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Korean Romanization and Word Division Young Ki Lee Senior Cataloging Specialist Korean/Chinese Team RCCD Library of Congress.

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1 Korean Romanization and Word Division Young Ki Lee Senior Cataloging Specialist Korean/Chinese Team RCCD Library of Congress

2 Session Summary: Romanization and Word Division: is designed to provide trainees with basic understanding of the Romanization and Word Division Rules for Korean language and the related rule interpretations. The session provides introduction of McCune- Reischauer system and 1997 edition of ALA-LC Romanization Korean Table. The trainees are prepared through basic study of guidelines and interpretations to create Romanized data on bibliographical records. Learning Objectives: At the end of this session trainees will be able to: Define the structure of Korean Script Consult and use McCune-Reischauer system and ALA-LC Romanization Korean Table Apply the guidelines in the creation of new bibliographic records Recognize situations in Romanization and Word Division in which librarian must exercise judgment in the application of the guidelines.

3 Hangŭl The Korean alphabet was invented in 1444 and promulgated it in 1446 during the reign of King Sejong, the fourth king of the Chosŏn Dynasty. The alphabet was originally called Hunmin chŏngŭm Korean linguist Chu Si-gyŏng brought the modern name for the alphabet, Hangŭl, in use in 19 th century

4 Notable features of Hangŭl There are 51 letters (jamo) in the Korean alphabet: 14 simple consonants 5 double consonants 11 consonants clusters 10 simple vowels 11 diphthongs

5 14 Simple Consonants Normal: k/g n t/d l/r m p/b s /ng ch/j h Aspirated: k t p ch

6 Double Consonants k t p s tch

7 Simple Vowels and Diphthongs a ya ŏ yŏ o yo u yu ŭi i ae yae e ye oe wi ŭi wa wŏ wae we

8 Three Categories of jamo Initial (, ): The consonants before the vowels. All five doubled jamo can be placed here. –Position: top, left, or upper-left corner of the syllabic block. Medial (, ): The vowels comprising the syllable nucleus. –Position: middle of the syllable block if there's a final, otherwise at the right or bottom. Final (, ): The consonants after the vowels. All basic jamo can occur as finals, and the silent initial is pronounced ng in final position. –Position: bottom, right or lower-right corner of the block.

9 Combined Syllables

10 Syllable Stacking Rules A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "vertical vowel" is written with the consonant on the left and the vowel on the right: + = A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "horizontal vowel" is written with the consonant on top and the vowel underneath: + = If a syllable has a consonant, vowel, and consonant, the final consonant, called patch'im (meaning "supporting floor" in Korean) goes to the bottom -- or floor -- of that syllable. + + = + + =

11 Useful sites in Internet McCune-Reischauer System from the National Library of Australia. (http://www.nla.gov.au/librariesaustralia/cjk/download/ras_1961.pdf)McCune-Reischauer System ALA-LC Romanization Tables from Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/romanization/korean.pdf)ALA-LC Romanization Tables Guide to Korean Romanization System and Word Division from UC-Berkeley (http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/EAL/help/koreanromanization.pdf)Guide to Korean Romanization System and Word Division Romanization and Word Division from USC (http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/arc/libraries/eastasian/korea/ckm/manual/)Romanization and Word Division Guide for Searching the Korean Collection Korean Romanization Korean Romanization from PITTCat (http://www.library.pitt.edu/libraries/eal/DOCS/Korean_Romanization.pdf)

12 The Basic of McCune-Reischauer system letterinitialmedialfinal K: Kugŏ 1. G: mulgŏn 2. NG: kungmin 3. K: hapkye K: choguk 1. Not romanized: yŏja 2.N: nongmin 1. L: yŏllak 2. N: Hanmun N: kangsan 1. CH: chy ŏngi 2. T: tasŏt 1. D: mudang 2. T: haptong Not applicable 1. Not romanized: Yŏksa 2. N: nodong 1. R: maru 2. L: Mullihak 3. N: Chongno L: osolkil

