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From Awareness to Action: Child Marriage Predictors, Hotspots, and Program Approaches Kathleen Kurz and Saranga Jain IGWG Technical Update on Child Marriage.

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Presentation on theme: "From Awareness to Action: Child Marriage Predictors, Hotspots, and Program Approaches Kathleen Kurz and Saranga Jain IGWG Technical Update on Child Marriage."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Awareness to Action: Child Marriage Predictors, Hotspots, and Program Approaches Kathleen Kurz and Saranga Jain IGWG Technical Update on Child Marriage July 11, 2006

2 Outline of Presentation Background Prevalence Consequences Reasons From Awareness to Action Predictors Hotspots Program Scan Recommendations

3 Prevalence of Child Marriage – Top 20 Countries

4 Child Marriage (CM): Constraints to Health & Development Worse reproductive health outcomes Wasted investment in development efforts

5 Maternal Mortality by Age

6 Infant Mortality Rates by Age of the Mother

7 Outcomes Maternal mortality Maternal morbidities Low birth weight & prematurity Infant mortality Reasons Still growing First birth Inadequate prenatal care Low socioeconomic status Poor Health Outcomes

8 Child Marriage and Rank on Human Development Index (HDI)

9 Reasons: Why Does Child Marriage Persist? Gender roles – Families see girls as financial and social burdens – Lack of socially acceptable alternatives for girls Family and community honor tied to early marriage – Reinforce ties between families and communities – Desire to protect girls Lack of political will Cultural norm

10 Outline of Presentation Background Prevalence Consequences Reasons From Awareness to Action Predictors Hotspots Program Scan Recommendations

11 Possible Predictors of CM Considered in the Multivariate Analysis Practices programs could support to reduce CM Primary Education Secondary Education Higher Education Primary Education -- Partner Secondary Education -- Partner Higher Education -- Partner Lower Age Gap Husband-Wife Factors programs could target to reduce CM Current Place of Residence Childhood Place of Residence Region Ethnicity Religion Polygyny Number of Siblings Wealth/Electricity

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14 CountryTipping Point Age Median Age of Marriage Cameroon, India, Mozambique1317 Uganda, Zambia, Malawi1417 Burkina Faso1517 Ethiopia1216 Nigeria, Mali, Liberia, Nicaragua1316 Central African Republic, Nepal1416 Bangladesh, Niger, Chad, Guinea1315 Tipping Point Age and Median Age of Marriage

15 Prevalence of CM by Secondary School Enrollment

16 Prevalence of CM by Age Gap Husband-Wife

17 A Variety of Religious Affiliations Associated with Higher CM Country Religious Affiliation and Highest CM in Country MalawiCatholic ChadMuslim CameroonCatholic EthiopiaOrthodox NigeriaCatholic Burkina FasoMuslim IndiaHindu BangladeshMuslim

18 Are Regional Differences within Countries Significant?

19 Regional Variation -- Ethiopia 48% of CM in Ethiopia occurs in the north: Amhara90% Tigray82% Affar77% Ben-Gumz75%

20 Regional Variation - India 5 states in India have highest percentages of child marriage: Madhya Pradesh: 73% Andhhra Pradesh: 71% Rajasthan: 68% Bihar: 67% Uttar Pradesh: 64%

21 Regional Variation – Nigeria 71% of CM in Nigeria occurs in the north: 83% in North West 78% in North East

22 9 Other Countries and their Regions with High CM Prevalence CountryRegion(s) with highest prevalence NigerNorth (North West, North East) ChadSouth Central (Hadjer Lumis, Chari Baguirmi, Batha, Guéra, Saramat) MaliWestern Region Excluding Bamako (Kayes, Koulikoro) NepalFar-Western MozambiqueNorth East (Nampula, Cabo Delgado, Zambezia, Niassa) UgandaNorthern and Eastern Regions Burkina FasoNorth and East (Sahel, Centre-Nord, Est) NicaraguaEast and Southeast (Atlantico Sur, Rivas, Atlantico Norte, Chontales, Granada, Rio San Juan) ZambiaCentral and North East (Central, Eastern, Northern, Luapula and Copperbelt regions)

23 Outline of Presentation Background Prevalence Consequences Reasons From Awareness to Action Predictors Hotspots Program Scan Recommendations

24 Scan of Programs that Address CM: Methods Thinking about child marriage beyond awareness Web-based scan of programs Directly or indirectly addressing child marriage Global Focus Search included: Search engines (35+ keywords) Organization websites Online journals, publications and books

25 Scan of Programs: Methods (cont.) Noting: Categories of programs Location Programs and government policy in high prevalence countries Target groups Reproductive health component Evaluation Many double-counted programs (total >100%) Gaps: programs without web presence and those that do not describe CM as an outcome

26 Where Are CM Programs Found? 1 program 2-4 programs 5 programs

27 Scan by Program Categories Program CategoryNo.% Education for family & community3553 Education for girls3045 Law & policy2030 Economic opportunities1117 Safeguarding rights914 Research46 Health services to married girls12 TOTAL PROGRAMS66100

28 Program Category/Sub-CategoryNo.% Education for family & community 3553 Community sensitization/awareness raising 2944 Social marketing/edutainment 1015 Education for girls 3045 Life skills 1523 Non-formal education 1218 Livelihood/vocational skills 914 Formal education 711 Law & Policy 2030 Legal mechanisms 1015 Advocacy 812 Community mobilization 69 Policy 23 Scan by Program Sub-Categories

29 Scan by Target Sub-Categories (cont.) Program Category/Sub-CategoryNo.% Economic opportunities 1117 Income generation for girls 711 Monetary incentives for families 46 Safeguarding rights 914 Shelter/creating safe spaces 58 Keeping birth or marriage records 35 Other rights (e.g. to education) 12 Research 46 Health Services to married girls 12 TOTAL PROGRAMS 66100

30 Where is Reproductive Health? Not a program category Not a program sub-category But is a component in some sub-categories 47% have some RH component Including community sensitization, life skills and/or non-formal education What is role of RH?

31 Scan by Program Target Audiences Program Target GroupNo.% Targeting family & community4670 Targeting girls3959 Only marrieds13 Only unmarrieds2462 Both marrieds and unmarrieds1333 Targeting policy makers1421

32 Are These Programs Reducing Child Marriage? We dont know – Evaluations lacking

33 Recommendations 1)Work early on CM efforts – before tipping points of ages 12-15 2)Vigorously promote secondary school education for girls 3)Investigate age gap between husbands and wives, and how to reduce its negative consequences 4)Target CM efforts within countries, or regions within countries, where CM is more prevalent 5)Discuss RH communitys role in reducing CM prevalence – supporting RH component in existing, integrated programs or starting ones own 6)Balance efforts to prevent CM with efforts to meet health needs of child brides 7)Evaluate programs for reductions in CM


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