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Korean Romanization and Word Division

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1 Korean Romanization and Word Division
Young Ki Lee Senior Cataloging Specialist Korean/Chinese Team RCCD Library of Congress

2 Session Summary: Romanization and Word Division: is designed to provide trainees with basic understanding of the Romanization and Word Division Rules for Korean language and the related rule interpretations. The session provides introduction of McCune-Reischauer system and 1997 edition of ALA-LC Romanization Korean Table. The trainees are prepared through basic study of guidelines and interpretations to create Romanized data on bibliographical records. Learning Objectives: At the end of this session trainees will be able to: Define the structure of Korean Script Consult and use McCune-Reischauer system and ALA-LC Romanization Korean Table Apply the guidelines in the creation of new bibliographic records Recognize situations in Romanization and Word Division in which librarian must exercise “judgment” in the application of the guidelines.

3 Han’gŭl The Korean alphabet was invented in 1444 and promulgated it in 1446 during the reign of King Sejong, the fourth king of the Chosŏn Dynasty. The alphabet was originally called Hunmin chŏngŭm Korean linguist Chu Si-gyŏng brought the modern name for the alphabet, Han’gŭl, in use in 19th century

4 Notable features of Han’gŭl
There are 51 letters (jamo) in the Korean alphabet: 14 simple consonants 5 double consonants 11 consonants clusters 10 simple vowels 11 diphthongs

5 14 Simple Consonants Normal: Aspirated: ㄱ k/g ㄴ n ㅋ k‘ ㄷ t/d ㅌ t‘
ㄹ l/r ㅁ m ㅂ p/b ㅅ s ㅇ /ng ㅈ ch/j ㅎ h Aspirated: ㅋ k‘ ㅌ t‘ ㅍ p‘ ㅊ ch‘

6 Double Consonants ㄲ kk ㄸ tt ㅃ pp ㅆ ss ㅉ tch ㄳ • ㄵ ㄶ • ㄺ ㄻ • ㄼ ㄽ • ㄾ
ㄳ • ㄵ ㄶ • ㄺ ㄻ • ㄼ ㄽ • ㄾ ㄿ • ㅀ

7 Simple Vowels and Diphthongs
ㅑ ya ㅓ ŏ ㅕ yŏ ㅗ o ㅛ yo ㅜ u ㅠ yu ㅡ ŭi ㅣ i ㅐ ae ㅒ yae ㅔ e ㅖ ye ㅚ oe ㅟ wi ㅢ ŭi ㅘ wa ㅝ wŏ ㅙ wae ㅞ we

8 Three Categories of jamo
Initial (초성, 初聲): The consonants before the vowels. All five doubled jamo can be placed here. Position: top, left, or upper-left corner of the syllabic block. Medial (중성, 中聲): The vowels comprising the syllable nucleus. Position: middle of the syllable block if there's a final, otherwise at the right or bottom. Final (종성, 終聲): The consonants after the vowels. All basic jamo can occur as finals, and the silent initial ㅇ is pronounced ng in final position. Position: bottom, right or lower-right corner of the block.

9 Combined Syllables

10 Syllable Stacking Rules
A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "vertical vowel" is written with the consonant on the left and the vowel on the right: ㄱ + ㅏ = 가 A syllable that consists of a consonant and a "horizontal vowel" is written with the consonant on top and the vowel underneath: ㄷ + ㅗ = 도 If a syllable has a consonant, vowel, and consonant, the final consonant, called patch'im (meaning "supporting floor" in Korean) goes to the bottom -- or floor -- of that syllable. ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄴ = 한 ㄱ + ㅜ + ㄱ = 국

11 Useful sites in Internet
McCune-Reischauer System from the National Library of Australia. (http://www.nla.gov.au/librariesaustralia/cjk/download/ras_1961.pdf) ALA-LC Romanization Tables from Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/romanization/korean.pdf) Guide to Korean Romanization System and Word Division from UC-Berkeley (http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/EAL/help/koreanromanization.pdf) Romanization and Word Division from USC (http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/arc/libraries/eastasian/korea/ckm/manual/) Guide for Searching the Korean Collection Korean Romanization from PITTCat (http://www.library.pitt.edu/libraries/eal/DOCS/Korean_Romanization.pdf)

12 The Basic of McCune-Reischauer system
letter initial medial final ‘K’: 국어 Kugŏ 1. ‘G’:물건 mulgŏn 2. ‘NG’: 국민 kungmin 3. ‘K’: 합계 hapkye ‘K’: 조국 choguk 1. Not romanized: 녀자 yŏja 2. ‘N’: 농민 nongmin 1. ‘L’: 연락 yŏllak 2. ‘N’: 한문 Hanmun N’: 강산 kangsan 1. ‘CH’: 뎐기 chyŏn’gi 2. ‘T’: 다섯 tasŏt 1. ‘D’:무당 mudang 2. ‘T’: 합동 haptong Not applicable 1. Not romanized: 력사 Yŏksa 2. ‘N’: 로동 nodong 1. ‘R’: 마루 maru 2. ‘L’: 물리학 Mullihak 3. ‘N’: 종로 Chongno ‘L’: 오솔길 osolkil