13 McCune-Reischauer system, continued letterinitialmedialfinal M: mongmaM: namuM: pam P: palpyo1. B: kalbi 2. M: sŏmni 3. P: chŏpsi P: hŏnpŏp 1. SH: shwipke 2. S: sangŏp 1. SH: ashwiun 2. S: nongsanmul 3. NN: yenniyagi 4. T: mothada 5. D: udot T: udot Not romanized: ŏlgul1. Not romanized: Togil 2. NG: nongmin NG: sarang

14 McCune-Reischauer system, continued letterinitialmedialfinal CH: chilli1. J: tojang 2. CH: mokchang Not applicable CH: chabyŏlCH: kimchi Not applicable K: kokkiriK: tankanpang Not applicable T: taepungT: kukto Not applicable P: pyŏnjiP: pyŏngpung Not applicable H: hwanggŭmH: Hwanghae-do Not applicable

15 McCune-Reischauer system, continued letterinitialmedialfinal KK: kkamagwiKK: kkaekkŭthan K: Hobakkot Not applicable TT: ttangkongTT: pottari Not applicable PP: ppŭriPP: yeppŭda Not applicable SS: ssangdungiSS: chopssal Not applicable TCH: tchaksarangTCH: tongtchok Not applicable

16 McCune-Reischauer system, continued letterinitialmedialfinal Not applicable1. LG: between vowels 2. L: before letters of the K series 3. NG: before,, and 4. LK: before 5. K: before all other consonants K Not applicable1. LB: between vowels 2. L: before letters of the P series 3. M: before,, and 4. LP: before 5. P: before all other consonants P Not applicable1. LM: between vowels 2. L: before 3. M: before other consonants Not applicable

17 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean) 1997 edition 1. The Library of Congress will continue to follow the McCune-Reischauer system to romanize Korean. See: Romanization of the Korean Language: Based upon its Phonetic Structure by G.M. McCune and E.O. Reischauer ([S.l.: s.n., 1939?), reprinted from the Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 2. The Library of Congress will designate certain standard dictionaries as final authorities to resolve question of contemporary pronunciation. A word will be considered to be pronounced as indicated in those dictionaries, and romanized in such a way as to represent its pronunciation most accurately. Dictionaries to be used as authorities in Korean

18 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition 3. When romanization rules conflict with the pronunciation of a word, prefer to represent the pronunciation. Do not romanize silent syllabic finals. choǔn yori (or ) namunnip kap ŏpta 4. Sai siot. Follow McCune-Reischauer directions on romanization of medial (sai) siot. With these revisions: Romanized as nn when a syllabic final before i and yotized vowels y enniyagi hŏnnil Romanized as d when a syllabic final before all other vowels mǒdǒpta u dot

19 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition 5. Represent a reinforced medial consonant as it is pronounced, regardless of written form. (NOTE: Some dictionaries represent a reinforced medial consonant with a double consonant: [- ] However, the romanization would not necessarily show a double consonant: ŭikwa) Hancha ( ) But hanja (a measure) silssi p yŏngka munpŏp 6. Words written with double final consonants are to be romanized as they are pronounced. hŭk sam tak Maksŭ Marksŭ (X)

20 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition 7. Initial niŭn ( ) and liŭl ( ). Follow McCune-Reischauer rules governing Initial niŭn and liŭl, with the following exceptions. The surname is always romanized Yi, no matter how it is written (,, ). nodong (or ) yŏksa (or ) Yi Sŭng-man (or ) Exception 1) When medial is followed by medial, they are generally romanized. However, when syllables beginning with, or (i.e.,, ) follow a vowel or medial, the sound of is generally dropped. In such cases, is not romanizaed. mullihak nayŏl punyŏl But Koryŏ

21 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition Exception 2) To accommodate Word Division Rule 1, particles beginning with the letter are to be separated from other words, and are to be romanized beginning with the letter r in all cases. sae yŏksa rŭl wihayŏ charip kyŏngje ro ŭi tojon Kim Mari ranŭn puin ( )

