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Korean Romanization Revision Project By Yunah Sung April 6, 2006 Committee on Korean Materials CEAL.

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Presentation on theme: "Korean Romanization Revision Project By Yunah Sung April 6, 2006 Committee on Korean Materials CEAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Korean Romanization Revision Project By Yunah Sung April 6, 2006 Committee on Korean Materials CEAL

2 Time line Dec. 2004 - LC solicited reviewers via CKM July 2005 - LC sent a draft to the Chair of CKM Aug. 2005 - A review team of 10 formed Sept. 2005 - Draft was divided in 5 sections and each reviewer reviewed 2 sections Oct. 2005 - Reviewers had a meeting in Seoul, Korea during the Workshop for Overseas Librarians Jan. 2006 - Final recommendation was submitted to LC

3 Proposal For Korean Romanization and Word Division Revision Prepared by Elaine Kim (Cataloging Specialist; Korean/Chinese Team RCCD) Young Ki Lee (Senior Cataloging Specialist; Korean/Chinese Team) With assistance of LC Korean staff Philip Melzer

4 Proposal Review Team members Mikyung Kang (Stanford University) Hana Kim (University of Toronto) Joy Kim (University of Southern California) Bill McCloy (University of Washington) Seunghi Paek (Harvard University) Heija Ryoo (University of Washington) Hee-Sook Shin (Columbia University) Younghee Sohn (Chicago University) Hyokyoung Yi (University of Washington) Coordinator Yunah Sung (University of Michigan)

5 LCs Revision Goals Base the guidelines upon the standard Korean practice (such as the Revised Korean Spelling System (1988)), which is commonly recognized by Korean people and Korean studies scholars. Simplify the principles and rules, so the users are able to use and able to easily remember them. Apply the same philosophy and principles throughout the whole guidelines. Minimize the number of exceptions. Simplify the terminology that is used in the guidelines. Insofar as possible, have the guidelines facilitate machine searching in large databases. Add more examples

6 Table of Contents Romanization Word Division Appendix 1: List of Prefixes Appendix 2: List of Suffixes Appendix 3: List of Imperfect Nouns Works consulted

7 Romanization Rule 1: General Practice Rule 2: Authorities Rule 3: Conflict Between Romanization Rule and Pronunciation Rule 4: Medial Rule 5: Medials and Final Consonants Not Covered by the Original McCune-Reischauer Guidelines Rule 6:,, Rule 7: and Rule 8: Personal Names Rule 9: Following Hyphens Rule 10: Words of Western Origin Rule 11: Romanization of Archaic Korean

8 Word Division Basic Principles Chapter 1: Particles ( ) Chapter 2: Predicates ( ) Chapter 3: Nominals ( ) Chapter 4: Determiner ( ), Exclamation ( ) Chapter 5: Affixes ( ) Chapter 6: Personal Names Chapter 7: Corporate Names, Geographical Names, Publication titles Chapter 8: Abbreviated Forms Chapter 9: Numerals ( ) Chapter 10: Western Origin Terms ( ) Chapter 11: Capitalization Chapter 12: Punctuation Chapter 13: Special Characters and Character Modifiers in Romanization

9 Comments on the draft Overview The Revised Korean Spelling System (1988) Grammatical terms used in the text Format Examples Suggested dictionaries Web Online Library Catalog

10 Overview Showed a great improvement on analyzing Korean phrases and sentences grammatically in an effort to clarify ambiguous issues on word division added new specific rules in romanization and word division to the current ones

11 The Revised Korean Spelling System (1988)

12 The revision adopts certain rules of the Revised Korean Spelling System, which causes more confusion A comparison chart of significantly different rules between the Revised Korean Spelling System and the LCs Korean Romanization and Word Division would be helpful

13 Grammatical terms used in the text 9 categories of parts of speech Noun Pronoun Numeral Verb (or Action Verb) Adjective (or Descriptive Verb) Determiners (or Adnominal) Adverb Exclamation Particle Confusing terms: Predicates ( ), simple inflected verb ( ), attributive adjective ( ), simple inflected verb ( ), single syllable modifier ( ), demonstrative determiner ( ), attributive determiner ( )

14 Grammatical terms used in the text Grammatical terms are very difficult to understand and confusing Having a list of parts of speech in Korean and English is helpful

15 Format Rules written in bilingual Searchable full-text index Hypertext links Well organized table of contents along with an index of terms and examples

16 Examples Underlines in examples Grouping examples Straightforward examples

17 Examples: Underlines in examples Chapter 1: Particles ( ) Specific rule 1-2 Write a coordinated or multi-syllabic particle ( ) together as a word. However, always separate the particle from other particles.

