4 Zwicky & the Missing Mass Measured galaxy speeds in ComaVirial theorem: M/L ~ 500 M_sun/L_sunThe “missing mass”An outstanding problem in cosmology90-98% of the universe is in a mysterious formdetectable only by its gravitational attraction
5 The Dark Matter PuzzleWhere is it?How much is there?What is it?
6 Cosmology in a nutshell: The old cosmologyFriedmann; Einstein; de Sitter ….The New CosmologyInflation - scalar fieldsThe Hot Big BangStructure Formation
7 The Friedmann Model Scale factor R(t) mass density and curvature of spaceproblemshorizonflatness
8 Inflationary Cosmology In the beginning there was the field….Vector, tensor and scalar fieldsWeinberg-Salaam:unified theory - the Higgs fieldThe “inflaton”central to inflationsolves the old problemspredicts a flat universe =1quantum fluctuations structure formation
9 The Hot Big Bang The cosmic kitchen Abundance of “baryons” Relics big bang nucleosynthesisAbundance of “baryons”baryons ~ 0.02Relicscosmic backgroundneutrinos
27 What is the Matter? Neutrinos? Axions or other fields? WIMPs? No longer popularAxions or other fields?WIMPs?Etc etc etc….Plenty of theory - scarce observations
28 Dark Energy Consensus model: ~ 0.3 CMB = 1 resolution: the accelerating Universeexpansion history from supernovaefainter than expecteduniverse is being accelerated - dark energy“late time inflation” - yet another field?
31 The Current Status of Cosmology A “working model” for creation of the Universe and the structure thereinImpressive concordance with current observationsEmbarrassing number of ingredientsluminous baryons; dark baryons; neutrinos; dark matter; dark energy….Epicycles?