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1 CEAL Preconference Workshop: XML Wooseob Jeong Assistant Professor School of Information Studies University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee March 2, 2004 San.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CEAL Preconference Workshop: XML Wooseob Jeong Assistant Professor School of Information Studies University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee March 2, 2004 San."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CEAL Preconference Workshop: XML Wooseob Jeong Assistant Professor School of Information Studies University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee March 2, 2004 San Diego, CA Sponsored by School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee University of California – San Diego Library

2 2 Why XML? Simply because its already everywhere. MS Office XHTML - WYSIWYG PDF RDF - Dublin Core, RSSDublin CoreRSS MARC in XML E-books

3 3 What is XML? Extensible Markup Language XML is a concept, not an application. Meta Language Linguistics for individual languages XHTML is an application of XML. Brief history of XML SGML – HTML Not enough … why?

4 4 Learning XML No technical experience needed. Even no HTML experience is welcome. HTML vs. XHTML (different families) Again, XML is a concept. Good starts on XML started/ started/

5 5 XML is simple but very strict. You can make your own mark up set as you like with minimal requirement. Every tag should be paired. Tags should be in a hierarchy. However, once you establish the set, you have to follow it. Its the law! No exception. Otherwise, your document wont be displayed at all. Well-formedness – minimum requirement DTD (Document Type Definition)

6 6 Philosophy of XML Separation of presentation information from its content. No decorating information allowed in contents. Presentation should be rendered by methods outside the document, currently either CSS or XSLT CSS has been used in HTML as well as in XML. Ex) XSLT is more powerful. Ex) More Examples

7 7 Markup information Presentational Markup: Describe Appearance 1234 N. Oakland Ave. Milwaukee, WI Semantic Markup: Indicates Meaning 1234 N. Oakland Ave. Milwaukee WI 53201

8 8 Your First XML Document Using NotePad, please follow the instruction at The result should look like

9 9 Restaurant Menu Exercise Well-formedness CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) Simple but not flexible XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) It is an xml document itself. Complex but really powerful Online Exercises

10 10 Menu CSS Exercise Use NotePad and type yourself, please! Watch out save as option. Modify menu.xml with your favorite foods, adding CSS info. Modify menu.css with your prefences. Comprehensive CSS reference

11 11 Menu XSLT Exercise Modify menu2.xml by adding XSLT info. Modify menu2.xsl with your preference. It is like a limited programming language. Selective displays with the same data. Examples You may use HTML tags freely, but every attributes value should be quoted. Watch out typos!

12 12 Unicode in XML Unicode is the default character set in XML. Whats Unicode? Why is it so important? Where is ASCII? Multilingual vs. Multiscript WordPad or MS Word should be used for Unicode documents. Save as Unicode Text

13 13 united.xml Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Réduire l'extrême pauvreté et la faim Ликвидация крайней нищеты и голода

14 14 united.css English {display: block; color=red} French {display: block; color=blue} Chinse {display: block; color=green} Russian {display: block; color=purple}

15 15 More Unicode Exercise Multilingual/multiscript sources United Nations International Bible Society Since an XSLT file is an XML document, you can use any languages or any scripts in your XSLT. Only Windows 2000 or XP supports Unicode fully. CSS – bible.xml XSLT – biblecjk.xml

16 16 SMIL Exercise (1) Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language Still an XML application! Multiple media are played together. Example: Closed Captioning. RealText Exercise Based on Real Player setting

17 17 SMIL Exercise (2) Locate an audio source. Ex) Voice of America at Locate its transcript. Modify example.smil file according to your information. Modify example.rt file with your transcript. It can be a Karaoke application.

18 18 SMIL Exercise (3) Online Exercise Locate any CJK real audio file on the web, and copy the URL to the form. Ex) Type the script in CJK. Choose a character set and a font. SMIL in Real Audio does still support local character sets only.

19 19 Document Type Definition What is DTD? The master plan dictates all the rules for elements, attributes, and entities. You may make your own DTD, but once you make it, you should follow the rule. No exception! Why is DTD important? Data Exchange

20 20 Elements, Attributes, and Entities Elements Building blocks of markup (tags) Attributes Qualifying Elements (properties) Entities Referencing External Content and Saving Typing Ex) special characters

21 21 DTDs XHTML TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) EAD (Encoded Archival Description) RDF (Resource Description Framework) Dublin Core; RSS Dublin CoreRSS

22 22 Validation To be a same type of document, it should be valid for its DTD. Online validation tool Well-formedness vs. Validation

23 23 TEI Letter Transcript Exercise The purpose of this exercise is to make a valid TEI document transcribing a letter. Use a remote TEI DTD TEIXLite DTD Modify letter.xml and letter.css with your text and preference. Do a validation test, please.

24 24 Dublin Core Most Frequent Example in RDF Dave Beckett's Home Page Dave Beckett ILRT, University of Bristol

25 25 RSS (RDF Site Summary) Rich Site Summary More practical and active example in RDF RSS feeds are so many on the web /rss.xml /rss.xml

26 26 Other important parts in XML (1) XSL XSL Transformations XSL Formatting Objects Ex) PDF URI (Uniform Resource Identifiers) URL (Uniform Resource Locator) ISBN/ISSN

27 27 Other important parts in XML (2) XLINK More than what HTML links do Ex) inbound link information, behavior of links (when, how to activate) XPointer More than what HTML anchors do XPointers refer to particular parts of or locations in XML documents. Ex) linking to the third sentence of the seventeenth paragraph in a document

28 28 Other important parts in XML (3) Namespace An XML namespace is a collection of names, identified by a URI reference Problem: same element names Ex) title in HTML and title of a book Schema Alternative to DTD Data type

29 29 Popular E-book Formats Adobe: basically PDF Microsoft Palm Free E-book Projects ml ml Authoring tools Universal CJK support cannot be found yet.

30 30 Conclusion XML is a concept. There are many XML applications. XML should separate its presentation information from its contents. XMLs default character set is Unicode. XML should be well-formed at least. DTD/Schema is very important for data/information interchange.

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