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Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Overview – European activities of Open Archives Multimedia Projects Philip Hunter UKOLN

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Presentation on theme: "Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Overview – European activities of Open Archives Multimedia Projects Philip Hunter UKOLN"— Presentation transcript:

1 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Overview – European activities of Open Archives Multimedia Projects Philip Hunter UKOLN

2 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Introduction to finding distributed multimedia resources Simple Web searching for Multimedia resources and its deficiencies The advantages of proper metadata for finding and using multimedia Quick review of the key features of the OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting How Metadata Harvesting is being (and might be) used by Multimedia Projects

3 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 European activities of open archives multimedia projects A selection of European Projects using (or considering using) OAI as a means to make Multimedia collections more accessible Significant organisational Issues affecting take- up A need for the Creative Commons to promote take-up?

4 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Finding Multimedia Resources How are multimedia resources to be located and accessed? Search Engines – Google, Altavista, Alltheweb, Lycos, etc? Through a single point of access? (Portal) Through multiple points of access? (Project Web sites) What if we want sophisticated services?

5 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The Importance of Metadata for accessing Multimedia Resources Metadata allows users to find out about the existence and availability of your resources. Metadata allows users to find out important detail about the contents of your collections – whether these are digital or in some other form. Metadata allows sophisticated use of your collections resources (whether or not your metatadata is publicly available).

6 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Finding the elusive Multimedia Object These objects are connected by more than the word Tyger…

7 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Simple Web Search Search engines bring up relevant file names and files referenced from other files which contain relevant text. The right file is here, but so are lots of other irrelevant files. The noise level is high. It would be impossible to build a useful service using this technique, even if clever algorithms are involved.

8 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Google Advanced Search Advanced search options are - not very advanced Freetext searching with Boolean operators and string matching Colour preference! Filetype options Content Filtering

9 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Google Advanced Search Results Advanced search results still contain irrelevant returns. It would be impossible to pull an appropriate image or multimedia object into an e-learning module (for example) using this level of technology. The problem is the limited and unstructured metadata available for these digital objects.

10 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The elusive Multimedia Object found? The graphical file of the text of the poem is available as an inline file from a home page at the Institute of Genomic Research. This is unlikely to be a source for the image which can deal with the digital rights management issues for the image.

11 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Metadata is the solution for finding (usable) Multimedia objects The creation of good metadata, or the repurposing of existing metadata (catalogue descriptions, etc), opens the possibility of sophisticated use and re-use of multimedia objects. You might (for example) create a virtual reconstruction of an Assyrian palace from the 8 th Century BCE, using digitisations of wall reliefs which are now distributed among museums in several countries. Good interoperable metadata means the multimedia object can be requested and referenced for the appropriate context. www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/INFO/LEGACY/ Leg_Assyrian_Reliefs.htm

12 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Finding the Metadata for your Multimedia resources How will users find the metadata for your collections (and hence the multimedia objects) any more easily than finding resources via Google? A solution (among others) is the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.

13 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Key Features of the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting Specification of a Protocol for the exchange of Metadata Specification of XML Markup format for the Metadata The concept of Metadata Exposure The concept of Metadata Harvesting

14 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Metadata Harvesting Extraction of metadata from various sources Building services on local copies of metadata Resources themselves are not harvested Any kind of resource can be referenced by the metadata user search for William Blake, tyger tyger local copy of Metadata (Service Provider) metadata harvested offline metadata harvested offline metadata harvested offline metadata harvested offline each node independently maintained all searching, browsing, etc. performed on the metadata here individual nodes may support direct user interaction Data Providers

15 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 What Exposing Metadata means: Placing your metadata in a repository Becoming a Data Provider Making your metadata repository available to harvesters Registering your metadata repository Using a Service Provider

16 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 What Service Providers do: Collect metadata available from Data Providers Place aggregated metadata in a repository Expose aggregated metadata via a Web Interface Provide end-user facilities (most facilities provided are currently like those available with library OPACS)

17 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Open Archives Archive: repository of digital information Open archive: provides a machine interface for making its content available to external services

18 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Resources which can be accessible using OAI PMH Peer reviewed papers (postprints) Grey literature (university reports, departmental documents) Theses Collections (as Collection Level Descriptions) Images Multimedia (audio & video), and e-Learning Objects Virtually anything which can be described and referenced in some way

19 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Third Generation Multimedia

20 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Multimedia and OAI A search on the terms oai, multimedia within the magazine Cultivate Interactive returns no hits There are lots of projects implementing OAI, and lots implementing Multimedia, but not (so far) many projects implementing both.

21 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Multimedia and OAI Current state of play: Archives making metadata for their resources available Some Archives using metadata for processing their data Few Service providers so far providing sophisticated third party services for users of multimedia resources e-learning modules using metadata for processing and integration of resources (?)