22 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition 8. Following hyphens: (a)When sounds would normally change, according to McCune-Reischauer rules, sound change is indicated following a hyphen in the following instances: (1) As second syllable of a forename. Exception: When the second part of a given name follows a vowel sound and begins with a yotized initial, the medial r is omitted (unless there is convincing evidence that the medial r is intended to be pronounced.) Song, Si-yŏl Yi, Ki-yŏn but Kim, Chŏr-won An, Ung-nyŏl

23 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition 8. Following hyphens: (2) For all generic terms used as jurisdictions, except the term pukto Kangwŏn-do Wando-gun

24 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition 8. Following hyphens: (b) When sounds would normally change, according to McCune-Reischauer rules, sound change is not indicated following a hyphen in the following instances: (1) In a spelled-out cardinal number: ilch ŏ n-kubaek-yuksippal (2) Between a numeral and volume designation: che 3-chip 3 4-kw ŏ n 4 (3) Between a year, written in numerals, and a suffix or modifier: 10-chunŏn 10 1900-yŏn 1900 (4) Between abbreviated forms combined coordinately: chung-kodŭng hakkyo (5) For the generic jurisdiction term pukto: Chungchŏng-pukto (6) When a word of Western origin is modified by a single character modifier, affix, or substantive of Korean or Sino-Korean origin: esei-chip

25 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition 9. Words of Western origin: (a)The letter that can be used in romanizing words of Western origin are limited to those allowed by the McCune-Reischauer romanization rules. Therefore, while there may be a choice between letters that may be used to represent a consonant, there can be no variation in the representation of vowels. The letters that may be used to represent consonants are: k, g, ng n, l t, ch, j, d l, r, n m p, b s, sh, n, t, d, p, k ng ch, j ch k t, ch p h

26 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition 9. Words of Western origin: (b) When one or more of the prescribed letters corresponds exactly to its counterpart in the Western word being romanized, that letter will always be used: dijain (from the word design) Lenin (c) When none of the prescribed letters corresponds exactly to its counterpart in the Western word being romanized, apply the romanization system strictly, without approximation of sounds. Pet ŭ nam (from the word Vietnam; the romanization system does not permit the use of the letter v) chero (from the word zero; the romanization system does not permit to use of the letter z) (d) When the original Western word cannot be ascertained, apply the romanization system strictly.

27 Romanization Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. ( ) 25. ( )

28 Korean McCune-Reischauer Romanization Dictionary The following members are contributing to this project. Seunghi Paek : Harvard University Kyungmi Lee : Stony Brook University (SUNY) Sun-yoon Lee : University of Southern California Younghee Sohn : University of Chicago Young Ki Lee : Library of Congress Hee-Sook Shin : Columbia University Mikyung Kang : Harvard University Hana Kim : University of Toronto Jaeyong Chang : University of California – Berkeley Eunseung Oh : Stanford University Miree Ku : Duke University Wooseob Jeong : University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee Romanization Dictionary

29 Answers 1.kangmul 2.Sŏultae 3. usŭm 4. pyŏngka 5. Koryŏ 6. Nogŭn-ni 7.Pyŏngtaek-kun 8.Pyŏngtaeg-ŭp 9. chilli 10. Imjinnan 11.Taegwallyŏng 12. kŭmnyung 13.pulsang 14. haeppit 15. yŏkhal 16. ich yŏjin 17. ŏttŏke 18. mani 19. hyŏmnyŏk 20. malgŭn 21. anja 22.Yi Ŏ-ryŏng 23.Kim Sŏng-min 24. ( ) sabŏp 25. ( ) sapŏp

30 Word Division Basic Principles 1.Each word or lexical unit (including particles) is to be separated from other word Kalla TV rŭl chungsim ŭro TV 2.The Library of Congress will designate certain standard dictionaries as final authorities to resolve question of word division. A word found in these sources will be considered to be a lexical unit, and written as a unit. Words or parts of speech not appearing in these authorities will be separated or connected according to these guidelines. Then, when in doubt, prefer to separate. 3.A compound word is considered a combination of binary words. (A binary word is a compound consisting of two Chinese characters (Hancha) or two syllables of Hangul.) 4.A compound word is divided into binary components according to euphony.