13 McCune-Reischauer system, continued
letter initial medial final ‘M’: 목마 mongma ‘M’: 나무 namu ‘M’: 밤 pam ‘P’: 발표 palp‘yo 1. ‘B’: 갈비 kalbi 2. ‘M’: 섭리 sŏmni 3. ‘P’: 접시 chŏpsi ‘P’: 헌법 hŏnpŏp 1. ‘SH’: 쉽게 shwipke 2. ‘S’: 상업 sangŏp 1. ‘SH’: 아쉬운 ashwiun 2. ‘S’: 농산물 nongsanmul 3. ‘NN’: 옛이야기 yenniyagi 4. ‘T’: 못하다 mothada 5. ‘D’: 웃옷 udot ‘T’: 웃옷 udot Not romanized: 얼굴 ŏlgul 1. Not romanized: 독일 Togil 2. ‘NG’: 농민 nongmin ‘NG’: 사랑 sarang

14 McCune-Reischauer system, continued
letter initial medial final ‘CH’: 진리 chilli 1. ‘J’: 도장 tojang 2. ‘CH’: 목장 mokchang Not applicable ‘CH‘’: 차별 ch‘abyŏl ‘CH‘’: 김치 kimch‘i ‘K‘’: 코끼리 k‘okkiri ‘K‘’: 단칸방 tank‘anpang ‘T‘’: 태풍 t‘aep‘ung ‘T‘’: 국토 kukt‘o ‘P‘’: 편지 p‘yŏnji ‘P‘’: 병풍 pyŏngp‘ung ‘H’: 황금 hwanggŭm ‘H’: 황해도 Hwanghae-do

15 McCune-Reischauer system, continued
letter initial medial final ‘KK’: 까마귀 kkamagwi ‘KK’: 깨끗한 kkaekkŭthan ‘K’: 호박꽃 Hobakkot Not applicable ‘TT’: 땅콩 ttangk‘ong ‘TT’: 보따리 pottari ‘PP’: 뿌리 ppŭri ‘PP’: 예쁘다 yeppŭda ‘SS’: 쌍둥이 ssangdungi ‘SS’: 좁쌀 chopssal ‘TCH’: 짝사랑 tchaksarang ‘TCH’: 동쪽 tongtchok

16 McCune-Reischauer system, continued
letter initial medial final Not applicable 1. ‘LG’: between vowels 2. ‘L’: before letters of the ‘K’ series 3. ‘NG’: before ㅁ,ㄴ, and ㄹ 4. ‘LK’: before ㅎ 5. ‘K’: before all other consonants ‘K’ 1. ‘LB’: between vowels 2. ‘L’: before letters of the ‘P’ series 3. ‘M’: before ㅁ,ㄴ, and ㄹ 4. ‘LP’: before ㅎ 5. ‘P’: before all other consonants ‘P’ 1. ‘LM’: between vowels 2. ‘L’: before ‘ㅁ’ 3. ‘M’: before other consonants

17 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean) 1997 edition
The Library of Congress will continue to follow the McCune-Reischauer system to romanize Korean. See: Romanization of the Korean Language: Based upon its Phonetic Structure by G.M. McCune and E.O. Reischauer ([S.l.: s.n., 1939?), reprinted from the Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. The Library of Congress will designate certain standard dictionaries as final authorities to resolve question of contemporary pronunciation. A word will be considered to be pronounced as indicated in those dictionaries, and romanized in such a way as to represent its pronunciation most accurately. Dictionaries to be used as authorities in Korean

18 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
3. When romanization rules conflict with the pronunciation of a word, prefer to represent the pronunciation. Do not romanize silent syllabic finals. choǔn 좋은 yori 료리 (or 요리) namunnip 나뭇잎 kap 값 ŏpta 없다 4. Sai siot. Follow McCune-Reischauer directions on romanization of medial (sai) siot. With these revisions: Romanized as ‘nn’ when a syllabic final before ‘i’ and yotized vowels yenniyagi 옛이야기 hŏnnil 헛일 Romanized as ‘d’ when a syllabic final before all other vowels mǒdǒpta 멋없다 udot 웃옷

19 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
5. Represent a reinforced medial consonant as it is pronounced, regardless of written form. (NOTE: Some dictionaries represent a reinforced medial consonant with a double consonant: 의과 [-꽈] However, the romanization would not necessarily show a double consonant: ŭikwa) Hancha 한자 (漢字) But hanja (a measure) 한자 silssi 實施 p‘yŏngka 평가 munpŏp 文法 6. Words written with double final consonants are to be romanized as they are pronounced. hŭk 흙 sam 삶 tak 닭 Maksŭ 막스 Marksŭ 맑스 (X)

20 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
7. Initial niŭn (ㄴ) and liŭl (ㄹ). Follow McCune-Reischauer rules governing Initial niŭn and liŭl, with the following exceptions. The surname 李 is always romanized Yi, no matter how it is written (李, 이, 리) . nodong 로동 (or 노동) yŏksa 력사 (or 역사) Yi Sŭng-man 리 승만 (or 이 승만) Exception 1) When medial ㄴ is followed by medial ㄹ, they are generally romanized ㄹㄹ. However, when syllables beginning with 류, or 려 (i.e. 률, 렬, 련) follow a vowel or medial ㄴ, the sound of ㄹ is generally dropped. In such cases, ㄹ is not romanizaed. mullihak 文理學 nayŏl 羅列 punyŏl 分裂 But Koryŏ 高麗 20

21 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
Exception 2) To accommodate Word Division Rule 1, particles beginning with the letter ㄹ are to be separated from other words, and are to be romanized beginning with the letter ‘r’ in all cases. sae yŏksa rŭl wihayŏ 새 歷史 를 위하여 charip kyŏngje ro ŭi tojon 自立 經濟 로 의 挑戰 Kim Mari ranŭn puin 金 마리 라는 夫 (婦)人 21