22 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)- Digitise Programme (UK). a NOF Portal has been created The NOF-Digitise Programme has explicitly required projects to make metadata available for harvesting about their collections (Collection Level Description) Has created a technical standards document containing general guidance which digitisation programmes might follow

23 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – Collection Level & Item Level Description OAI and the NOF-digitise Programme In the context of the NOF-digitise Programme, OAI-PMH could be used at item-level, to enable users to search across a number of projects in order to find materials that were of interest to them. As an example, a user might be interested in anything that refers to the town of Chipping Norton. It is unlikely that any of the Collections Level records for projects and learning resources would include this term. However, there are likely to be items of interest in NOF-digitise projects such as the British Pathe newsreels, the Taunt Collection digitised by English Heritage and the Great British Historical Atlas. The user would have to find out that these projects existed, and then visit each in turn in order to see if there was information that was relevant. Few users would invest the time needed to navigate through many different websites, and would give up in frustration. Internet search engines, such as Google or Yahoo would be of little added help, as most of the items will be within databases, and therefore be hidden from them in the so-called 'dark web'. From: Open Archives Initiative, Metadata Harvesting and the NOF Portal - David Dawson, Re:Source (UK) February

24 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – Collection Level & Item Level Description English Heritage Viewfinder project England at Work (industrial history) and the Henry W Taunt Collection (vintage scenes of Oxfordshire and the Thames). Currently makes Collection Level Description metadata available for harvesting

25 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – Collection Level & Item Level Description Simple Search Screen for Viewfinder, allowing searching of a minimal set of record fields. This allows very imprecise, Google-ish searches.

26 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – Collection Level & Item Level Description Advanced Search Screen for Viewfinder, allowing searching of record fields. This allows very precise searches. If these fields are wrapped in XML, and then exposed via an OAI compliant (ie harvestable) metadata repository, then the archives supplying the project with resources would be interoperable with other archives.

27 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – EnrichUK Portal The NOF-Digitise Programme Portal is called EnrichUK. It gives access to around 150 Digitisation Projects. Each of these projects supplies Collection Level Metadata about the materials which they have digitised, and which are now available via the EnrichUK portal. The advanced search options available are based on the record fields in the Collection Level Descriptions

28 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – EnrichUK Portal The advanced search option for EnrichUK is not very sophisticated, since the information about collections contained within a Collection Level Description record is not very detailed.

29 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – EnrichUK Portal The EnrichUK portal will display the full metadata records on request. These records are available for harvesting by other service providers.

30 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 BIRTH: Building an Interactive Research and delivery network for Television Heritage Content from the time when television was in its infancy is barely accessible. On the one hand this is due to the fact that information on this material is stored in legacy databases or paper-based catalogues; on the other hand the content is recorded onto film or tape formats out of use. In order to provide access to this content the project BIRTH has been brought into being following a call for proposals for pilot projects in the MEDIA PLUS Programme of the European Community. Out of 50 proposals BIRTH has been selected together with five other projects for funding. Led by the Austrian, non-profit R&D organisation JOANNEUM RESEARCH, a consortium of six audiovisual archives together with another technical partner will select archive material and present it on a coherent web-portal. So material from the early days of television is prepared together with information on how television production looked in these early days. The content provided will not only be early programs but in addition also schedules, stills, statistical figures and much more. Particular attention is given to provide language independent search possibilities and to offer possibilities to compare the different development paths in several countries over Europe. The following audiovisual archives are partner in the BIRTH project: - BBC (UK) - Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (NL) - ORF (A) - RTBF (B) - Südwestrundfunk (D) - Telewizja Polska (PL). Technical Partners are the Belgian company Streamcase and the Austrian, non- profit R&D organisation JOANNEUM RESEARCH.BIRTH provides easy access to material - which is up till now buried in the archives - to the professional user, the scientific community and the general public. No website for the BIRTH project as yet. (Photo of tape formats from 1969 to the present day courtesy of Kazimierz Schmidt)

31 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – British Pathe Newsreels The site makes it possible to preview all items from the 3500 hour British Pathe Film Archive (90,000 individual items) which covers news, sport, social history and entertainment from 1896 to Higher resolution copies of the same items can be licensed for (they say) PowerPoint Presentations and Web Publishing.

32 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The New Opportunities Fund (NOF)-Digitise Programme (UK) – British Pathe Newsreels Result of a search for the electronic instrument designer Peter Zinovieff Each clip has an associated description which is brought up as a result of a user search These descriptions are not in any standard metadata format.