31 Word Division Specific Rules 1.Write a particle ( ) as a word separate from the word stem, except as noted in (a) through (d) below. na n ŭ n nae kil e noin kwa pada chowŏn ŭi kkum ŭl kŭdae ege sae ya sae ya parang sae ya 1A. Add a particle as a suffix to a verb stem, adverb, or a simple inflection of the verb stem or adverb. sarang pannŭn anae chago mŏktŏni kanan ŭl iginŭn pŏp

32 Word Division Specific Rules 1B. Write coordinated or multisyllabic particles together as a word. However, always separate the particle (ŭi) from other particles. na mando anida Hanguk kojŏn e ŭi chodae iltŭng egenŭn so rŭl sang ŭro hangmun ŭrosŏ ŭi sahak ( ) 1C. Write independent contracted particles (such as, ) separately from the preceding word. yejŏn en michŏ mollassŏyo kohyang el kanda 1D. When particles are contracted to nouns or pronouns, connect them to those words. chigŭm ŭn nugunga wasŏ nan molla kŭgŏn na to molla

33 Word Division Specific Rules 2. Write a simple inflected verb, adjective, or adverb as a separate word or as a suffix joined to a word, according to the dictionary that served as authority or the sense of the element(s) involved. mŏndong i tŭl ttae pam e ssŭn insaengnon choguk ŭl chikin yongsa nugu rŭl wihayŏ chong ŭn ullina simni to mot kasŏ palpyŏng nanda irŏbŏrin kaŭl mongmarŭn hujo

34 Word Division Specific Rules 2A. Separate an auxiliary verb, adjective, or adverb and its inflection from the word stem. kago sipŭn nae kohyang ttŏna on kŭ chari e nae chan i nŏmchi naida ( )

35 Word Division Specific Rules 2B. Separate the auxiliary (hada), the copula (ida), and inflections of the same from the word stem when they consist of two or more syllables. Sin ŭn changjoja ida sarang iranŭn pyŏng 2C. Separate a gerund form from the word stem. purŭn pyŏl ŭn sara issŏtta

36 Word Division 3. Write an imperfect noun as a separate word, except as noted in A-B below. morankkot pil muryŏp ssirŭm ŭn Tano ppun anirao 3A. Write a single syllable, imperfect noun as a word joined to an attributive adjective or to a simple inflected verb. halsu ŏmnŭn saramdŭl sinsa sungnyŏ yŏrŏbun nugu rŭl wihan kŏsinga i choguk ŏdiro kalkŏt inga 3B. Connect a prefix ( ), such as the native Korean prefixes (kat), (hol), (hat), and (put) to the words that follow them. kass ŭ mul tŏtchŏgori pussarang

37 Word Division 3C. Write a single syllable attributive adjective or prefix as joined to a personal pronoun or imperfect noun. kŭbun i sŏnsaeng ida igŏt i chinsang ida 4. Write a derived word formed by the addition of a single character modifier, affix, or substantive as a single word, whether the word be of pure Korean or Chinese origin. Hanguk kwa Hangugin pudongsan pyŏngka taedosi ŭi inyŏm kwa Hanguk Hanbando ŭi pyŏnghwa wa anbo kyŏngje chodaeguk ŭi hyŏngsŏng hwangmuji ka changmikkot kachi

38 Word Division 4A. In a Sino-Korean phrase, write a simple inflection of the auxiliary (hada) and (toeda), and the copula (ida) joined to the word stem. kodokhal ttae sayŏn ŭl yŏngwŏnhan saengmyŏng haengbokhan Miguk saenghwal chomyŏnghae pon uri choguk

39 Word Division 4B. Connect a single character modifier, affix, or substantive of Western origin with a hyphen to a word of Korean or Sino-Korean origin. Connect a single character modifier of Korean or Sino-Korean origin with a hyphen to a word of Western origin. Pak Mog-wŏl taepyo esei-chip kukche maaketing-non 4C. Write an attributive adjective or a pre-formative character separately from the word it modifies. sin hŏnpŏp chŏ hanŭl edo sŭlpŭm i Hanguk sinhak nonmun chong saegin kŭndaesa ui chae chomyŏng kwanhan il yŏngu

