Presentation on theme: "If Development is not Engendered, it is Endangered."— Presentation transcript:
If Development is not Engendered, it is Endangered
Gender… Refers to the economic, social, political, and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male or female. The social definitions of what it means to be a woman or a man vary among cultures and change over time. OECD, 1998
Sex… Refers to the biological differences between males and females. Sex differences are concerned with males and females physiology.
Gender Equity Process of being fair to women and men, including using measures to compensate for historical and social disadvantages that prevent men and women from operating on a level playing field. CIDA, 1996 Gender Equality The state or condition that affords women and men equal enjoyment of human rights, socially valued goods, opportunities, and resources. SIDA, 1997
Gender Integration: Refers to strategies applied in program assessment, design, implementation, and evaluation to take gender norms into account and to compensate for gender-based inequalities. Gender Mainstreaming: The process of incorporating a gender perspective into policies, strategies, programs, project activities, and administrative functions, as well as institutional culture of an organization.
Womens Empowerment: Improving the status of women to enhance their decision-making capacity at all levels, especially as it relates to their sexuality and reproductive health. Constructive Male Engagement: Promotes gender equity with regard to reproductive health, increases men's support for women's reproductive health and children's well-being, and advances the reproductive health of both men and women.
Homophobia: Irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuals or homosexual behavior or cultures. Homophobia also refers to the self-loathing by homosexuals as well as the fear of men who do not live up to societys standards of what it is to be a true man. Heterosexism: The presumption that everyone is heterosexual and/or the belief that heterosexual people are naturally superior to homosexual and bisexual people.
Overview of USAID ADS Requirements and USG HIV/AIDS Legislation
USAID, Gender, and Development Through attention to gender issues, our development assistance programs will be more equitable, more effective and ultimatelymore sustainable. ~ USAID Gender Plan of Action, 1996
USAID, Gender, and Development Men and women have different access to development programs and are affected differently by USAID activities. USAID seeks to understand these differences, to improve the efficiency and overall impact of its programs, and to ensure that both women and men have equitable access to development activities and their benefits. From USAIDs Automated Directives System (ADS)
ADS: Key Questions for Planning How will gender relations affect the achievement of sustainable results? How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women? Are women and men involved or affected differently by the context or work to be undertaken? If so, would this difference be an important factor in managing for sustainable program impact?
ADS Requirements, Sep 2008 Mission Strategic Planning ADS : Statement of Strategic Objective ADS : Gender Considerations How will gender relations affect the achievement of sustainable results? How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women? ADS : Activity Design Are women and men involved or affected differently by the context or work to be undertaken? If so, would this difference be an important factor in managing sustainable program impact?
ADS Requirements, Sep : Activity Approval Outline the most significant gender issues that need to be considered during implementation and describe expected outcomes. If the Operating Unit determines that there are no significant gender issues, provide a brief rationale to that effect. ADS : Reflecting Gender Considerations in Performance Indicators Gender-sensitive indicators Sex-disaggregated data ADS and : Incorporating Gender Considerations into Evaluation Criteria for Competitive Solicitations
Illustrative Examples of Gender Evaluation Criteria For Program Implementation and Evaluation: Gender research, analyses, or assessments, and consultations with womens advocacy groups Gender-equitable consultation and participation in all phases of activities Gender considerations in activity design, training, and procurement actions Sex-disaggregated data for indicators and targets For Institutional Capacity: Commitment to gender in previous contracts, cooperative agreements, or grants Gender-equitable policies and mission statements Publications on gender issues For Staff Qualifications: Key personnel with demonstrated sectoral and gender analysis skills Position descriptions that require gender expertise, especially for leadership positions
Gender in the Foreign Assistance Framework Two gender sub-Key Issues are identified in the Operational Plan: –Increasing Gender Equity –Reducing Gender-based Violence The sub-Key Issues cut across all Functional Objectives All individual-level indicators to be disaggregated by sex
Gender and PEPFAR
USG Global Five-year HIV/AIDS Strategy (PEPFAR I) Recognizes gender inequality as driving HIV and contributing to the devastation of HIV/AIDS Calls for efforts to target men with messages that challenge norms about masculinity Calls for efforts to mitigate and reduce violence Gapsespecially in the areas of treatment and care
Gender in PEPFAR Strategy Two-pronged approach: –Gender integration in all program areas (prevention, care, and treatment) –Programming along five strategic, cross-cutting areas Implementation: 5-year country strategies, COP technical guidance and review, TA, and resources from Gender Technical Working Group (GTWG), gender focal points/advisors
Senator Russell Feingold, May 2007 Fighting the gendered dynamic that is frequently transmitted with the disease itself must become a critical component of any expanded HIV-prevention programs in the next phase of U.S. HIV/AIDS efforts.