22 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
8. Following hyphens: When sounds would normally change, according to McCune-Reischauer rules, sound change is indicated following a hyphen in the following instances: (1) As second syllable of a forename. Exception: When the second part of a given name follows a vowel sound and begins with a yotized initial ㄹ, the medial ‘r’ is omitted (unless there is convincing evidence that the medial ‘r’ is intended to be pronounced.) Song, Si-yŏl 宋 時烈 Yi, Ki-yŏn 리 기련 but Kim, Ch‘ŏr-won 金 哲源 An, Ung-nyŏl 安 應烈 22

23 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
8. Following hyphens: (2) For all generic terms used as jurisdictions, except the term ‘pukto Kangwŏn-do 江原道 Wando-gun 완도군 23

24 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
8. Following hyphens: (b) When sounds would normally change, according to McCune-Reischauer rules, sound change is not indicated following a hyphen in the following instances: (1) In a spelled-out cardinal number: ilchŏn-kubaek-yuksipp‘al 一九六八 (2) Between a numeral and volume designation: che 3-chip 第 3輯 4-kwŏn 4卷 (3) Between a year, written in numerals, and a suffix or modifier: 10-chunŏn 10週年 1900-yŏn 年 (4) Between abbreviated forms combined coordinately: chung-kodŭng hakkyo 中高等 學校 (5) For the generic jurisdiction term ‘pukto’: Ch‘ungch‘ŏng-pukto 忠淸北道 (6) When a word of Western origin is modified by a single character modifier, affix, or substantive of Korean or Sino-Korean origin: esei-chip 에세이집 24

25 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
9. Words of Western origin: The letter that can be used in romanizing words of Western origin are limited to those allowed by the McCune-Reischauer romanization rules. Therefore, while there may be a choice between letters that may be used to represent a consonant, there can be no variation in the representation of vowels. The letters that may be used to represent consonants are: ㄱ k, g, ng ㄴ n, l ㄷ t, ch, j, d ㄹ l, r, n ㅁ m ㅂ p, b ㅅ s, sh, n, t, d, p, k ㅇ ng ㅈ ch, j ㅊ ch‘ ㅋ k‘ ㅌ t‘, ch ㅍ p‘ ㅎ h 25

26 ALA-LC Romanization Tables (Korean), 1997 edition
9. Words of Western origin: (b) When one or more of the prescribed letters corresponds exactly to its counterpart in the Western word being romanized, that letter will always be used: dijain (from the word design) 디자인 Lenin 레닌 (c) When none of the prescribed letters corresponds exactly to its counterpart in the Western word being romanized, apply the romanization system strictly, without approximation of sounds. Pet‘ŭnam 베트남 (from the word ‘Vietnam’; the romanization system does not permit the use of the letter ‘v’) chero 제로 (from the word ‘zero’; the romanization system does not permit to use of the letter ‘z’) (d) When the original Western word cannot be ascertained, apply the romanization system strictly. 26

27 Romanization Exercise
16. 잊혀진 17. 어떻게 18. 많이 19. 협력 20. 맑은 21. 앉아 22. 이 어령 23. 김 석민 24. 사법 (司法) 25. 사법 (私法) 서울대 웃음 평가 高麗 노근리 평택군 평택읍 진리 임진란 대관령 金融 강물 불상 햇빛 역할

28 Korean McCune-Reischauer Romanization Dictionary
The following members are contributing to this project. Seunghi Paek : Harvard University Kyungmi Lee : Stony Brook University (SUNY) Sun-yoon Lee : University of Southern California Younghee Sohn : University of Chicago Young Ki Lee : Library of Congress Hee-Sook Shin : Columbia University Mikyung Kang : Harvard University Hana Kim : University of Toronto Jaeyong Chang : University of California – Berkeley Eunseung Oh : Stanford University Miree Ku : Duke University Wooseob Jeong : University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee Romanization Dictionary

29 Answers 강물 kangmul 서울대 Sŏultae 웃음 usŭm 평가 p‘yŏngka 高麗 Koryŏ
노근리 Nogŭn-ni 평택군 P‘yŏngt‘aek-kun 평택읍 P‘yŏngt‘aeg-ŭp 진리 chilli 임진란 Imjinnan 대관령 Taegwallyŏng 金融 kŭmnyung 불상 pulsang 햇빛 haeppit 역할 yŏkhal 16. 잊혀진 ich‘yŏjin 17. 어떻게 ŏttŏk‘e 18. 많이 mani 19. 협력 hyŏmnyŏk 20. 맑은 malgŭn 21. 앉아 anja 22. 이 어령 Yi Ŏ-ryŏng 23. 김 석민 Kim Sŏng-min 24. 사법 (司法) sabŏp 25. 사법 (私法) sapŏp

30 Word Division Basic Principles
Each word or lexical unit (including particles) is to be separated from other word K‘alla TV rŭl chungsim ŭro 칼라 TV 를 중심 으로 The Library of Congress will designate certain standard dictionaries as final authorities to resolve question of word division. A word found in these sources will be considered to be a lexical unit, and written as a unit. Words or parts of speech not appearing in these authorities will be separated or connected according to these guidelines. Then, when in doubt, prefer to separate. A compound word is considered a combination of binary words. (A binary word is a compound consisting of two Chinese characters (Hancha) or two syllables of Hangul.) A compound word is divided into binary components according to euphony.