40 Word Division 4D. Write two coordinated characters, affixes, or substantives together as an integral part of the word. suchurip chŏlcha kungnaeoe saj ŏ ng Hanguk s ŏ hwaga inbo ch ŏ ngsony ŏ n ege tŭrinŭn Han ŏ l

41 Word Division 4E. Write a single character suffix together with the word stem. kongsanchŭk ŭi chujang arŭmdaun tongmuldŭl 4F. Add the binary (chu ŭ i; used chiefly as a formative element) to its modifier as a suffix. minjujuŭi Marŭkŭsŭ-chuŭi wa Kidokkyo 5. Write any binary component of a compound as a single word, when possible. toji kaeryang chohap

42 Word Division 5A. Write a single character substantive as part of the preceding binary element of a compound. Write a single character substantive or an additional modifier together as part of the binary element. kukse kibonpŏp chijŏng tonggye chosapyo Hanguk chŏntong mokcho kŏnmulto kyeryang kyŏngjehakchŏk yŏngu 5B. If two single character substantives appear in succession, write the second one as a separate word. kukse kibonpŏp non tonggye chosapyo chip hyŏndae chakka samsipsamin chip Chungguk kojŏn Hansiin sŏn kwijokche sŏl kwa kwallyoje non

43 Word Division 5C. Write a single character noun as a separate word. hyŏn haengjŏng ha e che kisul Moktangang haeng yŏIcha Hanguk Chunggong kan ŭi kyoyŏk 5D. Borrowed (Western) words or terms: When it can be determined that a word or words in Korean consisted of more than one word in the original language, apply the following guidelines. If they appear separately, write them separately. syeipŭ ŏp teibŭl maenŏ If they appear without spaces, write them as a single word. (It is useful to also provide an access point in which the word or words are separated in the same manner as in the original language.) syeipŭŏp (originally shape up) (and another access point from syeip'ŭ ŏp ) teibŭlmaenŏ (originally table manners) (and another access point from t'eibŭl maenŏ )

44 Word Division If they appear without spaces, write them as a single word. (It is useful to also provide an access point in which the word or words are separated in the same manner as in the original language.) syeipŭŏp (originally shape up) (and another access point from syeip ŭ ŏp) teibŭlmaenŏ (originally table manners) (and another access point from t eibŭl maenŏ) If they appear with a center dot (. ), write them separately. syeipŭ ŏp · teibŭl maenŏ ·

45 Word Division 6. Personal Names 6A. Write a family name consisting of two characters as a single word. Hyphenate a given name in two characters or a courtesy name (in place of a given name), and capitalize only the first letter of the first syllable. Choe Chi-wŏn Yi Kwang-su Kim So-wŏl Namgung Kak Sŏnu Chong-wŏn 6B. Write a pseudonym or other assumed name as one word. Kim Sakkat Chungmugong

46 Word Division 6C. Write a Buddhist priestly or posthumous name as one word. Iryŏn Sŏk Myŏngjŏng 6D. Write a reign title, temple name, or title of nobility as one word without a hyphen. Taejo Yi Sejong Kwanggaeto Wang Hyegyŏnggung Hong Ssi Chang Hŭibin Hyŏnu Haengja

47 Word Division 7. Corporate Names, Geographical Names, Names in Publication Titles, etc. 7A. Treat a corporate name also as a binary compound when possible. Write separately as binary elements general terms such as (Hakhoe), (Hakkwa), (Kyohoe), etc. Hanguksa Hakhoe Hanguk Sahakhoe Nasŏng Hanin Changno Kyohoe Kugŏ Kungmun Hakkwa Nodong Kijun Chosaguk Hanguk Hyumŏnisŭtŭ-hoe · 7B. Write a proper name, term of address, or publication title separately from its modifier and also separately from the word it modifies. Wŏllam Yi Sang-jae Ong Nanjung ilgi cho Hŭngsŏn Kun Kwibong chip Wŏnye Hakkwa chi Taegu Maeil Sinmunsa sa