Five Key Legislative Issues: PEPFAR I Increasing gender equity in HIV/AIDS activities and services Reducing violence and coercion Addressing male norms and behaviors Increasing womens legal protection Increasing womens access to income and productive resources
1. Increasing gender equity PEPFAR-supported programs should promote proactive and innovative strategies to ensure that men and women and girls and boys have access to prevention, care, and treatment services. This includes tailoring services to meet the unique needs of various beneficiary groups.
2. Addressing male norms and behaviors Men can play a critical role in promoting gender equity, preventing violence, and promoting sexual and reproductive health. Recognizing that men can either impede or promote health interventions, PEPFAR encourages country teams to develop programs that promote positive male engagement and behavior change.
3. Reducing violence and coercion Women who live in fear for their lives (and their childrens lives) and who are unable to make their own decisions about sex are at a greatly increased risk of becoming infected with HIV. … Reducing violence against women increases their access to services and their ability to negotiate safer sex and take advantage of education and employment activities.
4. Increasing womens access to income and productive resources PEPFAR recognizes that womens and girls lack of economic assets increase their vulnerabilities to HIV. Providing women with economic opportunities (increasing access to employment, training, and microfinance activities) empowers them to avoid high-risk behaviors, seek and receive healthcare services, and better care for their families.
5. Increasing womens legal protection Many of the norms and practices that increase womens vulnerability to HIV and limit their capacity to deal with its consequences are reinforced by policies, laws, and legal practices that discriminate against women. Women denied enforceable legal rights and protections, including property and inheritance rights, are often unable to meet the basic needs of survival for themselves and their children, increasing their vulnerability to HIV.
Gender Analysis & Integration
I. Gender Analysis
What is Gender Analysis? Gender analysis draws on social science methods to examine relational differences in womens and mens and girls and boys Roles and identities Needs and interests Access to and exercise of power and the impact of these differences in their lives and health.
How does Gender Analysis Help Us Design and Manage Better Health Programs? Through data collection and analysis, it identifies and interprets –The consequences of gender differences and relations for achieving health objectives, and –The implications of health interventions for changing relations of power between women and men.
Different Approaches, But Two Fundamental Questions How will gender relations affect the achievement of sustainable results? How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women? (I.e., will it exacerbate inequalities or accommodate or transform gender relations?)
To Understand Gender Relations, Many Gender Analyses... Examine different domains of gender relations, e.g. Practices, Roles, and Participation Knowledge, Beliefs, and Perceptions (some of which are norms) Access to Resources Rights and Status
What are the Different Constraints and Opportunities Faced by Women and Men? How do gender relations (in different domains of activity) affect the achievement of sustainable results? How will proposed results affect the relative status of men and women (in different domains of activity)?
