Presentation on theme: "Unit D: Agricultural Equipment Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit D: Agricultural Equipment Systems Lesson 3: Operating, Calibrating, and Maintaining Agricultural Planting Systems
2 Terms Broadcasting Checkrow planting Field calibration Germination Hill drop plantingPopulationRow-crop plantingSolid plantingStarter fertilizer
3 What are the operating principles of planting equipment? Objective #1What are the operating principles of planting equipment?
4 Basic Functions of the planter Open a furrow in the soilseed must be in contact with moisture to germinategerminatechange from a dormant condition to one of activity & growthseed in equal depth regardless of soil conditionsfurrow opener accomplishes thisMeter the seed to the soilspecific rates are neededaccomplished by metering devices
5 Basic Functions of the planter Place seed in soilyields depends on depth & spacingCovers the seedseed must have protection in order to surviveaccomplished by press wheels on planters and chains or drags on drillsFirm the seedbedprovides adequate seed to soil contactpress wheels and drag chains accomplish this
6 What are the types of planting equipment? Objective #2What are the types of planting equipment?
7 Types of planting equipment Row crop plantingrequire precise row spacing and even spacing of plants within the rowplanted in rows far enough apart to permit operation of machinery such as cultivators and harvestersgenerally sorghum and cottonGrain drills and air seedersused to sow crops such as wheat
8 Types of Row crop planters Drill planting methodseeds are dropped individually in the row at given distancesspacing depends on populationpopulationnumber of seeds or plants desired per hectareHill drop plantingseeds are located in hills of 2 to 5 seeds per hillCheckrow planting3 to 5 seeds dropped in hills same distance in all directions
11 Types of planting equipment Broadcast seedersused to broadcast small grains, grasses & legumesbroadcastingseeds are scattered on a random, non-row basis on top of the seedbedSpecialized plantersdesigned for special planting operationsexamples include: potato planter, vegetable planter, and transplanters
13 What are the components of row-crop planting equipment? Objective #3What are the components of row-crop planting equipment?
14 Frames used on planters Drawn or trailing planterhas its own wheels in contact with the soilunits are mounted on the main frameattached to tractor by a tongueraised and lowered by hydraulic cylindersIntegral planter frameattached by a 3 point hitch on tractorTool-bar planterhas its own frame and drivesattached to a tool bar either on tractor or implement
15 Planter drivesDeliver the correct spacing of seeds in the row at varying travel speeds under varying soil and topographical conditionseither ground driven or hydraulic driven
16 Ground driven drives Carrying-wheel drives Gauge-wheel drives used on most trailing type planterspower comes from transport wheels through a series of chains, sprockets, gears and shaftspopulations changed by changing sprocket sizesGauge-wheel drivesused on the tool bar planterspower comes from the transport wheels
17 Ground driven drives Press-wheel drives power is transmitted through a drive chain and sprocketslippage is greater because press wheel running in loose soil and pressure on wheels might not be enough to prevent slippagepopulations changed by changing sprockets
18 Hydraulic drives Operated by tractor’s hydraulic system hydraulic motor mounted on planter drives metering system through chains & sprocketsseeding population controlled using variable rate technology (VRT)radar gun or Global Positioning System (GPS) used to automatically adjust population depending on ground speed
19 Furrow openersMajor function is to open a well defined groove in the soil where the seed is placed at proper depth and in contact with soil
20 Furrow openers V-trench Disk openers Runner openers 2 sharply angled disks and close hugging gauge wheels are used to make a V-shaped trenchDisk openers2 sharply angled disks are used to make a V-shaped trenchRunner openersrunner opener widens from the front to rear which has formed a furrow
21 Furrow openers Combination runner and double disk openers advantages from both typesShovel openersused to prepare a seed slot in sticky soil conditions
25 Seed plate metering system Has a seed plate with openings that rotatesseed plate turns, seeds fall into openingsone kernel at a time if proper size is selectedspring loaded pawl keeps other seeds outwhen plate passes over the discharge hole a knockout pawl ejects the seedseed plates have to be changed to match seed size
27 Finger-pickup metering system Eliminates changing of platesfingers pickup individual kernelshas 12 spring loaded fingers that open & close by a cam as they rotatefingers select one individual kerneldelivers it to the discharge tubegoes to the seed placement mechanism
28 Three types of air metering systems Pressurized metering drumpressurized metering diskvacuum metering disk
31 Pressurized metering drum Uses PTO or hydraulic motor fan to pressurize the seed hopper and drumdrum has holes around its circumference for each row to be plantedpressure inside drum is higher than outsideseeds are held due to this pressuredischarge manifold a release wheel releases seed into seed delivery tubeair pushes seed to row planting unit
33 Pressurized metering disk Uses a vertical rotating disk to pickup seeds from reservoir at base of the diskseed is held by blowerdisk holds seeds in pockets around the diskcutoff device causes seed to drop into delivery tube and then into the soil