48 Word Division 7C. Hyphenate a generic term used as part of the name of a jurisdiction, and indicate phonetic changes, except in the case of the term (pukto). Kangwŏn-do Kyŏngsang-pukto Taegu-si Kahoe-dong 7D. Write a generic term for a type of topographic feature, architectural construction, or a corporate entity used as a part of a proper name, together with its name. Hallasan Naktonggang Tongnimmun Tonga Ilbosa Yurisŏng

49 Word Division 7E. Treat a generic term for a topographical feature or a jurisdiction also as a binary element when combined with another word. Taebaek sanmaek Anju Kunminhoe Wŏnju kunji Sŏjangdae Manwŏl Sanjŏng 8. Abbreviated Forms: 8A. Write contractions which include proper names as a single word. Yŏngamsaji ( + ) Sŏul Tŭkpyŏlsirip Namsan Tosŏgwan 8B. Write an abbreviated or contracted proper name, Korean or foreign, as a single word. onŭl ŭi Pukhan Chŏngyŏngnyŏn Chunggongkwŏn ŭi changnae

50 Word Division Specific Rules 8C. Hyphenate abbreviated forms combined coordinately. Do not indicate phonetical changes. Write a single character substantive as part of the final element in that combination. choesin Pul-Han sajŏn Sŏul Chung-Kodŭng Hakkyo sinyŏk Sin-Kuyak chŏnsŏ chung-tanpyŏn sosŏl Paekhwabon Tang-Song sanmunsŏn Myŏng-Chŏng pilgi kosa sŏnyŏk

51 Word Division 9. Numerals: 9A. In romanizing numbers and adjacent words, create binaries whenever possible. Write the preformative element (che) joined to the following number to form a binary. che-1 1 cheil che-3 segye 3 chesam segye However, prefer to join a number to a suffix or generic term that follows it with a hyphen (for example; (ch'a ), (hoe), (pon), (yon )). Do not indicate phonetical changes after the hyphen. In such cases, when (che) precedes the number, separate it from the number. che 1-cha 1 che ilcha che 3-chip 3 In more complex situations, still attempt to create binaries when possible. cheil, i Konghwaguk · che-1, 2 Konghwaguk 1 · 2

52 Word Division 9B. Write a spelled-out cardinal number as one word. In a number over one hundred, separate by hyphens, without phonetic changes, each unit of ten ( sip), hundred ( paek), thousand ( chon), etc. ilchŏn-kubaek-yuksippallyon 9C. Treat a contracted form of a cardinal number or calendar year as one word. yuksibinyŏn saŏp kyehoek 62-yŏn saŏp kyehoek 62 tosi chilsibil tosi 71 71 9D. In case of certain contracted numerals that have been firmly established through common usage, prefer that form. sa-ilgu haksaeng ŭigŏ · o-illyuk kunsa hyŏngmyŏng · samil undong

53 Word Division 9E. In writing native Korean numbers, also attempt to create binaries when possible. se pŏntchae chaek nekwŏn som hangŭn so yŏl mari

54 Word Division Capitalization: 1. Each separately written word of a corporate name (except particles), or an abbreviation thereof, is capitalized. Hanguk Ilbosa Taehan Sanggong Hoeŭiso 2. Each separate word of a personal name is capitalized. Yi Kwang-su Chŏng Yŏn-hŭi 3. Titles and terms of address are capitalized. Pak Taetongnyŏng Cho Yong-gi Moksa 4. Each separately written word of a geographic name is capitalized. An abbreviated geographical name is capitalized. An abbreviated geographical name is capitalized in coordinate compounds and at the beginning of other compound words. Sŏul Tŭkpyŏlsi Kyŏngbuk Supil Tonginhoe

55 Word Division Capitalization: 5. The first word of the title of a book, periodical, or series is capitalized. Hyŏndae kukchepŏp Silchon munhak ŭi sijip 6. Names of dynasties are capitalized. Yijo obaengnyŏn Myŏng-Chŏng sidae 7. A word derived from a proper name is capitalized only if the name retains its full, original meaning. Yangmyŏnghak yŏngu Hyŏndae wa Kŭrisŭchyan ŭi sinang 8. Abbreviated forms combined coordinately are capitalized if called for by these guidelines. Sin-Kuyak Sŏngsŏ Siryong Pul-Han sajŏn 9. In all other cases, follow the directions found in the officially designated style manual.