Different Domains of Gender Analysis Practices, Roles, and Participation Knowledge, Beliefs, and Perceptions (some of which are norms) Access to Assets Legal Rights and Status Power
Practices, Roles, and Participation Gender structures peoples behaviors and actions what they do (Practices), the way they carry out what they do (Roles), and how and where they spend their time (Participation). Participation in: Activities Meetings Political Processes Services Training Courses
Knowledge, Beliefs, and Perceptions (some of which are norms) Knowledge that men and women are privy towho knows what Beliefs (ideology) about how men and women and boys and girls should conduct their daily lives Perceptions that guide how people interpret aspects of their lives differently depending on their gender identity
Access to Assets The capacity to access resources necessary to be a fully active and productive (socially, economically, and politically) participant in society. Assets: Natural and productive resources Information Education Social capital Income Services Employment Benefits
Legal Rights and Status Refers to how gender affects the way people are regarded and treated by both customary law and the formal legal code and judicial system. Rights: – Inheritance – Legal documents – Identity cards – Property titles – Voter registration – Reproductive choice – Representation – Due process
Power Gender relations influence peoples ability to freely decide, influence, control, enforce, and to engage in collective actions. To exercise decisions about –Control (acquire and dispose of) resources –Value certain knowledge more than other –Ones body (reproductive choice) –Children –Choice of occupation and participation in activities –Affairs of the household, community, municipality, – and state –Voting, running for office, and legislating –Entering into legal contracts –Moving about and associating with others
In Short, Gender Analysis Reveals Gender-based Opportunities and Constraints Gender-based Opportunities are gender relations (in different domains) that facilitate mens or womens access to resources or opportunities of any type. Gender-based Constraints are gender relations (in different domains) that inhibit either mens or womens access to resources or opportunities of any type.
Different Contexts And remember, gender constraints and opportunities need to be investigated in specific contexts, as they vary over time and across: Social relationships Partnerships Households Communities Civil society and governmental organizations/institutions Sociocultural contexts Ethnicity Class Race Residence Age
II. Integrating Gender into the Program Cycle
Strategic Information and Program Life Cycle ASSESSMENT What is the nature of the (health) problem? EVALUATION How do I know that the strategy is working? How do I judge if the intervention is making a difference? STRATEGIC PLANNING What primary objectives should my program pursue to address this problem? MONITORING How do I know the activities are being implemented as designed? How much does implementation vary from site to site? How can the program become more efficient or effective? DESIGN What strategy, interventions, and approaches should my program use to achieve these priorities ?
Moving from Analysis to Action Key tips Based on the analysis of gender constraints and opportunities Specify sub-objectives and actions; and Tie indicators to change in specific constraints and opportunities.
Using a Worksheet (Table 1) A. What are the key gender relations inherent in each domain (the domains are listed below) that affect women and girls and men and boys? B. What other potential information is missing but needed about gender relations? C. What are the gender-based constraints to reaching program objectives? D. What are the gender-based opportunities to reaching program objectives? Be sure to consider these relations in different contexts individual, partners, family and communities, healthcare and other institutions, policies Practices, roles, and participation Knowledge, beliefs, perceptions (some of which are norms): Access to assets: Legal rights and status: Power and decision making: Program goal and/or overall health objective: ______________________________________________________ Step 1: Conduct a gender analysis of your program by answering the following questions for your program goal or objective.
Using a Worksheet (Table 2) Step 2. What gender-integrated objectives can you include in your strategic planning to address gender-based opportunities or constraints? Step 3. What proposed activities can you design to address gender-based opportunities or constraints? Steps 4 & 5. What indicators for monitoring and evaluation will show if (1) the gender-based opportunity has been taken advantage of or (2) the gender-based constraint has been removed? Steps 2-5: Using the information you entered in Table 1, answer the following questions for your program goal/objective.
Small Group Work Instructions for Exercise Read your assigned case study Groups 1A and 1BCase study 1 (fill in) Groups 2A and 2BCase study 2 (fill in) Complete Table 1, identifying gender-based opportunities, constraints, and missing information Complete Table 2, identifying gender sub-objectives, activities, and indicators Record highlights of your responses on flipchart paper Groups 1A and 2ATable 1 Groups 1B and 2BTable 2
Resources at USAID Interagency Gender Working Group (IGWG) WID Office USAID Gender Specialists PEPFAR Gender Technical Working Group