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Flight Operations View

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Presentation on theme: "Flight Operations View"— Presentation transcript:

1 Flight Operations View
CAT II/III Workshop Flight Operations View

2 CAT II/III Flight Operations View
General Concepts ICAO/JAA/FAA Approval Process Aircraft Requirements Aerodrome Requirements Air Operator

3 CAT II CAT II DH<200 (60m)>=100(30m) and RVR >= 1200ft (350m) (JAA 1000 (300) Sufficient visual reference for a manual landing Equivalent level of safety by; airborne equipment ILS Facility

4 CAT II Equivalent level of safety by: visual aids
flight crew training/procedures ATC procedures aircraft maintenance airfield maintenance criteria for obstacle clearance

5 CAT III ICAO/FAA - CAT IIIA DH <100(30m) or no DH and RVR >= 700ft (200m) (JAA always DH) ICAO/FAA - CAT IIIB DH <50ft (15m) or no DH RVR < 700ft (200m) not <150ft (50m) (JAA 250ft(75m)) ICAO/FAA - CAT IIIC 0/0 (No JAA)

6 CAT III Not sufficient references to permit visual landing
Minimum to allow pilot to decide whether aircraft will land in touchdown zone (CAT IIIA) and ensure safety during roll-out (CAT IIIB) Desired level of safety achieved with more stringent requirements

7 DH/DA Decision altitude/height (DA/H) - is the wheel height above the runway elevation by which a go-around must be initiated unless adequate visual reference has been established and the aircraft position and approach path have been assessed as satisfactory to continue the approach and landing in safety (JAA)

8 Decision Height JAA - for CAT II and CAT IIIA the visual reference to contain not less than a 3 light segment JAA - CAT IIIB visual reference to contain one centreline light

9 Alert Height Alert Height - height above runway based on the characteristics of the aeroplane and its fail operational automatic landing system, above which a CAT III approach would be discontinued and a missed approach initiated if a failure occurred in one of the redundant parts of the automatic landing system, or in the relevant ground equipment

10 Alert Height Fail-operational automatic landing system - if in the event of a failure, the approach, flare and landing can be completed by the remaining part of the automatic system. Fail-passive automatic landing system - in the event of a failure there is no significant deviation of aeroplane trim, flight path or altitude but the landing will not be completed automatically.

11 Alert Height Go-around above Alert Height for failures (AFM) affecting fail operational system Below Alert Height continue except for Autoland warning Height evaluated during certification - typically feet Operators can select lower Alert Height

12 RVR Runway Visual Range - range over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centreline Transmissometers strategically located Three basic portions of runway - the touchdown zone (TDZ), the mid-runway portion (MID) and the rollout portion or stop end

13 RVR For CAT II TDZ required For CAT III TDZ and Mid required
For lowest weather FAA requires all For CAT III with no DH JAA require only one RVR is not the Slant Visual Range (SVR) seen by the pilot

14 RVR Minima Pilots require 1-3 seconds to establish visual contact
To establish lateral position pilots required to see not less than three lights To maintain lateral most pilots require to be able to see a lateral element of ground pattern Vertical plane - see a point which has low apparent movement relative to the aircraft

15 RVR Minima Establish an RVR to to be associated with that DH to ensure required visual reference is established Correlation between visual segment SVR - RVR Eye position is important Landing lights can obscure required visual reference in CAT III

16 Minimum Approach Break-off Height
MABH is the lowest height above ground measured by radio-altimeter such that if a missed approach is initiated without external references: in normal operation, the aircraft does not touch the ground during the procedure with an engine failure it can be demonstrated that an accident is extremely improbably

17 Minimum Approach Break-off Height
Used by JAA but being phased out Replaced by minimum DH or indication in AFM of altitude loss during automatic go around - either MABH or altitude loss in AFM can be use to determine minimum DH in CAT III operation

18 Types of Minima Airfield Operating Minima - established in accordance with aerodrome OCH Operator Minima - Lowest minima approved by authority for use by an air operator Crew Minima - lowest for a crew depending on their qualification/experience Aircraft minima - demonstrated during aircraft certification and found in the AFM