31 Word Division Specific Rules
Write a particle (토) as a word separate from the word stem, except as noted in (a) through (d) below. na nŭn nae kil e 나 는 내 길 에 noin kwa pada 老人 과 바다 ch‘owŏn ŭi kkum ŭl kŭdae ege 草原 의 꿈 을 그대 에게 sae ya sae ya p‘arang sae ya 새 야 새 야 파랑 새 야 1A. Add a particle as a suffix to a verb stem, adverb, or a simple inflection of the verb stem or adverb. sarang pannŭn anae 사랑 받는 아내 chago mŏktŏni 자고 먹더니 kanan ŭl iginŭn pŏp 가난 을 이기는 法

32 Word Division Specific Rules
1B. Write coordinated or multisyllabic particles together as a word. However, always separate the particle (ŭi) from other particles. na mando anida 나 만도 아니다 Han’guk kojŏn e ŭi ch‘odae 한국 古典 에 의 招待 iltŭng egenŭn so rŭl sang ŭro 一等 에게는 소 를 상 으로 hangmun ŭrosŏ ŭi sahak 學門 (問) 으로서 의 史學 1C. Write independent contracted particles (such as 엔, 엘) separately from the preceding word. yejŏn en mich‘ŏ mollassŏyo 예전 엔 미처 몰랐어요 kohyang el kanda 고향 엘 간다 1D. When particles are contracted to nouns or pronouns, connect them to those words. chigŭm ŭn nugun’ga wasŏ 지금 은 누군가 와서 nan molla 난 몰라 kŭgŏn na to molla 그건 나 도 몰라 32

33 Word Division Specific Rules
2. Write a simple inflected verb, adjective, or adverb as a separate word or as a suffix joined to a word, according to the dictionary that served as authority or the sense of the element(s) involved. mŏndong i t‘ŭl ttae 먼동 이 틀 때 pam e ssŭn insaengnon 밤 에 쓴 인생론 choguk ŭl chik‘in yongsa 조국 을 지킨 용사 nugu rŭl wihayŏ chong ŭn ullina 누구 를 위하여 종 은 울리나 simni to mot kasŏ palpyŏng nanda 십리 도 못 가서 발병 난다 irŏbŏrin kaŭl 잃어버린 가을 mongmarŭn hujo 목마른 후조

34 Word Division Specific Rules
2A. Separate an auxiliary verb, adjective, or adverb and its inflection from the word stem. kago sipŭn nae kohyang 가고 싶은 내 고향 ttŏna on kŭ chari e 떠나 온 그 자리 에 nae chan i nŏmch‘i naida 네 (내) 盞 이 넘치 나이다

35 Word Division Specific Rules
2B. Separate the auxiliary 하다 (hada), the copula 이다 (ida), and inflections of the same from the word stem when they consist of two or more syllables. Sin ŭn ch‘angjoja ida 신 은 창조자 이다 sarang iranŭn pyŏng 사랑 이라는 병 2C. Separate a gerund form from the word stem. p‘urŭn pyŏl ŭn sara issŏtta 푸른 별 은 살아 있었다 35

36 Word Division 3. Write an imperfect noun as a separate word, except as noted in A-B below. morankkot p‘il muryŏp 모란꽃 필 무렵 ssirŭm ŭn Tano ppun anirao 씨름 은 단오 뿐 아니라오 3A. Write a single syllable, imperfect noun as a word joined to an attributive adjective or to a simple inflected verb. halsu ŏmnŭn saramdŭl 할수 없는 사람들 sinsa sungnyŏ yŏrŏbun 신사 숙녀 여러분 nugu rŭl wihan kŏsin’ga 누구 를 위한 것인가 i choguk ŏdiro kalkŏt in’ga 이 조국 어디로 갈것 인가 3B. Connect a prefix (接頭辭), such as the native Korean prefixes 갓 (kat), 홀 (hol), 핫 (hat), and 풋 (p‘ut) to the words that follow them. kassŭmul 갓스물 tŏtchŏgori 덧저고리 p‘ussarang 풋사랑

37 Word Division 3C. Write a single syllable attributive adjective or prefix as joined to a personal pronoun or imperfect noun. kŭbun i sŏnsaeng ida 그분 이 先生 이다 igŏt i chinsang ida 이것 이 眞相 이다 4. Write a derived word formed by the addition of a single character modifier, affix, or substantive as a single word, whether the word be of pure Korean or Chinese origin. Han’guk kwa Han’gugin 韓國 과 韓國人 pudongsan p‘yŏngka 不動産 評價 taedosi ŭi inyŏm kwa Han’guk 大都市 의 理念 과 韓國 Hanbando ŭi p‘yŏnghwa wa anbo 韓半島 의 平和 와 安保 kyŏngje ch‘odaeguk ŭi hyŏngsŏng 經濟 超大國 의 形成 hwangmuji ka changmikkot kach‘i 황무지 가 장미꽃 같이

38 Word Division 4A. In a Sino-Korean phrase, write a simple inflection of the auxiliary 하다 (hada) and 되다 (toeda), and the copula 이다 (ida) joined to the word stem. kodokhal ttae sayŏn ŭl 고독할 때 사연 을 yŏngwŏnhan saengmyŏng 영원한 생명 haengbokhan Miguk saenghwal 행복한 미국 생활 chomyŏnghae pon uri choguk 조명해 본 우리 조국

