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ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety ETOPS HIST RY ET PS Briefing Delhi - February 1999.

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Presentation on theme: "ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety ETOPS HIST RY ET PS Briefing Delhi - February 1999."— Presentation transcript:

1 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety ETOPS HIST RY ET PS Briefing Delhi - February 1999

2 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 2 Definitions What is the meaning of ETOPS? E xtended range with T win engine aircraft OP eration S What is the scope of ETOPS? Operation of twin engine aircraft on routes that go further than 1 hour from a diversion airfield

3 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 3 Definitions NBO JIB SLL KHI BOM CMB Non ETOPS flight 60 circles

4 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 4 Definitions NBO JIB SLL KHI BOM CMB ETOPS flight 60 circles

5 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 5 ETOPS regulations are applicable to: Overwater operations Overland operations (desert areas...) What is the meaning of EROPS? E xtended R ange OP eration S EROPS describes the applicability of ETOPS requirements to any aircraft, regardless the number of engines Definitions

6 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 6 History Extended range operations started very early: 1909: first English Channel crossing (L. Bleriot) 1919: first North Atlantic Ocean crossing (J. Alcock & A. Brown)

7 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 7 1927: first non-stop New York - Paris (C. Lindbergh) first US Cost-Hawaï crossing (A.Hegenberger & L.Maitland) first South Atlantic crossing (D. Costes & J. Le Brix) Extended range operations started very early: History

8 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 8 1928: first Pacific Ocean crossing (C.K. Smith & C.T. Ulm) 1930: first non-stop Paris - New York (D. Costes & M. Bellonte) Extended range operations started very early: History

9 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 9 Extended range commercial operations started in the late 1930s: 1936: first trans-Pacific commercial flights 1939: first trans-Atlantic commercial flights History

10 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 10 These types of flights required large multi- engined flying-boats: poor engine reliability and performance could not allow design of equally efficient twin engine aircraft History

11 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 11 Piston engine reliability The following chart (1953 ICAO report) gives the probability of failure for piston engines vs power at 1000 constant rpm: the probability of failure increases as power is increased History

12 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 12 Piston engine reliability (contd) The 1953 ICAO report shows that for the same amount of installed horsepower, the risk of an engine failure is greater on a 2 engine design than on a 4 engine design: design required hp History

13 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 13 As reliable and reasonably light engines had limited power: design of long range aircraft (high weight) implied installation of several engines (more than two) twin engine aircraft had limited payload/range performance and were only operated on short flights History

14 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 14 In 1953, further to a review of the piston engine reliability, the FAA published the initial 60 minutes rule: applicable to three (until 1964) and two engine aircraft special approval for operations beyond 60 minutes At the same time, ICAO issued its 90 minutes recommendations: no airplane shall be operated beyond 90 min (all engines operative) from a diversion airfield, except if the route can be flown with two engines inoperative common interpretation was that twin engine aircraft could be operated on 90 minutes routes History

15 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 15 Until 1952, all commercial flights were operated with piston engine powered airplanes: 1952: first commercial operation with jet airplane (DH Comet 1) 1958: first transatlantic commercial jet operation (DH Comet 4) Since 1960, jet engine powered aircraft progressively replaced piston engine powered aircraft: on all long range routes on most of regional routes Until 1952, all commercial flights were operated with piston engine powered airplanes: 1952: first commercial operation with jet airplane (DH Comet 1) 1958: first transatlantic commercial jet operation (DH Comet 4) Since 1960, jet engine powered aircraft progressively replaced piston engine powered aircraft: on all long range routes on most of regional routes History

16 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 16 Higher performance of jet engines allowed operations of twins on 90 min routes (Caribbeans, Africa, Bay of Bengal, North Atlantic, South China Sea,...) History

17 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 17 Jet engine reliability More than 40 years of jet operations have shown that unlike piston engines, jet engine failure probability is not affected by the thrust or the size of the engine: Therefore, the probability of an engine failure is now higher on a quad-jet than on a twin-jet (for 1000 FH) History

18 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 18 The introduction in the 1980s of twin aircraft (A310, B767) powered with modern (fuel efficient) turbofan engines made the old 60/90 minute rules inadequate: 1984: ICAO ETOPS study group amend Annex 6 1985: FAA publishes first ETOPS regulation to address 120 min operations 1985: first ETOPS operation (SIA/A310 - TWA/B767) History

19 ETOPS Briefing European Academy For Aviation Safety History - 19 In 1988, the Authorities published rules for 180 minutes ETOPS based on the very good experience with 120 minutes operations: today, ETOPS operation is representing over 60% of North Atlantic operations Regulatory discussions are on-going to assess: extension of the ETOPS limit beyond 180 minutes increase of the non-ETOPS threshold above 60 minutes History


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