19 Approval Process

20 Regulatory Approval Aircraft Aerodrome Safety Flight Crew Air Operator


22 Topics Aircraft Requirements Aerodrome Requirements Air Operator
Approval Process

23 Aeroplane and Equipment

24 Aeroplane and Equipment Certification
Aircraft requires CAT II/III approval Operational approval is required JAR AWO section 1 (Autoland), Section 2 CAT II and section 3 (CAT III) FAA AC20-57A (autoland), AC (CAT II) and AC D (CAT III)

25 Aeroplane and Equipment Certification
Equipment listed in AFM to be operative MEL indicate status of CAT II/III Automatic landing certification requires simulations, assessments and flight test Touchdown, roll-out, automatic landing with various configurations and conditions tested

26 Aeroplane and Equipment Certification
Successful approach No system failure from 150m Speed maintained +/- 5 knots (no turbulence) Position of the aircraft between 90m and the DH - deviation of Glide path and Localizer do not exceed the values for excess deviation alerts

27 Aerodrome Requirements
Standards and Recommendations from ICAO Annex 10 (ILS) and ICAO Annex 14 (Aerodrome) are internationally accepted Additional requirements/variants may be found in national regulations Summary view of typical CAT II/III airfield

28 Aerodrome Requirements - Runway
Runway length - operational requirement Runway width - normally < 45m Slope 1st/last quarter < 0.8% Auto Landing - maximum 2% per 30m in area just before threshold (60m by 200m) Objects on runway strip - nil within 60m of centreline (except frangible) Taxi-holding positions not < 90m

29 Aerodrome Requirements Visual Aids -Aerodrome
Markings centreline, touchdown, taxiway, taxi-holding position markings High intensity threshold, runway end lights, runway touchdown zone lights and runway centreline lights, taxiway centreline lights if <400m visibility, stop bars <400m visibility

30 Aerodrome Requirements Visual Aids - Approach
Approach Lights required for CAT II only Extended centreline, side row, crossbar

31 Aerodrome Requirements Obstacle Clearance Area
Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height (OCH/OCA) - lowest height above threshold (aerodrome) used in establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle clearance criteria Minimum DH for CAT II cannot be less than established OCH/A OCH/A is a function of aircraft category

32 Aerodrome Requirements Obstacle Clearance Area
Obstacle Free Zone airspace above inner approach surface, inner transitional and balked landing surfaces and that portion of the strip not penetrated by obstacles except frangible mounted required for air transportation purposes

33 Aerodrome Requirements ILS Facility
Three categories (Annex 10) 60m (200ft) for CAT I 15m (50ft) for CAT II (acceptable to be used for CAT III with the highest minima (DH not< 50ft) Runway surface and along the runway for CAT III

34 Aerodrome Requirements ILS Facility
ILS Critical Area - aircraft/vehicles are excluded during all ILS operations because they will cause disturbances to ILS signal ILS Sensitive Area - area extending beyond the critical area where movement and/or parking of aircraft and vehicles is controlled to prevent the possibility ILS beam to be protected by longitudinal separation

35 Aerodrome Requirements RVR Measurements
Number depend on type of operation Generally 110 to 150m from centreline Nominally 5m-10m in height ICAO recommends readout of 50m increments when RVR less than 800m and 25m increments when RVR less than 150m Normally ATC give Mid unless the others lower

36 Aerodrome Requirements Maintenance
% of unserviceable lights not to exceed 5% Recommended not adjacent lights Secondary power supply with switchover of maximum of 1 second ILS installations ground and flight checked

37 Aerodrome Requirements ATC
Each Aerodrome to develop Low Visibility Procedures to include: Procedures for ATC to be quickly informed of all degradations of ILS performance Procedures for ATC to be quickly informed of any degradations in visual aids Procedures for protection of OFZ by control of ground traffic

38 Aerodrome Requirements ATC
Each Aerodrome to develop Low Visibility Procedures to include: Procedures for protection of ILS critical and sensitive areas and between aircraft Procedures for met services Procedures for maintenance Procedures for security

39 Air Operator Approval

40 Air Operator Approval Aircraft type - AFM (Certification)
Aerodrome equipment - qualify Aerodrome Operating Minima Flight Crew Training Flight Crew Procedures Maintenance Program Operational Demonstration

