Presentation on theme: "NASA/MSFC/NSSTC The Closest Star Mitzi Adams The Sun:"— Presentation transcript:
1NASA/MSFC/NSSTC The Closest Star Mitzi Adams The Sun: Our star, the Sun is a big ball of gasAnd it's 99 percent of our solar system's massIt's an average star in our Milky WayWarming the Earth every dayWhat powers our Sun and makes it so bright?Come on and tell me, what makes all that light?Hans Bethe long ago reached the conclusionIt changes Hydrogen to Helium by nuclear fusionWhen fusion takes place light is createdAnd it makes its way out (although rather belated)Through the Photosphere that's the part that we seeThe light comes out and shines on you and meAbout a million Earths could fit in the SunBut if you were there you wouldn't have much funIt's six thousand degrees at the photosphereAnd much hotter inside the solar atmosphereThere are a few places where it's not so hotLike at the center of a big sunspotBut heat is relative it's still pretty warmSitting on a sunspot would do you great harmGalileo discovered sunspotsWhat are those things, those funny dots?They're cooler parts, scientists feelCaused by a stronger magnetic fieldThose spots move around the face of the SunProving to all... solar rotation!A strange kind of movement, to do a full roll25 days in the middle, 36 at the polesWhat about flares? I've heard of them hereThey're like giant explosions in the ChromosphereThe magnetic fields above those sunspotsReconnecting again after being in knotsAbove the Chromosphere the Corona is placedIt's millions of degrees and reaches way into spaceIt's very thin, but read my lipsThat's the part that you see in a solar eclipseThat's the end of our song about Mr. SunWe hope that you find that learning is funBut never look at the Sun, you could go blindJust keep on enjoying that warm sunshine!The Closest StarNASA/MSFC/NSSTCMitzi AdamsThe Sun:The Sun is an average star, similar to millions of others in the Universe. It is aprodigious energy machine, manufacturing about 4.0E023 kilowatts of energy persecond. In other words, if the total output of the Sun was gathered for one second itwould provide the U.S. with enough energy, at its current usage rate, for the next 9,000,000 years. Thebasic energy source for the Sun is nuclear fusion, which uses the high temperatures and densities withinthe core to fuse hydrogen, producing energy and creating helium as a byproduct. The core is so dense andthe size of the Sun so great that energy released at the center of the Sun takes about 50,000,000 years tomake its way to the surface, undergoing countless absorptions and re-emissions in the process. If the Sunwere to stop producing energy today, it would take 50,000,000 years for significant effects to be felt atEarth!Variability: n X-radiation - a minor feature of the solar spectrum, arising in the tenuous corona - things are entirelydifferent. The variability can be huge: in the SXT band, many factors of ten. For hard X-rays andgamma-rays, the natural emission of the Sun must be close to zero, and the minimum brightness would beset by cosmic-ray albedo somehow. The total variability for gamma-rays at one MeV might be a factorof 108 or so, and if one could make an image of the sky at such a wavelength, the Sun would normally be as dark as the Moon, darker than the background radiation from the rest of the universe. An eclipse would be completely unspectacular. But we digress badly.
2The SunThe Sun is located in a spiral arm of our Galaxy, in the so-called Orionis arm, some 30,000 light-years from the center.The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way in about 225 million years. Thus, the solar system has a velocity of 230 km/s (or 830,000 km/hr...or...515,000 mi/hr)Our galaxy consists of about 100 billion other stars and there are about 100 billion other galaxiesThe Sun has inspired mythology in many cultures including the ancient Egyptians, the Aztecs, the Native Americans, and the Chinese.The Sun is 333,400 times more massive than the Earth and contains 99.86% of the mass if the entire solar systemIt consist of 78% Hydrogen, 20% Helium and 2% of other elementsTotal energy radiated: 100 billion tons of TNT per second
3A Few Major Events in Solar Astronomy 1610 Galileo Galilei andThomas Harriottobserve sunspots witha telescope1908 George Ellery Halediscovers magnetic fieldson the SunSolar X rays discoveredfrom rocket flightThis was first done at White Sands missile range in New Mexico with a V2 rocket in X-rays from the Sun were detected by the Navy's experiment on board.OSO - primary mission objectives were to measure the solar electromagnetic radiation in the UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray regions. There were eight of these. The University of Minnesota Gamma-ray Experiment, was designed to provide preliminary measurements of the intensity and directional properties of low-energy gamma-rays in space. The detector operated in the 50 keV - 3 MeV range. For the keV range, a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal monitored radiation through a lead shield. The detector operating in the MeV and MeV energy regions used two scintillators connected as a Compton coincidence telescope. OSO 8 launched on June 21, 1975 (2-60KeV)... primary objective was to observe the Sun, four instruments were dedicated to observations of other celestial X-ray sources brighter than a few milliCrab. OSO-8 ceased operations on 1 October 1978.1962 OSO 1 launched -- OSO 8ceased operations in 1978Skylab -- produced 35,000 images in 9 mos.
