4 How do you help families? “One size” doesn’t fit allCustomize early interventionEach family and child is uniqueFamily-designed plans create lasting, significant results
5 What do we know about babies that might help us “do our homework,” and design plans for families?
6 Recent Research Tells Us that Babies: · Respond to sensory stimuli as neural connections are made in specific parts of the brain· Recognize human faces· Respond to vocal promptingsSearch for eye contact to seek and maintain bond with caregiver
7 Interaction Strategies Babies attend to and act on environmentBabies observe, listen and learn from peopleBabies explore and experiment
8 Comprehension Strategies Attend to a common focusListen selectively to adult languageLet Mom or Dad know if they like or don’t like the message they are receiving
9 Language Production Strategies Babies selectively imitate only what they understandBabies talk a lot to invite feedback from the listenerBabies notice correspondence between words and mouth movements (by 5 mos.)
10 What do we know about the parental role in the development of babies?
11 Adults Seek to Establish 2 Social Events with Baby: Joint attentionTurn taking
12 What role do parents play in the teaching of language? Parents teach language as one of the primary goals of human culturesParents involve baby in give and take pattern of conversationParents assign meaning to baby’s non-language behaviors to meet baby’s needs
13 What other roles do parents play in the teaching of language? Parents use “motherese”Parents increase the number of words used to describe and control as babies developParents incorporate prosodic featuresParents respond to child’s intentional communicative acts
14 What is the Effect of Hearing Loss on the Language Learning Process? Flexer has described the “invisible acoustic filter”Impacts verbal language acquisitionImpacts linguistic skills of reading and writing
15 Newborn Hearing Screening Identifies Babies at Birth Makes it possible to access hearing earlyCreates opportunities for intervention to begin earlierCreates challenges for parentsCreates challenges for professionals
16 What will really make a difference in the life of a young child learning to listen and talk?
17 We have learned about the interactive process of the parent teaching the baby to talk. But…when one partner fails to reciprocate as anticipated:The interaction is compromisedParent-child interactions must be systematically developed
18 The Bottom Line is This: The parents and other significant people in the child’s life are the ones who will implement the program for the child---Unless you plan to move in!
19 Questions to be Answered What are the key components to early intervention?Why were some families successful?Why did other families struggle?What techniques did master teachers use in the classroom?
20 Signature BehaviorsEight Signature Behaviors to develop parent-child language interactionEight Signature Behaviors to maximize the auditory potential
21 Language Signature Behavior Level 1 What is the first behavior parents need to establish throughout the day to set the stage for language and listening development?Positioning
22 Language Signature Behavior Level 2 Once the parent is positioning the child for optimal communication throughout the day, he/she is ready to:Recognize the Child’s Signals
23 Language Signature Behavior Level 3 Now the parent is:1. positioning the child for easier interaction and communication, and2. recognizing his/her child’s attempts to communicateModel Language
24 Language Signature Behavior Level 4 Now the parent is:1. positioning the child face-to-face2. recognizing the child’s signals, and3. modeling language to match the child’s wants and needsWhat else can parents do to stimulate language growth?Name Objects and Actions
25 Language Signature Behavior Level 5 Up to now, the parent has been:Positioning the childRecognizing the child’s signalsModeling appropriate languageNaming objects and actionsNow the parent needs to be able to assessComprehension
26 Language Signature Behavior Levels 6 and 7 Taking into consideration the language the child is understanding, what else can the parent do to expand the child’s experiences and help the child develop language and speech?Self-TalkParallel Talk
27 Language Signature Behaviors Level 8 The parent incorporates all the seven previous Signature Behaviors throughout the day and shifts easily and appropriately from one to the other. Hooray! The child is beginning to talk! What should the parent do now?Expand the Child’s Language
28 Eight Listening Signature Behaviors Arranged in hierarchical orderSet the stage for auditory developmentProvide support for language developmentCarefully integrated with all language development practice
29 The Eight Listening Signature Behaviors are: Parent will understand hearing loss and amplificationParent will establish full time hearing aid/CI useParent will maintain device in good working conditionParent will minimize auditory distractions
30 Parent will provide meaningful experiences with sound Parent will call the child’s attention to soundsParent will know which sounds the child discriminatesParent will associate sounds with meaningful language and concepts
31 Help Babies Access Hearing by: Providing consistent auditory stimulationDeveloping child’s memory for sound through meaningful experiencesSpeaking directly to the child to help the child tune in to talkingHelping the child make the connection between the sound of Mom or Dad’s voice and the meaning of the interaction
32 To use the hierarchy of Signature Behaviors in Language and Listening Observe and interact with the familyTarget appropriate behaviors for practicePractice targets during naturally-occurring times of the dayProvide variety of practice throughout the day so interactions become habit
33 Layered or Cumulative Effect If you are working with a family that is struggling, re-assess.Maybe the parents need to go back and rebuild their foundation of Language or Listening Signature Behaviors from the bottom up.Without a firm foundation of skills, it will be difficult to achieve a successful, interactive and pleasurable parent-child relationship.
34 Tick Talk Tick Talk Tick Talk! The clock is ticking. Time is precious.Help parents and babies both play their roles in the learning process fully and skillfully.Help families create meaningful episodes of interaction throughout the day that will end in fun and learning.
35 BibliographyBoysson-Bardies, Benedicte de (1999). How language comes to children; from birth to two years. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, A Bradford Book.Flexer, C. (1999). Facilitating hearing and listening in young children 2nd ed.). San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.Simmons-Martin, A. and Karen Rossi (1990). Parents and teachers: partners in language development, Washington D.C.: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf.McLean, James and Lee Snyder-McLean (1999). How Children Learn Language, San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.Rossi, K. (2003). Learn to talk around the clock, a professional’s early intervention toolbox, Washington D.C.: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.
36 Karen Rossi, M.A., Early Intervention Specialist Director, Omaha Hearing School Omaha, Nebraska