56 Word Division Punctuation 1.A centered point (. ) indicating coordinate words is generally transcribed as a comma, except where the rules require a hyphen. Chung-Kodŭng Hakkyo · Nam-Pukhan kyŏngje hyŏmnyŏk · In other instances, it may be transcribed or not transcribed, depending on the context. Sa-ilgu ŭi minjungsa · Chang Tae-uk chŏ · Iryŏp, Itang sihwajip · 2. Brackets used in the manner of quotation marks ( "... " ) are transcribed as the latter. "Munhak kwa chisŏng" siinsŏn [ ] "Si wa haebang" tongin sijip [ ]

57 Word Division Dictionaries to be Used as Authorities in Korean To determine standard contemporary pronunciation in South Korea and North Korea: Nam, Kwang-u. Han gugŏ p yojun parŭm sajŏn. (Kyŏnggi-do Sŏngnam-si: Han guk Chŏngsin Munhwa Yŏn guwon, 1984). Hyŏndae Chosŏnmal sajŏn. Che 2-p'an. ([P yŏngyang]: Kwahak, Paekkwa, Sajŏn Ch ulp ansa, 1981) As the basis for word division decisions for contemporary publications from South Korea and North Korea: Sinp yŏn kugŏ taesajŏn. (Sŏul T ŭkpyŏlsi: Taeyŏng Ch ulp ansa, 1976) Hyŏndae Chosŏnmal sajŏn. (1981)

58 Word Division Dictionaries to be Used as Authorities in Korean Supplementary source for word division decisions for classical Korean publications: Ko pŏpchŏn yongŏjip. ([Seoul]: Pŏpchechŏ, 1979) To determine reading and pronunciation of Chinese characters: Chang, Sam-sik. Tae Han-Han sajŏn. (Sŏul Tŭkpyŏlsi: Sŏngmunsa, 1964). Sin chajŏn. ([Seoul]: Sinmungwan, 1915; Reprint: [Seoul]: Cho Yŏng-sung, 1973)

59 Word Division SPECIAL CHARACTERS AND CHARACTER MODIFIERS IN ROMANlZATION Special CharactersNameUSMARC hexadecimal code ٫alif AE ٬ayn B0 Character ModifiersNameUSMARC hexadecimal code ˘breveE6

60 Word Division Exercise 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

61 Word Division Exercise answer 1. : Kugŏ munjang ŭi hyŏngsŏng wŏlli 2. : Taehan Minguk ŭi munhwa yujŏk 3. : Murim Sagwan Hakkyo 4. : Kŭnyŏ ŭi unnŭn mosŭp i arŭmdapta 5. : I ttang esŏ hangmun hagi 6. : Na rŭl chajasŏ ttŏnan kŏri 7. : Ai ŭi kasŭm enŭn pumo ka sanda 8. : Maŭm ŭi chim ŭl naeryŏ noko 9. : Sewŏl i ppalli kam ŭl 10. : Ahŭnahop tong ŭi haengbok chatki 11. : Paek kaji pangbŏp 12. : Sambaek-yuksiboil ŭi haengbok 13. : Tagukchŏk kiŏp kyŏngyŏngnon 14. : Chamsarang ŭi ŭimi rŭl kkaedatta 15. : Nam-Pukhan Chŏngsang Hoedam 16. : Yi Yosep 17. : Cha Pae Ok-tŏk 18. : Yi Yulgok 19. : Katollik Minju Chŏngnyŏn Kongdongche 20. : Ŭiam Sŏnsaeng hangjaenggi

62 Brief Description of Revision Revision Goals Base the guidelines upon the standard Korean practice (such as the Revised Korean Spelling System (1988)), which is commonly recognized by Korean people and Korean studies scholars. Simplify the principles and rules, so the users are able to use and able to easily remember them. Apply the same philosophy and principles throughout the whole guidelines. Minimize the number of exceptions. Simplify the terminology that is used in the guidelines. Insofar as possible, have the guidelines facilitate machine searching in large databases. Add more examples.