41949 X rays from the Sun discovered Herbert Friedmanflew a geiger counter on a sounding rocket during a solar flare,demonstrated that emission was principally of x ray photonsa series of Nike-Asp rockets fired during the 1958 total solareclipse demonstrated that the x-ray emission extended farbeyond the visible disk of the sun and was concentrated insmall regions on the surfaceThese series of rocket observations also demonstrated theeffect of solar x-rays on the upper atmosphere.During this period of time he also obtained the first imageof the sun with a pinhole camera, flew a spectrometer formeasuring hard x-rays, and developed and flew the first satellite dedicated to solar observations,SOLRAD, that traced out the solar x-ray flux during a solar cycle.By 1950, he had switched to the newly emerging field ofobservations from space using sounding rockets. Friedman'sfirst experiment, a V-2 rocket launched from the White SandsMissile Range in 1949, involved observing solar x-ray andultraviolet radiation using Geiger counters to reveal the sourceof the ionization of the upper atmosphere. During the next 10years, Friedman continued his program of solar and atmosphericinvestigations. He arranged for campaigns of shipboard rocketlaunches to study solar x rays. He obtained the first x-ray imageof the Sun with a pinhole camera; flew the first Braggspectrometer for measuring hard x rays; and developed and flewSOLRAD, the first satellite dedicated to long-term monitoringof the Sun.
5Skylab 4 major instruments, 2 X-ray telescopes May 14, July 11, 19794 major instruments, 2 X-ray telescopesSkylab, a science and engineering laboratory, was launched into Earth orbit by a Saturn V rocket on 14 May Three crews of 3 men each visited the station, with their missions lasting 28, 59, and 84 days. Circling 50 degrees north and south of the equator at an altitude of 435 km, Skylab had an orbital period of 93 minutes. There were a plethora of UV astronomy experiments done during the Skylab lifetime, as well as detailed X-ray studies of the Sun. Skylab fell from orbit on 11 July 1979.Skylab included eight separate solar experiments on its ApolloTelescope Mount: two X-ray telescopes (S-054 sponsored byAmerican Science and Engineering and S-056 sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center); an X-ray and extreme ultraviolet camera (S-020 sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory); an ultraviolet spectroheliometer (S-055 sponsored by Harvard College Observatory); an extreme ultraviolet spectroheliograph and an ultraviolet spectroheliograph (S-082A and S-082B sponsored by the Naval Research Laboratory); a white light coronagraph (S-052 sponsored by the High Altitude Observatory); and two hydrogen-alpha telescopes (H-alpha no. 1 sponsored by Harvard College Observatory and H-alpha no. 2 sponsored by Marshall Space Flight Center). The ATM canister was as large as any solar observatory spar on Earth at the time, measuring 3 meters long and 2 meters in diameter.Solar Flare Alert monitor went off each time Skylab orbit went through the S. Atlantic Anomaly -- led to “Cry Wolf” problem.Xray Images of Coronal HolesMagnetic Structure of CoronaSeen Even in Quiet AreasObservations of Coronal Mass Ejections
6The Sun’s Structure Core Where the energy is created. Every second, nuclear reactions convert about 700 million tons of hydrogen into helium.Radiation ZoneWhere energy is carried by radiation.Convection ZoneEnergy transported by convection (just like boiling soup) where heat is transported to the photosphere.
7Frequency varies with an 11-year solar cycle SunspotsDarker areas (umbra, penumbra)Strong magnetic fieldsInhibit energy transport from solar interiorThese areas cooler, therefore darkerFrequency varies with an 11-year solar cycleLight and dark in this magnetic scan of the Sun indicate concentrated areas of intense magnetic field.
9The Solar Dynamothe Sun's magnetic field is generated by a dynamo within the Sunthe Sun's magnetic field changes dramatically over just a few yearsthe magnetic field continues to be generated within the Sun,it’s produced in interface layer between radiative and convective zone
11Physical Characteristics of Flares How are Flares Classified?Flares are classified according to the order of magnitude of the peak burst intensity (I)measured at the Earth in the 0.1 to 0.8 nm wavelength band as follows:Class FluxErgs/cm2/sB I < 10-3C I < 10-2M I < 10-1X I 10-1A multiplier is used to indicate the level within each class. For example,M6 = 6 x 10-5 Watts/m2
12The Biggest Flare on Record At 21:51 UT, Monday 2 April 2001, active region 9393 unleashed a major solar flare reclassified as at least an X20 It appears to be the biggest flare on record, most likely bigger than the one on 16 August and definitely more powerful that the famous 6 March 1989 flare which was related to the disruption of the power grids in Canada.