Presentation on theme: "Terminology identification from full text: OCLCs WordSmith experience Jean Godby Senior Research Scientist OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. SOASIST."— Presentation transcript:
Terminology identification from full text: OCLCs WordSmith experience Jean Godby Senior Research Scientist OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. SOASIST Full-Day Workshop on Aboutness June 21, 2001
Outline of this talk The need for terminology Sources of terminology Extracting terminology from free text Organizing it Mapping it to library classification schemes
Increasing subject access to document collections More human effort Less human effort More abstract view of the data Less abstract Cataloging Tokenizing Classification Indexing WordSmith Scorpion Classification Research
Subject terminology from library classification schemes Strengths –Derived from scholarship in subject analysis and classification theory –Permits interoperability between Web resources and traditional published materials Weaknesses –Literary warrant is based on traditional published materials. –Human effort is required to keep them current. –They must be modified for use in automated systems. –They arent free.
Subject terminology from full text Strengths –Literary warrant is based on current text. –Coverage is not restricted to traditionally published material. –The style is closer to the users vocabulary. Weaknesses –The data is noisy and difficult to organize.
Terminology identification...is an essential first step in the analysis of a document's content....is one of the most mature research subjects in natural language processing.
Lexical phrases Are the names of persistent concepts. Act like words. Are commonly used to name new concepts in rapidly evolving technical subject domains.
Identifying lexical phrases Tokenized text:...Planetary scientists think the convex shape came about as lava welled up beneath the crater's solid floor…. Ngrams: planetary scientists think, convex shape, welled up, coincided with, five times greater than, easiest way, Milky Way, absolute magnitudes brighter than, added material, advanced study, African American Index filter: planetary scientists, convex shape, easiest way, Milky Way, absolute magnitudes, added material, advanced study, African American Topic filter: planetary scientists, Milky Way
Strategies in the topic filter Word/phrase frequency and strength of association Knowledge-poor text analysis More sophisticated but computable text analysis
Word and phrase frequencies Word/phrase frequency high: dublin core, metadata, element, electronic resources low: availability period, background, applicable terminologies Weighted frequency 1. core element, date element, metadata element 2. author name, entity name, corporate name 3. HTML tag, end tag, meta tag
Knowledge-poor techniques 1: parts of speech in local context Some noun phrase heads usually appear in text only with adjective or noun modifiers. holes--black holes, grey holes, central holes Others usually appear without modifiers. galaxy--cartwheel galaxies, spiral galaxy a galaxy, if galaxies;...however, galaxy formation
Consequences We can identify topical single terms: galaxy, star, sun, moon government, abortion, communism metadata, html, Internet, information We can create subject taxonomies: galaxy (-ies) *hole(s) cartwheel galaxy black holes elliptical galaxy drill holes spiral galaxy grey holes
Knowledge-poor techniques 2: subject probes Goal: to get high-quality subject terms Look for indications that something is talked about, written about, or studied: topics in, study of, analysis of, (on the) subject of, major in, is called, is known as Probes differ in specificity. topics in sciences, arts, humanities, library science, astronomy, physics, business, data visualization, computer science, mathematics, computer and network security, mathematics, number theory, medicine analysis of metabolic regulation, numerical analysis, saline water phenomena, coals, iron ore, cereal grains, income dynamics among men, working hours, inflation, mass belief systems, aerial photography
More clues can be identified with knowledge-rich processing You can sum up the big difference between beans on the one hand and Java applets and applications on the other in one word (okay, two words) : component model. Chapter 2 contains a nice, thorough discussion of component models (which is a pretty important concept, so I devoted an entire chapter to the subject). Java Beans for Dummies. Emily Vander Veer. Chicago, IL: IDG Books Worldwide. 1997, p. 14.
Terminology lists: tokenizing vs. indexing have havei havel haven havens havera haverty havey havice havill havilland health care health care coverage health insurance housing housing policy ……. world trade world trade accord world trade agreement world trade center world trade center bombing
Terminology extraction works best with: Full text Collections of text, not isolated documents Text from a single subject domain Algorithms that are tuned to the style of the text
Mapping vocabulary to library classification schemes Explicit –For each document in a collection, extract terminology using WordSmith. –Assign Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) numbers using Scorpion. –Identify the highest associations between extracted terms and DDC numbers. Implicit –Make both sources of subject information available in a user interface.
Terminology mapping works best when: The upstream processes for extracting terminology are clean. It operates on a large collection of domain-specific text. The classification scheme is simplified.
The Desire database of Web documents about engineering
Links to documents about other types of pollution
In sum We can automatically extract useful terminology from full text. The terminology can be embedded in applications of varying complexity. There is a tradeoff between accuracy and technical sophistication.
For more information Godby, Jean and Reighart, Ray. 1998. The WordSmith indexing system.. Accessible at: http://www.oclc.org/oclc/research/publications/review98/godby_reighart/wordsmit h.htm Godby, Jean; Miller, Eric; and Reighart, Ray. 2000. Automatically generated topic maps of World Wide Web resources. Accessible at: http://www.oclc.org/oclc/research/publications/review99/godby/topicmaps.htm Godby, Jean and Reighart, Ray. 2001. Terminology identification in a collection of Web resources. In: K. Calhoun and J. Riemer, eds. CORC: New tools and possibilities for electronic resource description. New York: The Hayworth Press, Inc., 49-66.