35 Vacuum System Seeds are held in openings by atmospheric air pressure seed cutoff wiper removes excess seedsvacuum metering system use hydraulic powered pump to create consistent vacuum to each unit
36 Volume Metered Systems Metered on basis of spacing, weight or volume per hectarecommon typesfeed cuppicker wheeladjustable holeadjustable cutoff plate
37 Volume metering systems Feed cuphas scallops on inside feed cup, fed into from hopper, carried upward, discharged into seed tubesPicker wheelused on cottonAdjustable holeagitator moves seeds over hole to delivery tubeAdjustable cutoff plateseeds flow through a stationary cutoff plate onto a rotating dome type seed plate to the discharge tube
38 Seed Placement Mechanism Function is to accept seed from metering device, drop it into the seed tube, and deliver it to the furrow properly spaced
39 Seed Placement Mechanism Gravity dropsimplest and least expensivedisadvantage is not placing seed uniformly because planter is movingSeed conveyor beltused with finger pickupseed is placed on a belt to be delivered to the soilseed placement is very accurate
40 Seed Placement Mechanism Rotary valveused with plate-type metering systemvalve holds seed until a lobe ejects the seedChain droppicks up seed at metering devices carries it to soil then ejected to soilAir seed dropuses air velocity to transport seed to soil
41 Seeds planted at proper depth Depth control devices requiredgauge wheels are found in different places of plantersbest place is beside furrow openers
43 Seed to Soil contact Seed firming wheels Press Wheels Seed Hoppers close the furrow and firm seedbedPress Wheelsused when seed to soil contact is not a problemSeed Hopperseither individualized or centralmade from fiberglass or metal
45 Seed MonitorsFunction is to alert the operator of a planter malfunctioncontains a photo-electric eye at seed tube senses the seed as it fallssends information to monitormonitor displays information to operator
46 Other attachments Starter fertilizer fertilizer applied at planting timefertilizers and pesticides can be applied through the planter either in dry, granular, or liquidtillage attachments can be added to reduce other passes over the field
47 What are the components of solid planting equipment? Objective #4What are the components of solid planting equipment?
48 Solid planting devices row spacing is too close to permit cultivating between the rowsgrain drills, air seeders, broadcast seeders, and in large open areas airplanes, & helicopters
49 Types of drills Press-wheel drill Tiling drill End-wheel drill has wheels that support and drive drillPress-wheel drillhas press wheel gangs mounted at rear of drill that firms the soil, drives the metering system, and supports the drillTiling drillsame as end-wheel with a power driven cutter that prepares the seedbed
50 Solid planting components Metering systems is driven by sprockets, chains and gearsfluted-feed and double-run feed are seed metering devicesseed tube attached to metering unit & furrow openerfurrow openers makes the opening in the soildepth is controlled by a stop on a hydraulic cylinder and spring pressurecovering the soil is by the use of drag chains or press wheels
52 How is the planting equipment calibrated? Objective #5How is the planting equipment calibrated?
53 Calibrating the planter Proper field adjustment and operation of planting equipment can lead to better yieldsoperator’s manual is used as a guide for initial planter settingsField calibrationthe process of actually checking and making final adjustments to the planter
54 Calibrating the planter Fill seed hoppers 1/2 fulltie up covering wheelsmark row distance equal to 1/1000 hectareplant measured distance at normal speedcount seeds in the rowmultiply number of seeds X 1000equals your population rate
55 Calibrating the planter Fill hoppers and plant several metersmeasure 1 meter along each rowcount the number of seeds and find average number of seeds per rowmultiply average number by appropriate factor and 1000
56 Calibrating hydraulic planters Leave planter in transport modeplace a collection container under rowsturn on drive for a set distancecount the seeds collected
57 What are the maintenance procedures for planting equipment? Objective #6What are the maintenance procedures for planting equipment?
58 Proper MaintenanceProper servicing can mean difference between profitable crop and high lossesplanters are precision instruments they require large amounts of care
59 Servicing planter before season Clean planter thoroughlycheck for obstructions to keep the mechanisms operating properlyinspect metering systems for worn or broken partsrepair or replace any damaged partscheck all bolts and hoses for tightness
60 Servicing during season Store planter away from moisture when not in useuse correct type of lubricantlubricate at appropriate timesavoid getting dirt into bearingswipe of fittings before lubricating
61 Servicing planter after season Empty and clean all boxescheck for worn or broken parts and replace them before next seasoncoat furrow openers, knife and disk covers with protective coveringspaint any exposed metal surfaceslubricate all bearingsstore inside away from weatherblock the planter up with wheels off of ground
62 Review What are the operating principles of planting equipment? What are the types of planting equipment?What are the components of row-crop planting equipment?What are the components of solid planting equipment?What are the maintenance procedures for planting equipment?