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Nuts & Bolts of School Wide Problem Solving: An Overview Norma Cole, Principal Garden City Elementary School Shane McConnell, Asst. Principal, Ponaganset.

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Presentation on theme: "Nuts & Bolts of School Wide Problem Solving: An Overview Norma Cole, Principal Garden City Elementary School Shane McConnell, Asst. Principal, Ponaganset."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nuts & Bolts of School Wide Problem Solving: An Overview Norma Cole, Principal Garden City Elementary School Shane McConnell, Asst. Principal, Ponaganset High School

2 Iowas Experience: How it all started Began in 1986- 1987 Discussions with stakeholders Parents Teachers Administrators Area Education Agency Personnel Policy Makers Over 4000 persons contributed

3 A Series of Questions Were Asked What is working with the current system? What components of the system are in need of reconsideration? What barriers get in the way of trying these changes? Important - There was no presumption that what we were doing was not being done well.

4 Iowas Experience Systematically piloted in late 80s and early 90s Changed state rules in 95 Requires General Education Intervention Defines systematic problem solving Promotes assessments tailored to individuals needs Assessment for identifying problems, analyzing them, planning interventions, monitoring progress and evaluating effectiveness

5 Quote We have witnessed over the last 30 years numerous attempts at planned educational change. The benefits have not nearly equaled the costs, and all too often, the situation has seemed to worsen. We have, however, gained clearer and clearer insights over this period about the dos and donts of bringing about change….One of the most promising features of this new knowledge about change is that successful examples of innovation are based on what might be most accurately labeled organized common sense. (Fullan, 1991, p. xi-xii) Fullan, M. G. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York, NY : Teachers College Press.

6 Level IV IEP Consideration Implement Plan Evaluate Define the Problem Develop a Plan Amount of Resources Needed to Solve Problem The Problem Solving Approach INTENSITY OF PROBLEM Level III Consultation With Extended Problem Solving Team Consultation Level I Between Teachers-Parents Level II Consultation with Other Resources

7 If you teach the same curriculum, to all students, at the same time, at the same rate, using the same materials, with the same instructional methods, with the same expectations for performance and grade on a curve you have fertile ground for growing special education. Gary Germann, 2003

8 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Of longer duration Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive School-Wide Systems for Student Success

9 The Problem Solving Process Implement Plan (Treatment Integrity) Carry out the intervention Evaluate (Progress Monitoring Assessment) Did our plan work? Define the Problem (Screening and Diagnostic Assessments) What is the problem and why is it happening? Develop a Plan (Goal Setting and Planning) What are we going to do ?

10 Level One Develop a Plan Anecdotal documentation Evaluate Parent and teacher determine effectiveness and need for additional resources Define the Problem Informal discussion focusing on behaviors of concern Implement Plan Parent and teacher gather information and monitor Parent Teacher Consultation Between Teacher and Parent

11 Level Two Develop a Plan - -Team offers strategies -Solutions generated -Plan written Evaluate Implement Plan Define the Problem -Available Screenings -Further definition of the problem - Team assists with implementation - Data collected from naturally occurring sources if possible -Data used to evaluate progress -Success determined Parent Teacher BAT Building Assistance Team Strategic Instruction: Consultation with Other Resources

12 Level Three -Implement according to written plan -Ongoing systematic data collection -Follow-up as needed Evaluate Develop a Plan - Generate possible solutions -Evaluate solutions -Select a solution -Collect baseline data -Set a goal -Write action plan -Select measurement strategy -Develop plan to evaluate effectiveness Implement Plan Strategic Instruction: Consultation with Extended Problem Solving Team Define the Problem -Identify concern -Define behavior of concern -Problem validation -Data analyzed to determine effectiveness -Success determined by rate of progress & size of discrepancy -Recycle or determine need to consider entitlement for special education -Problem analysis -Functional assessment -Write problem statement Parent Teacher BAT AEA

13 Level Four Develop a Plan Define the Problem Implement Plan - -Using all data gathered at all levels problem solving, determine if appropriate interventions and whether or not special education services are needed. -Team develops IEP Intensive Instruction: Intervention and Entitlement Consideration (Due Process) Evaluate -Identify additional areas of concern -Develop assessment questions -Implement according to IEP -Ongoing systematic data collection -Instructional changes made as needed -Collect additional data necessary for entitlement decision Parent Teacher BAT AEA -Success determined by rate of progress and size of discrepancy -Plan rewritten once per year or as often as data indicates the need

14 Elements of an Effective Model Set of goals Valid and reliable assessment system to monitor progress Adoption of research proven materials and programs Adequate, prioritized instructional time Differentiated instruction, grouping, and scheduling Strong instructional leaders maintaining focus and establishing support mechanisms An integrated system of research-based professional development and resource allocation. Adapted from Kameenui and Simmons

15 Why use a School-Wide Approach? The best way to address problems is to prevent them before they happen Achievement of all students is everyones responsibility within a school. Early intervention to promote success is critical to future school achievement. Early intervention requires accurate identification of children at risk for failure. Assessment, instruction, and meaningful outcomes for students must be aligned.

16 Why use a School-Wide Approach? Some students will require intensive interventions. Assessment data will be needed to determine resources needed to address concerns. Ongoing monitoring should direct instructional decisions and be repeated with the frequency needed for timely interventions. No matter how great the idea or how compelling the research, if an intervention is not working, something must change.

17 Four Organizing Principles Earlier rather than later -- Prevention and early intervention are supremely more effective and efficient than later intervention and remediation for ensuring reading success.

18 Four Organizing Principles Schools, not just programs -- Prevention and early intervention must be anchored to the school as the host environment and primary context for improving student outcomes.

19 Four Organizing Principles Evidence, not opinion -- Prevention and early intervention pedagogy, programs, instruction and materials should be based on trustworthy scientific evidence.

20 Four Organizing Principles Each and All-- To teach all children to read, we must teach each child to read. Kameenui, E. and Simmons, D. (2002) University of Oregon, Beginning Reading Institute

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