39 Word Division 4B. Connect a single character modifier, affix, or substantive of Western origin with a hyphen to a word of Korean or Sino-Korean origin. Connect a single character modifier of Korean or Sino-Korean origin with a hyphen to a word of Western origin. Pak Mog-wŏl taep‘yo esei-chip 박 목월 대표 에세이집 kukche maak‘et‘ing-non 국제 마아케팅론 4C. Write an attributive adjective or a pre-formative character separately from the word it modifies. sin hŏnpŏp 신 헌법 chŏ hanŭl edo sŭlp‘ŭm i 저 하늘 에도 슬픔 이 Han’guk sinhak nonmun ch‘ong saegin 한국 신학 논문 총 색인 kŭndaesa ui chae chomyŏng 근대사 의 재 조명 kwanhan il yŏn’gu 관한 일 연구 39

40 Word Division 4D. Write two coordinated characters, affixes, or substantives together as an integral part of the word. such‘urip chŏlch‘a 輸出入 節次 kungnaeoe sajŏng 國內外 事情 Han’guk sŏhwaga inbo 韓國 書畵家 印譜 ch‘ŏngsonyŏn ege tŭrinŭn Hanŏl 청소년 에게 드리는 한얼

41 Word Division 4E. Write a single character suffix together with the word stem. kongsanch‘ŭk ŭi chujang 共産側 의 主張 arŭmdaun tongmuldŭl 아름다운 동물들 4F. Add the binary 주의 (chuŭi; used chiefly as a formative element) to its modifier as a suffix. minjujuŭi 民主主義 Marŭk‘ŭsŭ-chuŭi wa Kidokkyo 마르크스 主義 와 基督敎 5. Write any binary component of a compound as a single word, when possible. t‘oji kaeryang chohap 土地 改良 組合 41

42 Word Division 5A. Write a single character substantive as part of the preceding binary element of a compound. Write a single character substantive or an additional modifier together as part of the binary element. kukse kibonpŏp 國稅 基本法 chijŏng t‘onggye chosap‘yo 指定 統計 調査表 Han’guk chŏnt‘ong mokcho kŏnmulto 韓國 傳統 木造 建物圖 kyeryang kyŏngjehakchŏk yŏn’gu 計量 經濟學的 硏究 5B. If two single character substantives appear in succession, write the second one as a separate word. kukse kibonpŏp non 國稅 基本法 論 t‘onggye chosap‘yo chip 統計 調査表 集 hyŏndae chakka samsipsamin chip 現代 作家 三十三人 集 Chungguk kojŏn Hansiin sŏn 中國 古典 漢詩人 選 kwijokche sŏl kwa kwallyoje non 貴族制 說 과 官僚制 論

43 Word Division 5C. Write a single character noun as a separate word.
hyŏn haengjŏng ha e che kisul 現 行政 下 의 諸 技術 Moktan’gang haeng yŏIch‘a 牧丹江 行 列車 Han’guk Chunggong kan ŭi kyoyŏk 韓國 中共 間 의 交易 5D. Borrowed (Western) words or terms: When it can be determined that a word or words in Korean consisted of more than one word in the original language, apply the following guidelines. If they appear separately, write them separately. syeip‘ŭ ŏp 셰이프 업 t‘eibŭl maenŏ 테이블 매너 If they appear without spaces, write them as a single word. (It is useful to also provide an access point in which the word or words are separated in the same manner as in the original language.) syeip‘ŭŏp (originally shape up) 셰이프업 (and another access point from syeip'ŭ ŏp) t‘eibŭlmaenŏ (originally table manners) 테이블매너 (and another access point from t'eibŭl maenŏ)

44 Word Division If they appear without spaces, write them as a single word. (It is useful to also provide an access point in which the word or words are separated in the same manner as in the original language.) syeip‘ŭŏp (originally shape up) 셰이프업 (and another access point from syeip‘ŭ ŏp) t‘eibŭlmaenŏ (originally table manners) 테이블매너 (and another access point from t‘eibŭl maenŏ) If they appear with a center dot ( . ), write them separately. syeip‘ŭ ŏp 셰이프 · 업 t‘eibŭl maenŏ 테이블 · 매너

45 Word Division 6. Personal Names
6A. Write a family name consisting of two characters as a single word. Hyphenate a given name in two characters or a courtesy name (in place of a given name), and capitalize only the first letter of the first syllable. Ch‘oe Ch‘i-wŏn 崔 致遠 Yi Kwang-su 이 광수 Kim So-wŏl 金 素月 Namgung Kak 南宮 珏 Sŏnu Chong-wŏn 鮮于 宗源 6B. Write a pseudonym or other assumed name as one word. Kim Sakkat 김 삿갓 Ch‘ungmugong 忠武公

46 Word Division 6C. Write a Buddhist priestly or posthumous name as one word. Iryŏn 一然 Sŏk Myŏngjŏng 釋 明正 6D. Write a reign title, temple name, or title of nobility as one word without a hyphen. T‘aejo 太祖 Yi Sejong 李 世宗 Kwanggaet‘o Wang 廣開土 王 Hyegyŏnggung Hong Ssi 惠慶宮 洪 氏 Chang Hŭibin 張 禧嬪 Hyŏnu Haengja 賢愚 行者