63 Revision Examples of Romanization Medial after When medial appears as a syllabic initial after, romanize as lt or ld to represent its pronunciation accurately. yultong iltang butSǒuldae (not Sǒultae) Wǒldǔkǒp (not Wǒltǔkǒp)

64 Revision Examples of Romanization,, (a) When syllabic final, and are combined with a syllabic initial, always romanize as kh, ph and th. –Pukhan –kukhak –hakhoe –hyŏphoe –yŏkhal –pukhaek (b) When syllabic final and are combined with a syllabic initial, romanize as ch. –tachida –kkochida –ichyŏjin –mach yŏng

65 Revision Examples of Romanization Words of Western Origin –tijain –Petŭnam –chero –linnen not ninnen –radionotnadio –resŭllingnotnesǔlling

66 Revision Examples of Romanization Romanization of Archaic Korean ( ) Insofar as possible, strictly apply McCune-Reischauer rules and tables for the romanization of vowels and consonants to the written forms of the words when romanizing archaic Korean. Do not attempt to romanize archaic Korean following what may be the current pronunciation. Tyŏnjyu (not Chŏnju ) Chosyŏn (not Chosŏn ) syŏmni (not sŏmni ) yaktyo (not yakcho )

67 Revision Examples of Word Division Each part of speech is to be separated from other parts of speech. The guidelines recognize 9 categories of parts of speech: Particle Noun Pronoun Numeral Verb Adjective Adnominal adjective Adverb Exclamation Note: Affixes ( ) are not considered to be a separate part of speech.

68 Revision Examples of Word Division Basic Principles 1. Nouns ( ), Pronouns ( ), Imperfect Nouns ( ) 2. Adjectives ( ) 3. Adnominal adjectives ( ) 4. Verbs ( ) 5. Adverbs ( ) 6. Particles ( ) 7. Exclamations ( ) 8. Numerals ( ) 9. Affixes ( ) 10. Abbreviated Forms (,, ) 11. Scientific terms, nomenclature, etc. (, ) 12. Terms of Western Origin ( ) 13. Personal Names ( ) 14. Corporate names, Geographical names, Publication titles, etc. (,, ) Capitalization Punctuation Special Characters and Character Modifiers in Romanization ( ) Appendix 1: Suggested Dictionaries Appendix 2: List of Auxiliary verbs Appendix 3: List of numeral quantifiers Appendix 4: List of Prefixes Appendix 5: List of Suffixes Appendix 6: List of Imperfect Nouns

69 Revision Examples of Word Division Structure of Chapter Chapter 1. Nouns ( ), Pronouns ( ), Imperfect Nouns ( ) Guidelines (a) Separate a noun, pronoun, or imperfect noun from other parts of speech. Morankkot pil muryŏp Kugŏ munjang ŭi hyŏngsŏng wŏlli (b) Separate a compound noun into binary elements without doing harm to the original meaning. Taejung kayo wa taejung munhak Taehan Minguk ŭi munhwa yujŏk. Exception 1: Write a derived word formed by the addition of a single character modifier, affix or substantive as a single word. Hanguk kwa Hangugin Pudongsan pyŏngka

70 Revision Examples of Word Division Appendix 1: Suggested Dictionaries Appendix 2: List of Auxiliary verbs Appendix 3: List of numeral quantifiers Appendix 4: List of Prefixes Appendix 5: List of Suffixes Appendix 6: List of Imperfect Nouns

71 Thanks Young Ki Lee Senior Cataloging Specialist Korean/Chinese Team RCCD Library of Congress Tel: 202-707-4251 Fax: 202-707-2824 Email: ylee@loc.gov


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