33 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The LACITO Archive An archive of natural speech in "rare" languages The LACITO Archive provides free access to documents of connected, spontaneous speech, mostly in "rare" or endangered languages, recorded in their cultural context and transcribed in consultation with native speakers. Its goal is to contribute to the documentation and study of a precious human heritage: the world's languages. At present, the archive contains some 78 documents in 15 languages A sound archive with synchronized transcriptions For linguistic science, language is first and foremost spoken language. The medium of spoken language is sound. The LACITO archive gives access to original recordings simultaneously with transcriptions and translations, as a guarantee of authenticity and as a resource for further research. A structured, open architecture The archived data is structured in accordance with the latest data-processing standards, in an open format, and may be downloaded for research purposes. The software used to prepare and disseminate it is open-source. Copyright The Archive is an ongoing project of the research group "Oral Tradition: languages and civilizations" of the French National Center for Scientific Research.

34 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 The LACITO Archive

35 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 ArtWorld A three-year project, led by the University of East Anglia, across a partnership group of museums, art galleries and academic departments. The objective of the project is the provision of digital images and associated resources for the enhancement of learning and teaching in world art studies. It is designed to facilitate access for students and teachers to primary visual resource materials that are normally relatively inaccessible or widely scattered.

36 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 ArtWorld To make the collections databases and resources applicable for independent use in life-long learning. To link up with other on- line museums collections databases with related aims and other appropriate networks of digital resources.

37 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Artiste/Sculpteur Partners Giunti Interactive Labs (Italy)Giunti Interactive Labs IT Innovation (UK)IT Innovation University of Southampton, ECS Dept. (UK)University of Southampton, ECS Dept GET-ENST – University of ParisENST C2RMF / Louvre labs (France)C2RMF The Museum of Cherbourg (France)The Museum of Cherbourg The Uffizi Gallery (Italy)The Uffizi Gallery The Victoria and Albert Museum (UK)The Victoria and Albert Museum The National Gallery (UK)The National Gallery Semantic and Content-based mULtimedia exPloiTation for EURopean benefit This is a three year project funded by the 5 th Framework Programme of the European Community. Began in May 2002.

38 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Artiste/Sculpteur The objectives are to: develop a multimedia digital library system, with specific support for 3D objects; develop a semantic layer and tools to populate it with metadata based on image and object content, existing metadata, and information from the Web; develop and influence open distributed multimedia interoperability protocols; build semantic knowledge bases using the above techniques, and exploit them through e-learning products. Results will be applicable to many sectors: 3D object algorithms; an ontology that links multimedia and metadata; metadata generation tools; interoperable protocols; an integrated system; and semantic knowledge bases exploited by e- learning products.

39 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Resource Discovery Network (RDN) The RDN is a collaborative network of subject gateways, funded for use by UK Higher and Further Education by the JISC (though it is used much more widely). Each subject gateway, as part of its service, provides the end user with access to databases of descriptions of freely available, high quality, Web resources.

40 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Resource Discovery Network (RDN) – Resource Discovery Service Each RDN gateway maintains one or more databases of metadata records. There are two possible approaches to providing a multidisciplinary cross search of all these databases: a distributed search, where a "broker" sends the same request to each of the databases in turn, retrieves results from them, and presents the whole set back to the user. a single database, where the records from each of the databases is pulled into a central store and indexed and served from there. ResourceFinder initially used a distributed search approach, based on WHOIS++ and later Z ResourceFinder now uses a single "union" database of all RDN records.

41 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Resource Discovery Network (RDN) – Resource Discovery Service UKOLN developed the Perl implementation of an OAI repository that is now in use across the RDN. It consists of two scripts: one to covert the records from the gateway database format (ROADS, MySQL tables, etc.) to DC XML records, and the other an OAI front end to that repository. In this implementation, a repository consists of one or more directories on the local file system, containing metadata records as individual files. This approach makes generating a repository very easy as there is no need to interface with databases or the like.

42 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Resource Discovery Network (RDN) – Resource Discovery Service It would have taken time and effort for each of the gateways to develop their own OAI front-ends to their database. Much simpler to develop a simple script to export their data. Part of the RDN OAI software included a sample ROADS to DC XML conversion script. Exporting the data into an OAI repository means the RDN could (though currently it does not) enhance or adapt the metadata as part of the export process. It could make different attributes available in different OAI repositories for different audiences or licensees of RDN data.

43 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Open Archives Forum Resource Database The Open Archives Forum has a database of OAI related activity in Europe, which is publiclly available

44 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 Why is there not (yet) more OAI related Multimedia activity? IPR The Branding and Ownership issue Rights management & Payments Control over the context in which the resource appears The project funding is limited Just because it is possible to make everything available, do you want to do this?

45 Open Archives Forum 3rd Workshop, Berlin 28th March 2003 OAI PMH as a tool in the Multimedia World How it looks:- United Kingdom – significant activity and lots of interest Europe – significant activity and lots of interest CEE – not much activity, but a good deal of interest, and an awareness of the possibilities Scandinavia – some activity, and a lot of interest

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