47 Word Division 7. Corporate Names, Geographical Names, Names in Publication Titles, etc. 7A. Treat a corporate name also as a binary compound when possible. Write separately as binary elements general terms such as 학회 (Hakhoe), 학과 (Hakkwa), 교회 (Kyohoe), etc. Han’guksa Hakhoe 韓國史 學會 Han’guk Sahakhoe 韓國 史學會 Nasŏng Hanin Changno Kyohoe 라성 한인 장로 교회 Kugŏ Kungmun Hakkwa 國語 國文 學科 Nodong Kijun Chosaguk 勞動 基準 調査局 Han’guk Hyumŏnisŭt‘ŭ-hoe 韓國 휴머니스트·會 7B. Write a proper name, term of address, or publication title separately from its modifier and also separately from the word it modifies. Wŏllam Yi Sang-jae Ong 月南 李 商在 翁 Nanjung ilgi ch‘o 亂中 日記 抄 Hŭngsŏn Kun 興宣 君 Kwibong chip 龜峯 集 Wŏnye Hakkwa chi 園藝 學科 誌 Taegu Maeil Sinmunsa sa 大邱 每日 新聞社 史

48 Word Division 7C. Hyphenate a generic term used as part of the name of a jurisdiction, and indicate phonetic changes, except in the case of the term 북도 (pukto). Kangwŏn-do 강원도 Kyŏngsang-pukto 慶尙北道 Taegu-si 大邱市 Kahoe-dong 嘉會洞 7D. Write a generic term for a type of topographic feature, architectural construction, or a corporate entity used as a part of a proper name, together with its name. Hallasan 한라산 Naktonggang 낙동강 Tongnimmun 독립문 Tonga Ilbosa 東亞 日報社 Yurisŏng 유리城

49 Word Division 7E. Treat a generic term for a topographical feature or a jurisdiction also as a binary element when combined with another word. T‘aebaek sanmaek 太白 山脈 Anju Kunminhoe 安州 郡民會 Wŏnju kunji 原州 郡誌 Sŏjangdae Manwŏl Sanjŏng 西壯臺 滿月 山頂 8. Abbreviated Forms: 8A. Write contractions which include proper names as a single word. Yŏngamsaji 靈巖 寺址 (靈巖寺 + 寺址) Sŏul T‘ŭkpyŏlsirip Namsan Tosŏgwan 서울 特別市立 南山 圖書館 8B. Write an abbreviated or contracted proper name, Korean or foreign, as a single word. onŭl ŭi Pukhan 오늘 의 北韓 Chŏn’gyŏngnyŏn 全經聯 Chunggongkwŏn ŭi changnae 中共圈 의 將來

50 Word Division Specific Rules 8C. Hyphenate abbreviated forms combined coordinately. Do not indicate phonetical changes. Write a single character substantive as part of the final element in that combination. ch‘oesin Pul-Han sajŏn 最新 佛韓 辭典 Sŏul Chung-Kodŭng Hakkyo 서울 中高等 學校 sinyŏk Sin-Kuyak chŏnsŏ 新譯 新舊約 全書 chung-tanp‘yŏn sosŏl 中短篇 小說 Paekhwabon Tang-Song sanmunsŏn 白話本 唐宋 散文選 Myŏng-Ch‘ŏng p‘ilgi kosa sŏnyŏk 명청 필기 고사 선역

51 Word Division 9. Numerals: 9A. In romanizing numbers and adjacent words, create binaries whenever possible. Write the preformative element 第 (che) joined to the following number to form a binary. che 第1 cheil 第一 che-3 segye 第3 世界 chesam segye 第三 世界 However, prefer to join a number to a suffix or generic term that follows it with a hyphen (for example; 次 (ch'a ), 回 (hoe), 번 (pon), 年 (yon )). Do not indicate phonetical changes after the hyphen. In such cases, when 第 (che) precedes the number, separate it from the number. che 1-ch‘a 第 1次 che ilch‘a 第 一次 che 3-chip 第 3輯 In more complex situations, still attempt to create binaries when possible. cheil, i Konghwaguk 第一 · 二 共和國 che-1, 2 Konghwaguk 第1 · 2 共和國

52 Word Division 9B. Write a spelled-out cardinal number as one word. In a number over one hundred, separate by hyphens, without phonetic changes, each unit of ten (十 sip), hundred (百 paek), thousand (千 chon), etc. ilch‘ŏn-kubaek-yuksipp‘allyon 一九六八年 9C. Treat a contracted form of a cardinal number or calendar year as one word. yuksibinyŏn saŏp kyehoek 六十二年 事業 計劃 62-yŏn saŏp kyehoek 62年 事業 計劃 tosi ch‘ilsibil 都市 七十一 tosi 都市 71 9D. In case of certain contracted numerals that have been firmly established through common usage, prefer that form. sa-ilgu haksaeng ŭigŏ 四 · 一九 學生 義擧 o-illyuk kunsa hyŏngmyŏng 五 · 一六 軍事 革命 samil undong 三一 運動

53 Word Division 9E. In writing native Korean numbers, also attempt to create binaries when possible. se pŏntchae 세 번째 ch‘aek nekwŏn 책 네권 som han’gŭn 솜 한근 so yŏl mari 소 열 마리

54 Word Division Capitalization:
1. Each separately written word of a corporate name (except particles), or an abbreviation thereof, is capitalized. Han’guk Ilbosa 韓國 日報社 Taehan Sanggong Hoeŭiso 大韓 商工 會議所 2. Each separate word of a personal name is capitalized. Yi Kwang-su 李 光洙 Chŏng Yŏn-hŭi 鄭 然喜 3. Titles and terms of address are capitalized. Pak Taet‘ongnyŏng 朴 大統領 Cho Yong-gi Moksa 조 용기 목사 4. Each separately written word of a geographic name is capitalized. An abbreviated geographical name is capitalized. An abbreviated geographical name is capitalized in coordinate compounds and at the beginning of other compound words. Sŏul T‘ŭkpyŏlsi 서울 특별시 Kyŏngbuk Sup‘il Tonginhoe 경북 수필 동인회