41 Air Operator Approval Minima
Operator take account of: aircraft performance composition of flight crew runway which may be used adequacy of visual and non-visual aids aircraft navigation equipment obstacle clearance height availability of met reports

42 Air Operator Approval CAT II DH
Air Operator to ensure DH not lower than: DH specified in the AFM Minimum DH to which precision approach can be used The OCH for category of aircraft The DH for which the flight crew is authorised 100ft(30m)

43 Air Operator Approval CAT III DH
An air operator to ensure that DH not lower than: Minimum DH in the AFM Minimum DH to which the precision approach can be used The DH to which the crew is authorised

44 Air Operator Approval CAT II/III RVR
ICAO/JAA/FAA slight differences RVR Minimum related to DH Increase DH Increase RVR For RVR values less than 300m a go-around is assumed in event of auto-pilot failure

45 Air Operator Approval Flight Crew Procedures
Satisfactory check of aircraft equipment Effect on minima of failures - aircraft and ground Procedures for approach, flare and roll-out Procedures for failures/warnings Minimum visual reference Importance of correct seating eye position Action to take if visibility deteriorates

46 Air Operator Approval Flight Crew Procedures
Allocation of crew duties to permit PIC to devote himself to supervision/decision making Calls below 200ft - one pilot on instruments at all times Requirement for localizer area to be protected Use of information relating to wind, turbulence Procedures to use for practice approaches Information on maximum deviation allowed

47 Air Operator Approval Flight Crew Procedures
Flight preparation procedures Approach preparation procedures Approach Procedures Failures and associated actions Continue Revert to higher minimum Go Around and reassess

48 Air Operator Approval Flight Crew Procedures
Failures - Continue/Revert/Go Around > 1000 Continue with higher DH if conditions met < 1000 Go around and reassessment Below AH go around required for autoland warning Abnormal Procedures Provided in AFM Simplified procedures found in FCOM

49 Air Operator Approval Flight Crew Training
CAA requirements to be met Ground training requirements Simulator Training requirements Initial, recurrent, conversion training/checking Type and command experience

50 Air Operator Approval Maintenance
Airbus aircraft CAT II/III inherent functions Air operator required to seek approval from CAA Specific maintenance program Reliability program to be extended to monitor, track and control - > 95%

51 Air Operator Approval Maintenance
Procedures to govern the capability of aircraft Upgrading/downgrading procedure to be defined Dispatch policy based on MEL Dispatch criteria and status recorded in the Technical Log Requirements for tests to verify the CAT III capability to be established

52 Air Operator Approval Operational Demonstration
To establish that the air operator can carry out CAT II/III with the appropriate success rate and level of safety Performance and reliability meet airworthiness certification Attention given to flight and maintenance procedures

53 Air Operator Approval Operational Demonstration
Flight reports and/or recordings Recordings required for DH < 50ft Resulting approach/landing success rate Unsuccessful approaches due to ATC factors and/or ground facility difficulties may be excluded if proofs provided

54 Air Operator Approval Operational Demonstration
Data Collection Crew Report: airfield and runway used weather conditions time, adequacy of speed control out of trim capability of information (FD, AFCS, raw) position through 100 ft and at touchdown reason for failure if approach aborted

55 Air Operator Approval Operational Demonstration
New Type: 6 months at 200ft with procedures for lower limits in place Summary report to indicate to 90% confidence level that 95% would be successful No failure for 30 approaches then 6 months at 50 ft with procedures for lower limits in place

56 Air Operator Approval Operational Demonstration
New Type: then 6 months at 50 ft with procedures for lower limits in place summary report to indicate to 90% confidence level that deviations are not worse than recorded during the certification programme typically 100 landings sources of data distributed evenly

57 Air Operator Approval Continuos Monitoring
Continue to provide reports of service Number of approaches, by type where CAT II or III equipment was utilised to make satisfactory, actual or practice approaches to the applicable CAT II or III minima Unsatisfactory approaches by aircraft/airfield Detect any decrease in the level of safety

58 Air Operator Approval Autoland in > CAT I
Training purposes or data gathering CAT I beam - to be checked Terrain profile to be checked Generally accepted without activation of low visibility procedures Crew authorisation to be required Crew procedures established Vigilant for ILS disturbances


60 Questions/Comments

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