defeat France in the west, and then to attack Russia in the East. Russias troops would take a long time to mobilize because the countrys railroad system was poor. The Central Powers lay between Russia and the rest of the Allies, and therefore were able to cut off Allied supply lines. However, the Allies surrounded the Central Powers, forcing Austria-Hungary and Germany to fight two-front wars.
Propaganda Governments used propaganda to drum up support for the war. News about the war was censored if it might turn public opinion against the war. Governments issued colorful propaganda posters to get people to support the war.
American Propaganda Posters From FIRST CALL: American Posters of World War One from the collection of Roger N. Mohovich.
French Propaganda Posters From Firstworldwar.com
Battles The First Battle of the Marne took place on September 5, 1914. The Allies attacked German forces northeast of Paris. Germany was driven back almost 60 miles after 4 days of intense fighting. The Schlieffen plan called for a quick victory in France. This was no longer possible. Battle of Tannenberg On August 1914, Germany attacked Russia at Tannenberg. The Russian army there was decimated.
Russian mass grave From Photos of The Great War.
Ruins of a church at Montfaucon From Photos of The Great War.
Europe After the War From The First World War. http://www.pro.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/maps/europe1919.htm
Prisoners of War/Casualties 20,000,000 soldiers were killed in World War I. An additional 20,000,000 were wounded and there were 20,000,000 refugees. The war cost an estimated 388,000,000,000 dollars.
Grim Statistics: WWI Battlefield Deaths (in millions) The reality of war
Total troops mobilized (in millions)
Bibliography Beck, Roger B., et al: Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction. McDougal Littell, 1999. pp. 363-385 Duffy, Michael. Firstworldwar.com. 2000-03. 11-14 May 2003..