We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byMakayla Russell
Modified over 2 years ago
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Open Archives and Intellectual Property: Incompatible World Views? Mark Bide, Rightscom A presentation to The Second Open Archives Forum Workshop Open Access to Hidden Resources Lisbon, 6 December 2002
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Agenda What is intellectual property and why does it matter? How is all this changing in the network environment? How and why does intellectual property impinge on Open Archives?
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Who am I? For first 20 years of working life, a publisher – Primarily in academic publishing – Technical, business background – Pergamon, CBS Publishing, John Wiley & Sons For last 10 years, a consultant – Specialising in the impact of network distribution of Intellectual Property – Rightscoms business is about digital content strategies and media convergence (text, music) – Clients include commercial and non-commercial organisations Copyright knowledge firmly rooted in UK law – And not a lawyer No brief for the content industries or their current business models
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation First…a cautionary tale The sad tale of Kazaa and Sharman Networks… What does this story prove? We all care about our own intellectual property, but few of us care a great deal about anyone elses…
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Some background Barriers to publishing are disappearing – We are all publishers now – 36 million of us, at least Redistribution of content has become easy – And we all do it Concepts of territoriality are meaningless on the network – But still very significant for business in the physical world
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Intellectual Property – an introduction to the issues
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation What is Intellectual Property for? A useful definition, which emphasises the utilitarian nature of intellectual property: To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Intellectual Property and commerce It is difficult to separate the commercial from the IP issues – The content industries typically depend to a greater or lesser extent on the protection afforded by intellectual property legislation It is commercial rather than Intellectual Property issues themselves which will drive the response of the publishing industry to the OAI – In this context, Intellectual Property is simply the commercial mechanism – Publishers are not unduly concerned about Intellectual Property issues per se
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Intellectual Property… …is not only copyright (Trade Marks, Patents) However, it is only copyright (and related rights) that are the focus of this presentation What is copyright? – The exclusive right to copy, publish, perform, broadcast, adapt a work
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Copyright law Principles established internationally – Berne Convention – Universal Copyright Convention Legislation nationally – European Directives enacted in national law – Differences between different national regimes Significant differences in different legislative framework – Droit d'auteur – a human right – Economic good – a tradable commodity
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Copyright under international convention Protects both creators and performers rights Protects literary, artistic, dramatic, and musical works Tangible: there is no copyright in ideas, titles, names
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Droit dauteur and Anglo-Saxon tradition Ultimately little difference in implementation, but substantial differences in attitude – Moral rights much stronger under Droit dauteur (often inalienable) – The position of intermediaries (publishers) is weaker in droit dauteur regimes Droit dauteur regimes recognise a hierarchy of rights – Neighbouring or related rights
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Who owns copyright? In most circumstances, the creator is the initial owner May be the employer – Under UK law works produced in the course of employment belong to the employer – Even more broadly drawn in US law (all work for hire) Owners can assign or licence copyright – As broadly or as narrowly as may be negotiated in specific circumstances – Exclusively or non-exclusively New owner (or exclusive licensee) has same rights as original owner in terms of enforcement
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Moral rights Paternity – the right to be identified as the creator (also right to prevent false attribution) Integrity – the right to prevent derogatory treatment of a work Very limited recognition of moral rights until CDPA 1988 in UK and still in the US
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation A special case – database right Sui Generis right Protects databases – Definition: a collection of independent works, data or other materials which o are arranged in a systematic or methodical way o are individually accessible by electronic or other means – Designed to protect content that is not sufficiently creative to be protected by copyright o Many databases (and/or their content) may also be protected by copyright – Does not protect the content as such – protects the database owner from unfair extraction 15 year term – Renewable if significantly updated No equivalent protection in the US – Seen as interfering with academic freedom – Typically now protected under contract law (shrink wrap or click through licences)
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Rights in indigenous culture A growing movement being taken very seriously in WIPO/OMPI Primarily defensive – To prevent others from exploiting traditional knowledge (a common reason for patents) However, also possible to develop active collective rights of exploitation – Perpetual protection is sought Seems to run counter to much of what we understand about copyright but may share the same utilitarian purpose
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Granularity of copyright Copyright exists in individual components, not just the whole Copyright exists in the arrangement (the get- up) Many works will contain embedded copyrights – Third-party sources/extracts, agency photos, website content, or images More complex media types may have very complex rights associated with them – Music and rights in performances and recordings – Photographs (eg of works of art)
