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New Visions Changing Young Mens Attitudes Toward Gender Relations in Egypt Presented by Leah Freij, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "New Visions Changing Young Mens Attitudes Toward Gender Relations in Egypt Presented by Leah Freij, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Visions Changing Young Mens Attitudes Toward Gender Relations in Egypt Presented by Leah Freij, Ph.D.

2 Presentation Setting the context How New Visions (NV) came about Objectives of NV Description of NV program KAP survey regarding gender norms, roles and GBV Achievements Lessons learned

3 New Horizons (NH) Program Non-formal education High illiteracy rate – 70% High fertility rate – 1 in 5 married before 15 High rate of circumcision - 97% Demystify & communicate RH Basic life skills 62,582 girls completed NH

4 Why a Boys Program? How are we going to benefit and put this into action if men around us don't appreciate it? Can you please educate them. -a girl from Sohag What about my father, brother and future husband? If they don't know these things, we will have difficulties getting our rights. Would you please provide them with the same information. -a girl from Qena

5 New Visions Program Complements NH Responds to mens distinct needs Literate boys between 12-20 Communities where NH has been or was being delivered Implemented in youth centers

6 Objectives of NV Improve the life-skills, self-confidence, social competence Increase knowledge on reproductive health Increase gender sensitivity and awareness

7 New Visions Program Implementation PARTICIPATION 2002 - 2004 NV BENEFICIARIES13,895 CLASSES720 FACILITATORS633 NGO/YC180 GOVERNORATES11 Pilot Phase – 2002 Pilot Phase – 2002 Scale-up Phase – 2003-04 Scale-up Phase – 2003-04

8 Challenges in Designing NV Safe space to participate in discussions Engage boys in formulating alternative masculinities Overcome cultural barriers on sensitive topics Community buy-in to involve young boys Girls and young women have rights

9 NEW VISIONS 64 SESSIONS BOYS 12 - 20 MANUAL I Values Human emotions Gender Communications Human relations Marriage Family Puberty & Adolescence Reproductive Health MANUAL II Personal Health & Nutrition Life Skills Work Civil & Legal Rights Health Rights First Aid Our Community Environment Planning for the Future

10 Methodology Quantitative Methodology – KAP Survey KAP survey: 2 data points– baseline and post (~6 months later) Qualitative Methodology Focus groups with beneficiaries, facilitators and beneficiaries sisters Interviews with directors of youth clubs CityMatched Pairs T1 and T2 Alexandria131 Beni Suef324 Minya526 Qena496 Total1477

11 Selected Findings Gender Norms/Roles Gender-Based Violence

12 Changes in Attitudes on Gender Norms/Roles ScalesT1T2MinMax% Increase 1. Gender equality – food, clothing, freedom of mobility, age of marriage 3.85.10622% 2. Spousal responsibility – involvement in decision - making ; pregnancy childbirth2.33.90438% 3. Gender roles – extent of disagreement on interchangeability of roles within and outside of the house9.713.541631%

13 Beneficiaries Quotes Although I always obeyed my mother, I felt emasculated because I didnt really believe household chores were a mans job. I discovered that it is acceptable for a man to help his wife and mother and began to perceive my mother in a different light. –Ahmed I used to think that any girl walking alone in the street was loose and fair game for sexual harassment. We always used to harass girls, but since graduating from New Visions I have stopped doing this. I know that all girls are like my sisters. Now I treat the girls at the Youth Club as equalsAmr

14 Changes in Attitudes on Gender-Based Violence ScaleT 1T 2MinMax % Increase 4. Domestic violence – circumstance justifiable for husband to hit wife (talks to other men, answers back)12.516.672129% 5. General GBV – early marriage, FGM considered violence4.45.20612% 6. FGM – 3 items: (i)Preference to marry (un)/circumcised woman (ii)Benefits of FGM outweigh harms (iii)Type of violence5.16.82827%

15 Quotes on Gender Based Violence There is nothing called minor hitting and major hitting, it is all hitting and it is all degrading to women. However, Islam gave the man the right to hit ones wife very superficially using a small stick just to make her understand that she did something wrong. However, it is a right one should only resort to if all other means are not working.Facilitator (Qena) We learned about the physical and psychological harms. We listened but as long as it conflicts with religion then that's it, we cannot be convinced by it.Beneficiary We started to respect our sisters. In the past we used to think that we own them. –Beneficiary

16 Voices of Stakeholders & Facilitators Not only were we convinced, we felt guilty. I remember by heart, the words of one religious leader at the seminar who said that FGM is a cheap victory on a girls freedom.Director of YC After I joined the program I realized that [FGM] constitutes physical violence because it involves the removal of a part of the females body. It also constitutes psychological violence because it affects the sexual relationship negatively and thus can lead to divorce. Facilitator

17 Achievements Broke silence on FGM & changed attitudes on domestic violence Introduced concept of rights-based gender equality Youth centers safe spaces for girls

18 Lessons Learned Both men and women are constrained by societal norms. For true partnership to take place, it is necessary for individual to examine their own roles, their roles in relation to one another, and within the context of the society at large.

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