18 Examples: Grouping examples Chapter 3: Nouns ( ), Pronouns ( ), and Imperfect Nouns ( ) Write a noun ( ), pronoun ( ), or imperfect noun ( ) as a separate word. (Noun) (Imperfect Noun) (Noun) (Imperfect Noun) (Imperfect Noun) (Imperfect Noun) (Imperfect Noun) (Imperfect Noun) (Noun) (Pronoun) ? ? (Imperfect Noun) (Pronoun) (Imperfect Noun) (Pronoun) (Imperfect Noun)

19 Suggested dictionaries For contemporary publication from South Korea and North Korea.. (Online Version) ( :, 2004) 1988 For pronunciation. :,,. ( :, 2002). 2. (([ ] :, 1981) For classical Korean publications. ( :, 1991). ( :, 1987). ([Seoul] :, 1968) For reading and pronunciation of Chinese characters.. ( :, 1964). ([Seoul] :, 1915 : Reprint : [Seoul] :, 1973)

20 Suggested dictionaries Online version of by Currently available dictionary for reading and pronunciation of Chinese characters Online Korean McCune-Reischauer Romanization Dictionary ( ( anwebdll/romanweb.htm ) anwebdll/romanweb.htm

21 Online version of by

22 Korean McCune-Reischauer Romanization Dictionary



25 Web Online Library Catalog Research about the most effective searching methods in online catalog for a Korean material user Numerous tests on binaries and hyphens in a searching word

26 Romanization Continue to follow the McCune-Reischauer system to romanize Korean Prefer to represent the pronunciation, when romanization rules conflict with the pronunciation of a word Omit a hyphen and indicate phonetic change in a given name Ex) Yi Sǒngmin Do not indicate sound change following a hyphen EX) Kangwǒn-to Kyǒngsang-pukto Strictly apply McCune-Reischauer rules and tables for the Romanization of Archaic Korean ( ) EX) Tyǒnjyu not: Chŏnju

27 Word Division Basic Principles Each part of speech is to be separated from other parts of speech Each part of speech should be separated without any loss of original meaning LC will designate certain standard dictionaries as final authorities to resolve questions of word division

28 Predicates Separate an auxiliary predicate ( ) and its inflection ( ) from main predicate ( ) EX),,, Connect auxiliary verbal form -, -, etc. and its inflections to a preceding noun ( ) EX), Follow the conventions of - for compound adjectives ( ) EX),,

29 Nouns, Pronouns, and Imperfect Nouns Write a noun ( ), pronoun ( ), or imperfect noun ( ) as a separate word EX) If two single character substantives appear in succession, and the first substantive makes a compound noun ( ), write the second one as a separate word EX) In writing compound nouns ( ), attempt to create binaries when possible EX),, Write a compound noun ( ) as a single lexical unit if a yotized siot ( ) is involved EX) not

30 Determiner Separate a determiner ( ) from a nominal ( ) EX),, When a demonstrative determiner ( ),,,,, etc. modifies one of the following nominals ( ), and changes to a definite pronoun ( ) or determinative ( ), write them together as one word EX),,,,,, (,,,,,,,,,,, etc.) Connect the native Korean attributive determiner ( ) to the following noun it modifies. EX),,, Separate the native Korean attributive determiners ( ),,, and Sino-Korean ( ) attribute determiners ( ) ( ), ( ), etc. from the words they modify EX) :,

31 Abbreviated Forms Write an abbreviated or contracted proper name of Korean or foreign origin as a single word EX) Onŭl ŭi Pukhan Hyphenate abbreviated forms of proper nouns ( ) combined coordinately without phonetic change EX) Sin-Kuyak chŏnsŏ Hyphenate the abbreviated form when it indicates South Korea and North Korea, without phonetic change EX) Nam-Puk Hoedam Write two coordinated characters, affixes, or substantives together as an integral part of the word EX) Ch ŏngsonyŏn, Chunggodŭng Hakkyo, Chungdanpyŏn, Kŭnhyŏndae

32 Numerals Separate the numeral quantifiers from cardinal numbers EX) Suggested practice Current practice 1 1-kaji pangbŏp 1-kaji pangbŏp han kaji pangbŏp hangaji pangbŏp 4 Chaek 4-kwŏn Chaek 4-kwŏn Chaek ne kwŏn Chaek negwŏn

33 Terms of Western Origin Connect a single character modifier, affix, or substantive of Western origin with a hyphen to a word of Korean or Sino-Korean origin EX) esei-chip, maaketing-non, Usŭng-kŏp, Nobel-sang When a proper noun ( ) of Western origin appears with a generic term for type of topographic feature, join them with a hyphen but without phonetic change EX) Taiwan-sŏm, Wŏsington-si, Amajon-kang

34 Korean Romanization Revision Project We will keep you posted! Thank you very much !!!

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