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Exceptions to copyright Copyright has boundaries – Term – Insubstantial parts – but what is substantial? Different in different legislations, but typically may include areas such as – Criticism, review, research or private study – Education – Librarians under certain conditions – Incidental recording for broadcasts – Recent exception for the Visually Impaired in UK Ruled by the Berne 3-step test – Special cases – No conflict with normal exploitation – No unreasonable prejudice of legitimate interests of rights holder
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Copyright in free information Any tangible material can be protected by copyright It does not matter if material is freely distributed (whether in print or online) – Apparently free information may be protected by copyright Providing access does not affect copyright – Access is the whole purpose of Intellectual Property protection (to provide an incentive to creators not keep things to themselves)
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Intellectual Property and the global Network
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Copyright and the network – what changes? Nothing – except that either casually or systematically breaching copyright gets easier New legislative frameworks – DMCA in the US – European Copyright and eCommerce Directives Protection for technological protection methods Exception for transient copies Notice and Take Down procedures for alleged breaches of copyright
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Protecting copyright in the network environment : DRM Two distinct strands – Infrastructure – Specific applications Management of Digital Rights – Identification and description infrastructure – Standardisation essential (significant development in MPEG 21 Framework) Digital Management of Rights – Perhaps poorly named – focus is digital permissions management (rights in the technical sense of network privileges) – Technology for the enforcement of rights – Legislated standardisation being sought by some sectors of the content industries
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Alternatives to technological mechanisms There are those who believe technological measures will never work – So what are the options? In some contexts, they may not be necessary – The migration of STM journals to the network has been achieved with only the simplest of digital management of rights It may not be necessary for some types of content – Many publishers remain to be convinced of the risk of digital piracy and the replacement of print Indirect compensation for copying – Levy systems Protecting other Intellectual Property – Trade Marks and brands
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Alternatives to enforcing copyright Allowing copying but enforcing rights of paternity and integrity – Attribution is a key value for most creators Network effect may enhance value substantially – Business models based on ubiquity rather than scarcity – Can be hard to monetise (but not invariably impossible) Copyleft and Creative Commons Deed – Deeply rooted in copyright – Creators seek to control some rights but not all
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Intellectual Property and Open Archives
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation What is the Open Archives Initiative? A protocol for metadata harvesting – Collecting metadata from many places to facilitate metadata-dependent services (principally but not exclusively discovery) – Resources may or may not be open access A facilitator of institutional publishing – Metadata harvesting provides potential co-operative marketing channel (and effective publishing is primarily about marketing not access) A provider of open access and a solution to the journals problem
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Intellectual Property and Metadata Metadata protection – Much metadata not protected by copyright – Although collections of metadata will be protected by database right The peculiar position of Scientific &Technical abstracts in UK law – An anomaly Offering metadata for harvesting – and implied licence? – But a licence for what?
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Intellectual Property and Online Resources Who owns the IP of academics? – The contrasting position of academic journal articles and courseware Publishers: assignment or licence – Exclusive licence not necessarily less restrictive than assignment Copyright and preprint archives – Ambiguity often overcome by explicit terms of assignment or licence Copyright and postprint archives – Ambiguity unlikely – Many publishers happy to allow authors to archive at the moment Copyright and non-textual resources – Beware additional complexity – more rights holders, more rights (and a greater tendency to enforcement actions)
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Those who run OA services and eprint archives are publishers… …and need to take their responsibilities as publishers seriously If they are prudent, this includes ensuring they have the necessary rights to what they are publishing… – …or at least that they have warranties to the effect that whoever is providing the content has the rights to do so
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Conclusions (2) Users of OAI services may find it very useful to know about the access status of resources described – Rights metadata would be useful, if not all Open Archive resources are open access – Machine readable? Those running eprint or other resource servers advised to ensure they have agreements with authors – Warranting that authors have the right to publish/republish – If institutional archive, dealing with what happens (for example) if author changes institution – Ensuring that they have policies and procedures to respond to Cease and desist notices
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation OA and IP: incompatible world views? No…why should they be? Open Archives exist in the context of Intellectual Property legislation (just as all other legislation) and it would be sensible to acknowledge this operationally
© 2002 Rightscom Do not copy without written authorisation Open Archives and Intellectual Property: Incompatible World Views?
