How big? 7.1 million unique web sites, a 50 percent increase over the previous year's total of 4.7 million 41 percent of the Web, or about 2.9 million sites are Private –OCLC Researchers Measure the World Wide Web Oct. 16, 2000 (http://www.oclc.org/oclc/press/20001016a.htm)
Metadata Known items vs. a topic –Data about data –Or: Structured Data about data Structure –Lots of communities do metadata
Discovery Navigating large collections is challenging! Used to build databases to answer key what, who, where, when questions like: –What exists on a topic, in a genre, by an author, for a specific audience, published in a given year? Brings out content, value, relationships that are not expressed in the resource Supports fast, arms-length evaluation of resources to optimize retrieval, save users time Is often used to market resources to users –Catalogs / directories / search engines –Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI))
Retrieval Identifiers that assist manual and automated systems in retrieval –Shelf location for physical resource –File location for electronic resource System requirements for e-resources –Users system responds to file type with correct application Captures rights and privileges information –Circulation –Document delivery –Interlibrary loan
So whats the big fuss? The Web is large and growing quickly Many producers, many users on the Web Navigating networked resources is difficult Good description = –better access –better control Control and access = big business Convergence of interests = collaboration in building standards (interoperability)
Types of metadata Descriptive Structural Administrative 11 22 33 Title = Nitty Gritty Dirt Band File type = jpg Rights holder = NGDB Concepts to know:
Concepts to know (cont.): Semantics –Whats in a name? Syntax –We gots grammar Interoperability –Sharing...
Concepts to know (cont.): Metadata objects can be: –Embedded in the resource –Separate from the resource –Both embedded and separate M M M M
Dublin Core Common name for the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) DCMES is a –a common core of semantics for resource description –it appears to be very useful in facilitating: retrieval of described resources as a lingua franca for the exchange of resource descriptions DCMES is maintained by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) hosted by OCLC purl.org/dc
International in Scope Purl.oclc.org/dc/project/index.htm
Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) A set 15 elements designed to enhance discovery and retrieval of resources Goals of DCMES: Simplicity of creation and maintenance Commonly understood semantics Conformance to existing and emerging standards International scope and applicability Extensibility Interoperability among collections and indexing systems
Rules for DCMES DCMES is extensible: –Additional elements, schemes, qualifiers may be defined and used in conjunction with DCMES –DCMES may be modified by DCMI to add more elements, schemes, qualifiers over time Approved elements, schemes qualifiers may only be used with appropriate elements All elements, qualifiers, schemes are optional All elements, qualifiers, schemes are repeatable DCMES special practice may be defined by individuals, agencies, communities
Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) (cont.)
Character Encoding Many standards available Of critical importance to be sure that systems correctly process, index, display textual data MARC 21 uses various ISO standards plus EACC, etc. Global standard gaining acceptance: Unicode http://www.unicode.org/ http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/specifications/speccharintro.html
Who uses metadata? Elementary students Publishers, authors, institutions Librarians Reference/Catalogers International in scope
Elementary students Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51(2): 193-201, 2000: 193- 201.
Publishers, authors Crossref- Ovid The Association of American Publishers and Andersen Consulting recommended E-Book metadata standards Implement a document-identification scheme worldwide
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