55 Word Division Capitalization:
5. The first word of the title of a book, periodical, or series is capitalized. Hyŏndae kukchepŏp 現代 國際法 Silch‘on munhak ŭi sijip 실천 문학 의 시집 6. Names of dynasties are capitalized. Yijo obaengnyŏn 李朝 五百年 Myŏng-Ch‘ŏng sidae 明淸 時代 7. A word derived from a proper name is capitalized only if the name retains its full, original meaning. Yangmyŏnghak yŏn’gu 陽明學 硏究 Hyŏndae wa K‘ŭrisŭch‘yan ŭi sinang 현대 와 크리스챤 의 신앙 8. Abbreviated forms combined coordinately are capitalized if called for by these guidelines. Sin-Kuyak Sŏngsŏ 新舊約 聖書 Siryong Pul-Han sajŏn 실용 불한 사전 9. In all other cases, follow the directions found in the officially designated style manual.

56 Word Division Punctuation
A centered point ( . ) indicating coordinate words is generally transcribed as a comma, except where the rules require a hyphen. Chung-Kodŭng Hakkyo 中 · 高等 學校 Nam-Pukhan kyŏngje hyŏmnyŏk 南 · 北韓 經濟 協力 In other instances, it may be transcribed or not transcribed, depending on the context. Sa-ilgu ŭi minjungsa 四 · 一九 의 民衆史 Chang Tae-uk chŏ 張大郁 · 著 Iryŏp, Itang sihwajip 一葉 · 日堂 詩畵集 2. Brackets used in the manner of quotation marks ( " ... " ) are transcribed as the latter. "Munhak kwa chisŏng" siinsŏn [文學 과 知性] 詩人選 "Si wa haebang" tongin sijip [詩 와 解放] 동인 시집

57 Word Division Dictionaries to be Used as Authorities in Korean
To determine standard contemporary pronunciation in South Korea and North Korea: Nam, Kwang-u. Han’gugŏ p‘yojun parŭm sajŏn. (Kyŏnggi-do Sŏngnam-si: Han’guk Chŏngsin Munhwa Yŏn’guwon, 1984) 南 廣祐. 韓國語 標準 發音 辭典 Hyŏndae Chosŏnmal sajŏn. Che 2-p'an. ([P‘yŏngyang]: Kwahak, Paekkwa, Sajŏn Ch‘ulp‘ansa, 1981) 현대 조선말 사전 As the basis for word division decisions for contemporary publications from South Korea and North Korea: Sinp‘yŏn kugŏ taesajŏn. (Sŏul T‘ŭkpyŏlsi: Taeyŏng Ch‘ulp‘ansa, 1976) 신편 국어 대사전 Hyŏndae Chosŏnmal sajŏn. (1981)

58 Word Division Dictionaries to be Used as Authorities in Korean
Supplementary source for word division decisions for classical Korean publications: Ko pŏpchŏn yongŏjip. ([Seoul]: Pŏpchech‘ŏ, 1979) 古 法典 用語集 To determine reading and pronunciation of Chinese characters: Chang, Sam-sik. Tae Han-Han sajŏn. (Sŏul T‘ŭkpyŏlsi: Sŏngmunsa, 1964) 張 三植. 大 漢韓 辭典 Sin chajŏn. ([Seoul]: Sinmun’gwan, 1915; Reprint: [Seoul]: Cho Yŏng-sung, 1973) 新 字典

59 Word Division SPECIAL CHARACTERS AND CHARACTER MODIFIERS IN ROMANlZATION Special Characters Name USMARC hexadecimal code ٫ alif AE ٬ ayn B0 Character Modifiers Name USMARC hexadecimal code ˘ breve E6

60 Word Division Exercise
국어문장의형성원리연구 대한민국의문화유적 武林士官學校 그녀의웃는모습이아름답다 이땅에서학문하기 나를찾아서떠난거리 아이의가슴에는부모가산다 마음의짐을내려놓고 세월이빨리감을 아흔아홉통의행복찾기 백가지방법 삼백육십오일의행복 다국적기업경영론 참사랑의의미를깨닫다 남북한정상회담 이요셉 차배옥덕 이율곡 가톨릭민주청년공동체 의암선생항쟁기

61 Word Division Exercise answer
국어문장의형성원리연구 : Kugŏ munjang ŭi hyŏngsŏng wŏlli 대한민국의문화유적 : Taehan Min’guk ŭi munhwa yujŏk 武林士官學校 : Murim Sagwan Hakkyo 그녀의웃는모습이아름답다 : Kŭnyŏ ŭi unnŭn mosŭp i arŭmdapta 이땅에서학문하기 : I ttang esŏ hangmun hagi 나를찾아서떠난거리 : Na rŭl ch‘ajasŏ ttŏnan kŏri 아이의가슴에는부모가산다 : Ai ŭi kasŭm enŭn pumo ka sanda 마음의짐을내려놓고 : Maŭm ŭi chim ŭl naeryŏ nok‘o 세월이빨리감을 : Sewŏl i ppalli kam ŭl 아흔아홉통의행복찾기 : Ahŭnahop t‘ong ŭi haengbok ch‘atki 백가지방법 : Paek kaji pangbŏp 삼백육십오일의행복 : Sambaek-yuksiboil ŭi haengbok 다국적기업경영론 : Tagukchŏk kiŏp kyŏngyŏngnon 참사랑의의미를깨닫다 : Ch‘amsarang ŭi ŭimi rŭl kkaedatta 남북한정상회담 : Nam-Pukhan Chŏngsang Hoedam 이요셉 : Yi Yosep 차배옥덕 : Ch‘a Pae Ok-tŏk 이율곡 : Yi Yulgok 가톨릭민주청년공동체 : Kat‘ollik Minju Ch‘ŏngnyŏn Kongdongch‘e 의암선생항쟁기 : Ŭiam Sŏnsaeng hangjaenggi