Copyright and reuse: publishing and using open content July 2013 DHOxSS.
IP Audit "We're in an object-oriented, outsourced, and open-sourced world, and organizations are anxious to take steps to ensure that the software they.
Guidelines For Site Management Approaches Floyd Homer WCPA-Caribbean & SUSTRUST.
Intellectual Property, Science and Databases Dr Charlotte Waelde Co-director, AHRB Research Centre for Studies in Intellectual Property and Technology.
Raising IP Awareness Module 6B Selling the message.
Supporting education and research INTRODUCTION Charles Oppenheim Loughborough University
H A R Y A T I D E E P A K A D V O C A T E S & S O L I C I T O R S § T R A D E M A R K A G E N T S 1 haryatideepak advocates & solicitors I trade mark agents.
Professor Anne Fitzgerald Creative Commons for You, and for Government, National Library of Australia, Canberra 4 November 2011.
PLANNING THE AUDIT Individual audits must be properly planned to ensure: Appropriate and sufficient evidence is obtained to support the auditors opinion;
The InternetCreative workPlagiarism National Arts Learning Network What’s it all about? Copyright How to protect your work and make sure you don’t infringe.
Challenges to the legislative Framework and Norm setting in the Digital Environment Marisella Ouma Kenya Copyright Board.
Intellectual Property Due Diligence in Mergers and Acquisitions Conference: ITC Hotel Grand Maratha Sheraton & Towers, Mumbai June 2006 Karnika Seth,
Österreichisches Forschungsinstitut für Artificial Intelligence Data Protection Paolo Petta Humaine WP5 Workshop, QUB,
Practice Ethical and Legal Use of Technology Copyright © Cannady ACOS. All rights reserved.
Communication for the open minded Study on user identification methods in card payments, e-payments and mobile payments Summary of recommendations (WP5)
1 Protecting Intellectual Property in the Internet Age Conference on Information Technology Laws and Related Intellectual Property- Faculty of law, Delhi.
1 Gurmeet S Jakhu, Partner Hamilton Pratt Solicitors Birmingham, United Kingdom Topic 7: IP Issues in a Franchise Agreement.
UNIT I FUNDAMENTAL OF E-COMMERCE 1.1INTRODUCTION TO E-COMMERCE 1.2 DRIVING FORCES OF E-COMMERCE 1.3 BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS OF E-COMMERCE 1.4 DATA MINING.
Welcome to the second of three EIFL-Licensing webinars on the EIFL Model Licences.
Intellectual Property Rights Protection Office Fair Use, Fair Dealing according to the Egyptian IPR Law Mohamed Hegazy Manager, Intellectual Property Office.
WIPO Information Session on Limitations and Exceptions Geneva, 3 and 4 November, 2008.
Keeping Confidence: Putting in Place a Trade Secret Protection Program in an R&D Lab and in a Manufacturing Business By Dr Shantanu De Ranbaxy Disclaimer:
Open Source Licensing An Introduction. Presentation outline: Basic intellectual property law (Very) basic software History and philosophy of open source.
19TH ANNUAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW & POLICY CONFERENCE Fordham University, New York April 28 and 29, 2011 THE ROLE OF COLLECTING SOCIETIES: PROMISES.
Electronic Publishing, Digital Archiving and Licensing workshop Frankfurt October Norman Paskin, International DOI Foundation
Copyright Issues Pauline Simpson Head of Information Services Southampton Oceanography Centre (with acknowledgement to Morag Greig, Univ Glasgow) OdinPubAfrica.
WIPO ASIA SUB-REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE USE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY (IP) BY SME SUPPORT INSTITUTIONS FOR THE PROMOTION OF COMPETITIVENESS OF SMEs IN THE.
To share or not to share: how researchers handle data Michael Jubb RIN Fourth Bloomsbury Conference: Valued Resources 24 June 2010.
Presented by Rakhesh J MBA (PT) Human thought is astonishingly creative in finding solutions to applied technical and scientific problems,
Legal Framework Chapter 5. Learning outcomes Explain difference between patent and copyright Computer Miss use Act List 8 principles of Data protection.
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.