62 Brief Description of Revision
Revision Goals Base the guidelines upon the standard Korean practice (such as the Revised Korean Spelling System (1988)), which is commonly recognized by Korean people and Korean studies scholars. Simplify the principles and rules, so the users are able to use and able to easily remember them. Apply the same philosophy and principles throughout the whole guidelines. Minimize the number of exceptions. Simplify the terminology that is used in the guidelines. Insofar as possible, have the guidelines facilitate machine searching in large databases. Add more examples.

63 Revision Examples of Romanization
Medialㄷ after ㄹ When medialㄷ appears as a syllabic initial after ㄹ, romanize as lt or ld to represent its pronunciation accurately. yultong 율동 iltang 일당 but Sǒuldae (not Sǒultae) 서울대 Wǒldǔk‘ǒp (not Wǒltǔk‘ǒp) 월드컵

64 Revision Examples of Romanization
ㅎ, ㄶ, ㅀ (a) When syllabic final ㄱ, ㅂand ㅅ are combined with a syllabic initial ㅎ, always romanize as kh, ph and th.  Pukhan 북한 kukhak 국학 hakhoe 학회 hyŏphoe 협회 yŏkhal 역할 pukhaek 북핵 (b) When syllabic final ㄷand ㅈ are combined with a syllabic initial ㅎ, romanize as ch‘.  tach‘ida 닫히다 kkoch‘ida 꽂히다 ich‘yŏjin 잊혀진 mach ‘yŏng 맏형

65 Revision Examples of Romanization
Words of Western Origin tijain 디자인 Pet‘ŭnam 베트남 chero 제로 linnen not ninnen 린넨 radio not nadio 라디오 resŭlling not nesǔlling 레슬링

66 Revision Examples of Romanization
Romanization of Archaic Korean (옛한글) Insofar as possible, strictly apply McCune-Reischauer rules and tables for the romanization of vowels and consonants to the written forms of the words when romanizing archaic Korean. Do not attempt to romanize archaic Korean following what may be the current pronunciation. 텬쥬 T‘yŏnjyu (not Ch‘ŏnju ) 조션 Chosyŏn (not Chosŏn ) 셥리 syŏmni (not sŏmni ) 약됴 yaktyo (not yakcho )

67 Revision Examples of Word Division
Each part of speech is to be separated from other parts of speech. The guidelines recognize 9 categories of parts of speech: Particle 조사 Noun 명사 Pronoun 대명사 Numeral 수사 Verb 동사 Adjective 형용사 Adnominal adjective 관형사 Adverb 부사 Exclamation 감탄사 Note: Affixes (접사) are not considered to be a separate part of speech.

68 Revision Examples of Word Division
Basic Principles 1. Nouns (명사), Pronouns (대명사), Imperfect Nouns (불완전 명사) 2. Adjectives (형용사) 3. Adnominal adjectives (관형사) 4. Verbs (동사) 5. Adverbs (부사) 6. Particles (조사) 7. Exclamations (감탄사) 8. Numerals (수사) 9. Affixes (접사) 10. Abbreviated Forms (줄임말, 약어, 등) 11. Scientific terms, nomenclature, etc. (전문 용어, 등) 12. Terms of Western Origin (외래어) 13. Personal Names (인명) 14. Corporate names, Geographical names, Publication titles, etc. (기관명, 지명, 서명 등) Capitalization Punctuation Special Characters and Character Modifiers in Romanization (특수 부호) Appendix 1: Suggested Dictionaries Appendix 2: List of Auxiliary verbs Appendix 3: List of numeral quantifiers Appendix 4: List of Prefixes Appendix 5: List of Suffixes Appendix 6: List of Imperfect Nouns

69 Revision Examples of Word Division
Structure of Chapter Chapter 1. Nouns (명사), Pronouns (대명사), Imperfect Nouns (불완전 명사) Guidelines (a) Separate a noun, pronoun, or imperfect noun from other parts of speech. 모란꽃 필 무렵 Morankkot p‘il muryŏp 국어 문장 의 형성 원리 연구 Kugŏ munjang ŭi hyŏngsŏng wŏlli (b) Separate a compound noun into binary elements without doing harm to the original meaning. 대중 가요 와 대중 문학 Taejung kayo wa taejung munhak 대한 민국 의 문화 유적 Taehan Min’guk ŭi munhwa yujŏk. Exception 1: Write a derived word formed by the addition of a single character modifier, affix or substantive as a single word. 韓國 과 韓國人 Han’guk kwa Han’gugin 不動産 評價 Pudongsan p‘yŏngka

70 Revision Examples of Word Division
Appendix 1: Suggested Dictionaries Appendix 2: List of Auxiliary verbs Appendix 3: List of numeral quantifiers Appendix 4: List of Prefixes Appendix 5: List of Suffixes Appendix 6: List of Imperfect Nouns

71 Senior Cataloging Specialist
Thanks Young Ki Lee Senior Cataloging Specialist Korean/Chinese Team RCCD Library of Congress Tel: Fax:


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